ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical education; augmented reality; virtual reality; mixed reality; extended reality
Online: 29 April 2019 (10:09:05 CEST)
Background: Since the advent of virtual reality (VR), it has been used in medical education for surgical training and anatomy teaching. Recently, other modalities of extended reality (XR) such as augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality (MR) has also made its way into medical education. Although there has been research validating XR’s use in medical education, there have been few studies on the research trends of the different XR modalities. The paper aims to compare the research trends of the XR modalities in general and in terms of the medical fields studied and outcomes measured. Methods: Web of Science was searched, and preliminary data was extracted to analyze the general trend. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied, and finalized articles were analyzed and grouped based on the medical field studied and outcomes measured. Results: 31 articles on VR, eight on AR and one on MR were included in the final analysis. We found that there is increasing research in VR since 1990 and AR since 2008. The research in MR is constant. Most of the papers on VR studied endoscopic surgery and anatomy whereas AR studied mostly anatomy and endovascular procedures. Using Miller’s prism of clinical competence, the competency measured most for VR and AR is “show”. Discussion and conclusion: Advancement in computing, communication and display technologies since 1990 may contribute to the increase in research on VR whereas the ubiquity of smartphone since 2008 may explain the increase in research on AR. Although both VR and AR are used in surgical training and anatomy teaching, we found possible strengths of VR in counseling and AR in practical skills. The competency "show" was measured most as most of the papers were on surgery, and the XR simulators used can capture surgical parameters
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1665.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Augmented reality; Education; EdTech; Survey
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:29:34 CEST)
The education landscape is an environment prone to change due to the volatile and ever-changing nature of the digital society in which we all live. Although the world moves at a different pace and any generalization is bound to have several exceptions, there is evidence from research conducted in different places and contexts that educational methods are becoming increasingly digitized and driven by technological innovation. Among technological trends fuelled in many cases by the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to stay at home but online, augmented reality solutions received an additional push as a valid and versatile educational technology worth exploring and eventually integrating into several teaching methods already in use. Although the technology still faces problems related to its affordability, accessibility, and the technical skills required of users, some ongoing projects have already provided evidence that using augmented reality solutions as teaching and learning tools can improve teachers’ and students’ learning outcomes by increasing their engagement and interactivity. The same issues arose when personal computers, tablets, and smartphones were first discussed as valuable tools for education and have now found their way into most classrooms. This paper reviews some of the key concepts related to augmented reality, as well as some current trends, benefits, and concerns related to its inclusion in educational contexts in areas such as life sciences, engineering, and health. The work carried out and presented in this paper provides an interesting insight into a technology that has led to global phenomena, such as Pokémon Go, and is constantly improving in terms of portability, usability, and overall user experience. Throughout the paper and in the conclusions section, we discuss the relevance of using the best features of augmented reality and how they can contribute to positive educational outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0299.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR), Augmented Reality, Adult Education, MAR Games, Content Analysis, Jaccard index, Ingress, Augmented Reality in Education
Online: 10 June 2021 (15:14:21 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclu-sions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective rep-resentation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0048.v1
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:08:51 CET)
The post-pandemic has forced it Indonesian cloth sellers in Indonesia are facing changes in consumer behavior who tend to shop online. They need to find innovative ways to market products and reach potential customers. One of the problems faced is how to present traditional fabrics effectively to potential buyers. Therefore, a more creative and interactive marketing approach is needed. Using the needs analysis method to design innovative augmented reality (AR) integration in the sale of Indonesian fabrics could be an interesting solution. With AR, which will later be called PARTIKA, sellers can show potential buyers how the fabric looks in various situations, provide virtual interaction with the product, and provide detailed information. This application can thus provide a more in-depth and convincing experience, helping customers make better purchasing decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0955.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: strategic development; Business Internationalization; Cultural Industry; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:20:36 CEST)
Internationalization and alternative ways for strategic management have been an objective for stakeholders in cultural industry, especially after COVID-19 pandemic crisis. During the past years “internationalization” has been almost exclusively related with promoting creation or content to larger audiences. Such a strategy seemed sufficient, even if empirical data did not always support such a belief. Technological progress and costs reduction in developing Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) applications, provides to cultural industry the opportunity to reach global audiences and to enrich their experience. Current research provides evidence about developing VR and AR tools that can act as internationalization facilitators when it comes to cultural industry. Research conducted during “VARSOCUL” project funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) as part of the Greek National Scope Action entitled "RESEARCH-CREATE-INNOVATE". The project’s main result, alongside with VR and AR tools developed are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1408.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Virtual reality (VR); Augmented reality (AR); fashion brands; fsQCA
Online: 11 October 2023 (04:44:27 CEST)
The rapid growth of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) services in various industries has stimulated innovation. This study proposes a research framework and theoretical model based on self-determination theory (SDT) to examine consumers’ purchase intentions for VR and AR service technologies. The research scope includes fashion brands that use VR and AR service technologies. The study employs in-depth interviews to identify the key drivers of VR and AR technologies for fashion brands. The research design uses an online survey of 675 fashion brand consumers to collect questionnaire data employing structural equation modeling (SEM) and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to test the research hypotheses and answer the research questions. This study contributes to understanding consumer technology and psychological perceptions about implementing fashion brands with VR and AR service technologies for future service design and marketing. The research findings show that perceived value, perceived enjoyment, perceived informativeness, presence, and consumer experience affect purchase intention positively when using AR/VR service technologies. Further, the results highlight that perceived value, enjoyment, and informativeness affect consumer experience. The results of the FsQCA show that the causal conditions of perceived value, perceived enjoyment, perceived informativeness, presence, and consumer experience are sufficient and necessary for higher purchase intention for consumers in the fashion brand context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Visualization techniques; Virtual Reality (VR); Augmented Reality (AR); Construction industry; BIM
Online: 13 March 2023 (14:15:50 CET)
Visualization techniques are a powerful communication tool between construction stakeholders. The advancement of technology from 2D drawings to 3D models, Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR) has emphasized the crucial role of efficient communication of ideas, designs, and concepts in preventing project delays and other issues in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. Contemporary innovations such as web-based virtual reality cloud platforms that facilitate collaborative AEC projects and Head-mounted Displays that enable the viewing of VR environments are some of the latest technological developments that are emerging in the construction industry. These technological advances have the potential to improve communication, increase project efficiency, and enhance the quality of construction work. The purpose of this research is to identify existing trends and potential future directions by appropriating the state of the art of the intellectual growth of Virtual reality and Augmented Reality. The study used scientometric analysis in reviewing existing publications to scientifically map the evolution of VR and AR in the AEC sector. The study observed an emerging but little amount of publications on VR and AR in construction. While Africa contributes little significance, advancement in VR and AR research is led by United States and America. The study expresses concern over the dearth of research and the low amount of collaborations amongst institutions in diverse countries. The study concludes that VR and AR research in the AEC sector must be afforded the needed focus and attention. In recent times, the global Coronavirus pandemic has shown that technology such as VR and AR is inevitable in the success of a project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0818.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: HoloLens; Calibration; Industry; Augmented Reality; Indoor
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:17:55 CEST)
The calibration of three-dimensional (3D) coordinates in augmented reality (AR) systems is a complex activity. It involves the recognition of environmental characteristics and technology that models the 3D space of the device, determining its position and orientation. In the industrial environment, it is common for AR applications to cover large spaces, making it difficult to maintain attributes such as precision and accuracy. The set of sensors and mapping algorithms available in HoloLens stimulate the development of virtual reality (VR) applications, in particular localization techniques. This study proposes calibration models of the 3D coordinates of the HoloLens for indoor industrial environments. The performance of tests in a relevant environment provides data necessary to evaluate the performance of the proposed models in terms of precision and accuracy in determining point coordinates in the study environment. The results show improvements in determining the axes that define the 3D space, with a direct influence on the position of the points observed in the experiment
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: triple constraints; augmented reality; Augmented reality-based learning systems; time; cost; scope; artificial intelligence; education
Online: 9 December 2019 (09:17:17 CET)
Over the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in IT, motivating IT professionals and scientists to explore new dimensions resulting in the advancement of artificial intelligence and its subcategories like computer vision, deep learning and augmented reality. AR is comparatively a new area which was initially explored for gaming but recently a lot of work has been done in education using AR. Most of this focuses on improving students understanding and motivation. Like any other project, the performance of an AR based project is determined by the customer satisfaction which is usually affected by the theory of triple constraints; cost, time and scope. many studies have shown that most of the projects are under development because they are unable to overcome these constraints and meet project objectives. We were unable to find any notable work done regarding project management for augmented reality systems and application. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a system for management of AR applications which mainly focuses on catering triple constraints to meet desired objectives. Each variable is further divided into subprocesses and by following these processes successful completion of the project can be achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0988.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Augmented reality; Teacher Education; SLR; Digital technologies for education
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:39:33 CEST)
The Practicum is regarded as a fundamental aspect of the training of prospective teachers. In addition, digital tools are increasingly used to enrich a traditional face-to-face experience. However, the technological exploitation of augmented reality (AR) by undergraduate students studying early childhood and primary education is low. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the use of augmented reality (AR) in teacher training was conducted. Based on the overarching objectives of the ERASMUS+ project, entitled Digital Practicum 3.0 Exploring Augmented Reality, Remote Classrooms, and Virtual Learning to Enrich and Expand Preservice Teacher Education Preparation (2020-1-ES01-KA226-HE- 096120), the ultimate purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of this resource favors learning and expertise. Two main results are prominent. First, it is noteworthy how the use of this digital technology is limited, given the scarcity of studies. Second, the research studies available focus largely on the benefits of the use of AR in teacher education at a theoretical level. Thus, future research needs to further explore the use of AR in teacher training specially focused on the student teachers’ learning processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1269.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: immersive unit visualization; augmented reality; hybrid space; immersive analytics; information design; data visualization
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:06:06 CEST)
Immersive Unit Visualization is an emergent form of visualization that arose from Immersive Analytics where, unlike traditional visualizations, each data point is represented by an individual visual mark in an immersive virtual environment. This practice has focused almost exclusively on virtual reality, excluding augmented reality (AR). This article develops and tests a prototype of an immersive Unit Visualization (Floating Companies II) with two AR devices: head-mounted display (HMD) and hand-held display (HHD). Results from the testing sessions with 20 users were analyzed through qualitative research analysis and thematic coding indicating that, while the HHD enabled a first contact with AR visualization on a familiar device, HMD improved the perception of hybrid space by supporting greater stability of virtual content; wider field of view; improved spatial perception; increased sense of immersion; and more realistic simulation, which impacted on information reading and sense-making. The materialization of abstract quantitative values into concrete reality through its simulation in the real environment and the ludic dimension stand out as important opportunities of this type of visualization. This paper investigates the aspects distinguishing two experiences regarding data visualization in hybrid space; and characterizes ways of seeing information with AR, identifying opportunities to advance information design research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0594.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: augmented reality; Microsoft HoloLens; AR application; user experience; user satisfaction
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:55:42 CET)
With the recent developments in augmented reality (AR) technologies comes an increased interest in the use of smart glasses for hands-on training. Whether this interest is turned into market success or not depends at the least on whether the interaction with smart AR glasses satisfies users, an aspect of AR use that so far has received little attention. With this contribution, we seek to change this. The objective of the article, therefore, is to investigate user satisfaction in AR applied to three cases of practical use. User satisfaction of AR can be broken down into satisfaction with the interaction and satisfaction with the delivery device. A total of 142 participants from three different industrial sectors contributed to this study, namely, aeronautics, medicine, and astronautics. In our analysis, we investigated the influence of different factors, such as age, gender, level of education, level of Internet knowledge, and the roles of the participants in the different sectors. Even though users were not familiar with the smart glasses, results show that general computer knowledge has a positive effect on user satisfaction. Further analysis using two-factor interactions shows that there is no significant interaction between the different factors and user satisfaction. The results of the study affirm that the questionnaires developed for user satisfaction of smart glasses and the AR application performed well, but leave room for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: augmented reality; immersive virtual classroom; synchronous remote learning
Online: 12 September 2023 (04:05:46 CEST)
Previous research has explored different models of synchronous remote learning environments supported by videoconferencing and virtual reality platforms. However, few studies have evaluated the preference and acceptance of synchronous remote learning in a course streamed in an immersive or augmented reality platform. This case study uses ANOVA analysis to examine the engineering students´ preferences for receiving instruction during the COVID19 pandemic in three classroom types: face-to-face, conventional virtual (mediated by videoconferencing) and an immersive virtual classroom (IVC). Likewise, structural equation modeling, was used to analyze the acceptance of the IVC perceived by students, this includes four latent factors: ease of receiving a class, perceived usefulness, attitude towards IVC and IVC use. The findings showed that the IVC used in synchronous remote learning has a similar level of preference to the face-to-face classroom, and higher than the conventional virtual one. Despite the high preference for receiving remote instruction in IVC, aspects such as audio delays that affect interaction still need to be resolved. On the other hand, a key aspect for a good performance of these environments is the dynamics associated with the teaching-learning processes and the instructor´ qualities.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0472.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: medical waste; classified environmental protection signs; augmented reality; artificial intelligence identification technology
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:33:50 CET)
There are four categories of medical waste that cannot be mixed as this will cause serious problems such as environmental pollution or infection. In the past, the classification of medical waste often involved a lot of human and material resources to process, with workers at risk of exposure to infectious substances. Therefore, an augmented reality (AR) and artificial intelligence (AI) medical waste classification system and method were developed. This innovative medical waste classification system and method combines AR and AI identification technology to reduce the risk of manual judgment errors by clinical staff when handling medical waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: science museums; cultural heritage; interactive exhibitions; User Experience; extended reality; Augmented Reality
Online: 7 June 2022 (10:31:27 CEST)
In the last years, interactive exhibitions based on digital technologies are becoming widely common, thanks to their flexibility and effectiveness in engaging visitors and creating memorable experiences. One of the topics in which digital technologies can be particularly effective is the communication of abstract concepts that are difficult for the human mind to imagine. An emblematic example is the astronomy discipline, which requires us to imagine and understand phenomena far away from our everyday life. In this paper, the authors present a research project, MARSS, in which digital technologies are used effectively to enhance the Users’ Experience of the Museo Astronomico di Brera located in Milan. Specifically, the MARSS project aims at designing and developing a new digital journey inside the museum to allow different categories of visitors to enjoy the exhibition in an engaging and interactive way. The paper presents the design and development phases of the experience and its evaluation with users. The results of the evaluation indicate that the digital interactive experience has been appreciated by users and is successful in translating the content of high scientific value into more engaging and easily understandable elements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Augmented reality (AR); Virtual reality (VR); Simulation; Training; Navigation
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:04:55 CEST)
Background Augmented reality (AR) in surgery can offer an enhanced view of reality through the superimposition of computer-generated digital images on the real environment. It allows surgeons to integrate image visualisation, improving operative efficiency, surgical outcomes, surgical training and patient education. This review aims to evaluate the current status of augmented reality in surgery, surgical training and potential future applications. Methods We performed a non-systematic review of available literature from January 2005 to August 2021 by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library using a combination of terms “augmented reality”, “virtual reality”, “surgery”, “simulation” and “training”. Articles considered for this review were identified by relevant search criteria including title, keywords, abstract, and full-text. Conclusions AR technologies present an exciting new trend with multiple potential applications in surgery. Intraoperative AR systems have shown promise in specialties involving fine movement of organs during surgical procedures, including Neurosurgery, Ears, Nose and Throat and Orthopaedic Surgery. AR has also exhibited the potential to enhance surgical training and improve knowledge acquisition; it can foster international collaborations via telesurgery and telepresence. In the near future, AR will likely work in symbiosis with surgeons, serving as a complex computer-human coalition which can improve patient outcomes, patient education and surgical training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mobile augmented reality; inquiry-based learning; K12 education; systematic literature review
Online: 2 March 2020 (07:34:27 CET)
A systematic review of the potential of implementing augmented reality (AR) in inquiry-based learning was conducted. We considered the purposes, potential advantages, application characteristics and the effects of using AR in inquiry-based learning. The findings reveal that AR, in the context of inquiry-based learning, is mostly implemented successfully to achieve cognitive and, less often, motivational and emotional learning goals. The AR solutions have mainly been applied in the Conceptualization and less in the Investigation phase. The affordances of AR in the Orientation, Conclusion and Discussion phase need to be applied in further studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2053.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nursing students; paramedic students; training; virtual reality; augmented reality; disaster medicine; mass casualty incidents; competence; self-efficacy; learning immersion
Online: 28 June 2023 (15:54:49 CEST)
Nurses and paramedics play a pivotal role when Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) occur, yet they often feel unprepared for such events. Implementation strategies for training activities, including Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) simulations, offer realistic and immersive learning experiences, enhancing skills and competencies for nursing students. The aim of this work was to investigate the adopted tools in studies on VR&AR simulations for training nursing and paramedic students in managing MCI. A scoping review was performed following the PRISMA-ScR statement, and the search strategy was conducted through five electronic databases from December 2022 to March 2023. Of 162 records identified, 27 full-text were screened and, six studies were included in this review. These studies involved students who were assigned to different training methods, including immersive VR simulation, written instruction, and traditional lecture. VR&AR and immersive simulation generally show promising evidences in enhancing practical skills and knowledge in MCI management. VR&AR showed to be promising in disaster education and preparedness training, offering different levels of immersiveness and engagement, encouraging active and experential learning. Further research is needed to determine their long-term effectiveness. The choice of training method should consider program goals, target population, and available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0038.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Cultural Heritage Preservation; Augmented Reality Applications; Methodological Framework; Historic Site Digitization
Online: 1 September 2023 (09:45:55 CEST)
Amidst the rapid urbanization of cities worldwide, there is a pressing need for practical tools to manage and preserve the invaluable architectural heritage contained within them. This research introduces a systematic methodology for digitalizing and interpreting architectural heritage through augmented Reality (AR). The primary goal is to enhance the documentation, preservation, and accessibility of cultural assets, addressing both educational and touristic needs. Focusing on the historic district of Pelourinho in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, the study showcases how 3D digitalization combined with AR can provide users with an interactive experience with historical structures, bridging the temporal divide. By integrating the digital replicas of historic buildings into a real-time environment, users gain enriched insights into these structures’ history, architecture, and cultural significance. Though the preliminary results underscore the potential of this approach, comprehensive user testing remains an area for future exploration. This paper thus highlights the potential of AR in historical and cultural preservation, suggesting its broader implications for education, tourism, and heritage management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Building Information Modeling; industry trend; virtual environment
Online: 29 December 2019 (04:42:10 CET)
With advances in Building Information Modeling (BIM), Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies have many potential applications in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. However, the AEC industry, relative to other industries, has been slow in adopting AR/VR technologies, partly due to lack of feasibility studies examining the actual cost of implementation versus an increase in profit. The main objectives of this paper are to understand the industry trends in adopting AR/VR technologies and identifying gaps within the industry. The identified gaps can lead to opportunities for developing new tools and finding new use cases. To achieve these goals, two rounds of a survey at two different time periods (a year apart) were conducted. Responses from 158 industry experts and researchers were analyzed to assess the current state, growth, and saving opportunities for AR/VR technologies for the AEC industry. The findings demonstrate that older generations are significantly more confident about the future of AR/VR technologies and they see more benefits in AR/VR utilization. Furthermore, the research results indicate that Residential and commercial sectors have adopted these tools the most, compared to other sectors and institutional and transportation sectors had the highest growth from 2017 to 2018. Industry experts anticipated a solid growth in the use of AR/VR technologies in 5 to 10 years, with the highest expectations towards healthcare. Ultimately, the findings show a significant increase in AR/VR utilization in the AEC industry from 2017 to 2018.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: machine learning; augmented reality; mixed reality; object recognition; action recognition; context analysis
Online: 4 October 2023 (08:03:43 CEST)
A major challenge of augmented and mixed reality applications is identifying the context and semantics of the real environment. Studies on object and action recognition were developed based on the improvement of machine learning techniques, allowing them to be annotated and recognized. This study aims to characterize current knowledge on the use of machine learning for recognizing objects and actions in augmented and mixed reality environments, increasing context awareness. Therefore, a systematic literature review of works related to these topics was made, using the Scopus and Web of Science knowledge bases. We searched articles and conference reviews or papers published between 2018 and 2022 and selected fifteen studies to be reviewed. The results indicate that there is a great demand for using machine learning to immersive technologies in factories, engineering, entertainment, education, health, among other application domains. However, these real-time interactive systems still have challenges and limitations to be solved, involving network communication, prediction time and the creation of a model that recognize objects and actions in broad contexts. Furthermore, additional research is needed to investigate how object and action recognition can increase context awareness in augmented reality applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0019.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; eye tracking; deep learning; gaze estimation; collaborative computing
Online: 2 September 2019 (09:18:08 CEST)
Although proposition of “Virtual Reality” (VR) and “Augment Reality” (AR) can be traced back to the 60s, both areas are actually blooming in recent decades. Thanks to the latest deep learning techniques, an enormous advance in computer vision research community has taken place. Since VR and AR are highly related to computer vision tasks, these areas have enjoyed the benefits as well. Yet there is no sufficient survey on such impact and new research areas arising from it. This paper mainly focuses on the latest research progress in ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research & Applications (ETRA) 2019, as well as several recent representative paper works. It aims to figure out the influence of deep learning techniques on latest VR/AR research. Meanwhile, new issues have popped up with the development of VR and AR technology, such as privacy and computation efficiency. This paper draws attention to such newly produced topics as well. In addition, this paper also investigates on the effect of latest VR and AR techniques on people, such as level of teamwork in collaborative tasks, assistance and treatment to patients and the disabled, etc.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0338.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Narupa, NarupaXR, converter, xml file, mol2 file, virtual and augmented reality, chemistry education
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:15:22 CEST)
Visualization has always been a crucial part of the educational process. Implementing computer algorithms and virtual reality tools into it is vital for the new generation engineers, scientists and researchers. In the field of chemistry education, various software that allow dynamic molecular building and viewing are currently available. These software are now used to enhance the learning process and ensure better understanding of the chemical processes from the visual perspective. The present short communication provides a summary of these applications based on the NarupaXR program, which is a great educational tool that combines the functionality and simple design necessary for an educational tool. NarupaXR is used with a companion application “Narupa Builder'' which requires a different file format, therefore a converter that allows a simple transition between the two extensions has been developed. The converter sufficiently increases the efficiency of the educational process. The automatic converter is freely available on GitLab (https://gitlab.com/teamSCAMT/converter_mol2_to_xml). The current communication provides detailed written instructions that can simplify the installation process of the converter and facilitate the use of both the software and the hardware of the VR set.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: augmented reality; mixed reality; learning applications; SLR; AR evaluation; research methods; AR in education
Online: 5 December 2019 (08:54:35 CET)
With the advancement in AR technology, more education-based applications are being developed using Augmented Reality, which has revolutionized the learning experience. However, in order to determine the application’s impact on student’s motivation, performance and their communication with the lecturer, various studies are conducted. These studies use one of the three research methodologies for data analysis and evaluation. In this systematic review, we have analyzed various research methodologies for system evaluation of the AR learning applications and recorded the student response toward the system. Also, we checked which methodology is preferred by researchers and why. A total number of 25 studies were analyzed which were published during the year of 2015 and 2019. The results indicate that most popular research technique is mixed methodology as it combines both qualitative and quantitative techniques. The purpose of this review is to offer new insights to researchers and provide them with advice about evaluation of AR applications and which tool or technique is more effective.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0863.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: augmented reality; information fusion; transparent display
Online: 13 June 2023 (02:56:50 CEST)
This research uses ARM-based FPGA to implement the computation of a virtual-real fusion hardware system. It also evaluates the acceleration effect of virtual-real fusion execution speed after connecting related hardware acceleration and provides a reference for real-time information fusion system design. The hardware uses Xilinx Zynq UltraScale+ MPSoC ZCU102 Evaluation Kit. It also obtains color and depth images with Intel® RealsenseTM D435i depth cameras. This system receives image data through the Linux system built on the ARM and fed to the FPGA for object detection using CNN models. In addition, it develops a module for rapidly performing registration between the color images and the depth images. It can calculate the size and position of the display information on the transparent display according to the pixel coordinates and depth values of the human eye and the object. The fusion took about 47ms on a personal computer with a GPU RTX2060 and 25ms on the ZCU102. The acceleration is nearly 168%. Finally, the results were successfully transplanted into the retail display system for demonstration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2009.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Stock bubble; Length; Stationarity; Augmented Dickey-Fuller Test
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:57:08 CEST)
Stock bubbles are characterized by unpredictable price surges and subsequent declines, causing significant losses for investors. The study aimed to detect mildly explosive patterns in S&P 500-listed stocks in real-time using the GSADF test. This study focused on the length, the normality of the stock bubble episode and compared the effectiveness of SADF and GSADF tests in bubble detection, consistently finding GSADF's superiority. The duration of breakouts exhibited non-normality, suggesting unusually long bubble durations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: accuracy; distance; angle; augmented reality (AR); orthopaedics; knee
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:18:09 CEST)
Background: Recent advances allow the usage of Augmented Reality (AR) for many medical procedures. We perform different AR-assisted knee surgery techniques using optical surgical navigation with ArUco-type artificial marker sensors. Our study aimed to evaluate the system’s accuracy using an in vitro protocol. We hypothesised that the system’s accuracy was equal to or less than 1mm and 1° for distance and angular measurements, respectively. Methods: Our research was an in-vitro laboratory with a 316 L steel model. We evaluated absolute reliability according to the Hopkins criteria with seven independent evaluators. Each observer measured the thirty palpation points and the trademarks to acquire direct angular measurements on three occasions separated by at least two weeks. Results: The accuracy of the system to assess distances had a mean error of 1.203mm and an un-certainty of 2.062, and for the angular values, a mean error of 0.778° and an uncertainty of 1.438. The intraclass correlation coefficient was for all intra-observer and inter-observer almost perfect or perfect. Conclusions: The mean error for the distance’s determination has been statistically larger than 1mm (1.203mm) but with a trivial effect size. The mean error assessing angular values was sta-tistically minor than 1°. Our results are similar to those published by other authors in accuracy analyses of AR systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0592.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Super Resolution; Attention-augmented Convolution; Panchromatic Images; WGAN
Online: 23 December 2020 (14:10:31 CET)
Panchromatic (PAN) images contain abundant spatial information that is useful for earth observation, but always suffer from low-resolution due to the sensor limitation and large-scale view field. The current super-resolution (SR) methods based on traditional attention mechanism have shown remarkable advantages but remain imperfect to reconstruct the edge details of SR images. To address this problem, an improved super-resolution model which involves the self-attention augmented WGAN is designed to dig out the reference information among multiple features for detail enhancement. We use an encoder-decoder network followed by a fully convolutional network (FCN) as the backbone to extract multi-scale features and reconstruct the HR results. To exploit the relevance between multi-layer feature maps, we first integrate a convolutional block attention module (CBAM) into each skip-connection of the encoder-decoder subnet, generating weighted maps to enhance both channel-wise and spatial-wise feature representation automatically. Besides, considering that the HR results and LR inputs are highly similar in structure, yet cannot be fully reflected in traditional attention mechanism, we therefore design a self augmented attention (SAA) module, where the attention weights are produced dynamically via a similarity function between hidden features, this design allows the network to flexibly adjust the fraction relevance among multi-layer features and keep the long-range inter information, which is helpful to preserve details. In addition, the pixel-wise loss is combined with perceptual and gradient loss to achieve comprehensive supervision. Experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other SR methods in terms of both objective evaluation and visual effect.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0395.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Pose estimation; Movement assessment; Augmented feedback; Physical movement; Review
Online: 6 June 2023 (07:26:29 CEST)
Pose estimation has various applications in analyzing human movement and behavior, including providing feedback to users about their movements so they could adjust and improve their movement skills. To investigate the current research status and possible gaps, we searched Scopus and Web of Science for articles that (1) human `body' pose estimation is used and (2) user movement is assessed and communicated. We used either a bottom-up or top-down approach to analyze 20 articles for methods used to estimate human pose, assess movement, provide feedback to users, as well as methods to evaluate them. Our review found that pose estimation systems typically used CNNs while movement assessment methods varied from mathematical formulas or models, rule-based approaches, to machine learning. Feedback was primarily presented visually in verbal forms and nonverbal forms. The experiments to evaluate each part ranged from the use of public datasets to human participants. We found that while there was an improvement, the majority of pose estimation challenges remain. The effectiveness and factors for choosing movement assessment methods for a new context are still unclear. In the end, we suggest that studies about feedback prioritization and erroneous feedback are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Programming by Demonstration; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Accuracy; Repeatability
Online: 9 August 2021 (10:42:14 CEST)
Augmented and Virtual Reality have been experiencing a rapidly growth in recent years, but there is not still a deep knowledge on their capabilities and where they could be explored. In that sense, this paper presents a study on the accuracy and repeatability of the Microsoft's HoloLens 2 (Augmented Reality device) and HTC Vive (Virtual Reality device) using an OptiTrack system as ground truth. For the HoloLens 2, the method used was hand tracking, while in HTC Vive, the object tracked was the system's hand controller. A series of tests in different scenarios and situations were performed to explore what could influence the measures. The HTC Vive obtained results in the millimetre scale, while the HoloLens 2 revealed not so accurate measures (around 2 centimetres). Although the difference can seem to be considerable, the fact that HoloLens 2 was tracking the user's hand and not an inherit controller made a huge impact. The results were considered a significant step for the on going project of developing a human-robot interface to program by demonstration an industrial robot using Extended Reality, which shows great potential to succeed based on this data.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: serious games; science education; games in education; augmented reality
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:29:49 CET)
Keeping in mind the increasing trend and need for serious games in science education, we have done a systematic literature review. These papers show the trends and patterns of research carried out in this field from the year 2011 to 2020. Specifically, we investigated country-wise concentration and the most common evaluation methods. Literature is reviewed from IEEEexplore, Springer, and Scopus. Moreover, we discussed the role of Augmented Reality(AR) games in teaching physics. Lastly, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of serious games in science education in particular, and the trend of using serious games in the past decade in education in general.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Smart wearable; personal protective equipment; augmented reality
Online: 12 July 2020 (14:48:50 CEST)
Wearable computing is a fast evolving segment of computing that includes smart watches, head mounted wearables such as Magic Leap headsets, Microsoft Hololens, and VR goggles from various vendors. In this report, we present ideas for a smart wearable device that also doubles as a virus protection device. Instead of using the filtering approach that is predominantly used by virus protection equipments such as face masks, we propose to use a computational approach where the device maintains an awareness of the real-time virus spread and use that information to steer the wearer away from the virus. As the wearable has a head enclosing design, viral infection can only happen through the air that is inhaled by the wearer. The objective of the smart wearable is to maintain a repository for clean air and switch the operating modes between stored and fresh air modes depending on the environmental conditions. It can augment this basic operating procedure by recycling the exhaled air to maximize it operating capacity (i.e., time duration for which it could supply the wearer with safe air) and by cleaning the stored air using UVC to further reduces the chance of infection. To maintain an awareness of the virus spread in the environment, the smart wearable will rely on an edge computing framework that will be distributed to cover areas frequented by people. The smart wearable will have modular design so that it can be reconfigured to add or subtract functionality that the wearer wants for a particular situation so that the design remains relevant even after the virus threat recedes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Mitrofanoff; appendicovesicostomy; clots; hematuria; augmented bladder; urethral sheath; bladder tamponade
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:35:31 CEST)
Background: a 17 years-old girl with a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy developed a large bladder clot due to hematuria after a surgical cystolithotomy in an augmented bladder. Trans-urethral approaches were not feasible due to a previous surgical closure of the bladder neck. Methods: after an unsuccessful trans-appendicovesicostomy bladder washing, the endoscopic evaluation was performed using a 14 Ch rigid cystoscope, surrounded by its own urethral sheath. The clot was progressively fragmented through the cystoscope and a urethral catheter under direct vision. Clot fragments were aspirated obtaining a complete evacuation; Results: the urethral sheath prevented damages to the appendicovesicostomy, allowing at the same time repeated accesses of the cystoscope into the neobladder and ensuring the success of the procedure; Conclusions: the use of urethral sheath 14 Ch though an appendicovesicostomy preserves both the stoma and the channel, making possible endoscopic procedures as blood clot evacuation into the neobladder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0873.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: augmented reality; mobile AR; virtual agent, user engagement; gamified learning
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:40:30 CEST)
Augmented reality (AR) offers an accessible, inexpensive, and rich user experience that has the potential to engage end-users in an immersive environment. Along with vivid visualizations coupled with virtual agents, this technology further develops learning interest in end-users, guides them in various tasks, and boosts motivation and productivity. In this study, we leverage the deep penetration of mobile phones in daily lives and their advanced features to design, develop and demonstrate an AR application (CirculAR) that offers unique user-environment interaction in a gamified way. CirculAR combines learning with enjoyment to help end-users understand fundamental sustainability and circular economy principles. The application has been showcased in a controlled environment to heterogenous audiences and has been shown to improve end-user engagement and motivation. First, participants older than 18 were recruited to showcase the technology acceptance and engagement towards circular economy principles through AR. Then, students aged 5 to 15 years old, along with their parents and educators, were invited to a treasure hunt game where our virtual agent ARis guided them through a map full of virtual experiences. Assessment and evaluation were performed through a survey and a questionnaire. The outcome of their analysis showcased an increase in the dedication and enjoyment of the performed activities, engagement and learning attributes given the AR virtual agent supporting functionalities. Observations during showcasing reported a need for more commitment from the younger audience compared to the older one. This application contributes to the discourse on mobile AR as a tool for the education of novel concepts with a high impact on our daily lives and decisions and aims to shed light on the design principles of educative tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0240.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: holographic 3D display; computer generated holography; augmented reality; virtual reality
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:47:19 CEST)
We propose a computer-generated hologram method for near-eye virtual reality and augmented reality 3D display. A 3D object located near the holographic plane is projected onto a projection plane to obtain a plurality of projected images with different angles. The hologram is calculated by superposition of projected image convolution with a specific PSF through the interference of reference wave with object wave. Holographic 3D display systems with LED as illumination, 4f optical filtering system and lens as eyepiece for near-eye VR display and HOE as combiner for near-eye AR display are designed. The results show that the proposed method is about 38 times faster than the conventional point cloud method. The proposed method is flexible to produce speckle noise free high-quality VR and AR images with efficient focus and defocus capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0749.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: point cloud; classification; augmented sampling and grouping; transformer-based; UFO attention
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:26:17 CEST)
3D point cloud classification tasks have been a hot topic in recent years. Most existing point cloud processing frameworks lack context-aware features due to the deficiency of sufficient local feature extraction information. Therefore, we design an augmented sampling and grouping (ASG) module to efficiently obtain fine-grained features from the original point cloud. In particular, this method strengthens the domain near each centroid and makes reasonable use of the local mean and global standard deviation to mine point cloud’s local and global features. In addition to this, inspired by the transformer structure UFO-ViT in 2D vision tasks, we first try to use a linearly-normalized attention mechanism in point cloud processing tasks, investigating a novel transformer-based point cloud classification architecture UFO-Net. An effective local feature learning module is adopted as a bridging technique to connect different feature extraction modules. Importantly, UFO-Net employs multiple stacked blocks to better capture feature representation of the point cloud. Extensive ablation experiments on public datasets show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. For instance, our network performed with 93.7% overall accuracy on the ModelNet40 dataset, which was 0.5% higher than PCT. Our network also archived 83.8% overall accuracy on the ScanObjectNN dataset, which is 3.8% better than PCT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0242.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Serious Games; IoT; Web App; Blender; Unity3D
Online: 18 May 2022 (10:46:25 CEST)
The use of games for non-ludic purposes, the serious games, is an interesting branch of science that has shown important results. With the advent of the pandemic that has made access to rehabilitation centres more problematic for patients with cognitive rehabilitation needs, the importance of being able to exercise these patients safely in their own homes has emerged strongly. Many studies show that immediate action and appropriate, specific rehabilitation can guarantee satisfactory results. Appropriate therapy is based on key factors to be taken into account such as frequency, intensity and specificity of the exercises. The aim of our work is to define a pathway for the creation of open source digital products that can allow access in any moment to a virtual environment through which patients who have suffered limitations in their cognitive abilities can exercise and recover all or part of these abilities in the shortest possible time. In view of the spread of IoT devices capable of easily monitoring various vital parameters, we propose with our system a low-cost and very efficient solution that can provide the doctor and therapist not only with quantitative data on the exercises performed (number and type of exercises, time spent, results obtained) but also an overview of vital parameters, so as to observe any states of agitation or excessive effort in completing the exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Authentic learning; Experiential learning; Real materials; Immersive technologies; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality
Online: 15 August 2023 (02:40:45 CEST)
Authentic learning opportunities that simulate full scale design and construction experiences using real materials offer ideal experiential learning environments for construction and civil engineering students by challenging students to apply building concepts in practical settings. However, the excessive cost of real building materials required for this mode of education limits access to the vast majority of students. As a result, educational researchers have explored potential alternatives to provide cost-effective experiential learning through activities using mock-up materials (e.g., plastic straws, popsicle sticks) and simulation of experiences using immersive technologies (e.g., virtual reality or augmented reality). While some of these alternatives approximate the environment and others provide physical interaction with mock-up materials, the lack of authenticity in the building materials used introduces some apparent differences between the “authentic” learning environments and their cost-effective approximations. Therefore, this research aims to identify the learning processes reported by students and faculty who participated in authentic learning experiences to understand the ways in which this mode of education offers unique value to construction education. Their interview responses illustrated characteristics of authentic learning experiences that were believed to be critical to the learning process, some of which included: working in groups; interdisciplinary participants; and use of real construction materials. Although some of these characteristics are intrinsically linked to the use of real materials, others do not explicitly refer to interaction with real materials. This may indicate to aspects of the authentic learning processes that educational researchers can strategically target through more cost-effective learning environments like virtual and augmented reality. The contribution of this paper is in identifying the characteristics of authentic learning experiences that may guide educational investment and research innovations that aim to replicate some of these learning experiences through more accessible learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: interaction; immaterial; immersion; augmented reality; artificial intelligence; spatial perception; spatial narrative; cyberspace
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:48:58 CEST)
Despite its apparent lack of physicality, the virtual environment produces real experiences to its users. In its intangible context of digital operation, the virtual setting can be a meeting point for individuals to interact and to gain experiences that have an impact upon their lives. After more than three decades of broad accessibility and use of the internet and various digital platforms, the virtual experience has also prompted to rethink many of the assumptions commonly attributed to physical space. From a practical point, the virtual world has been an extension of the real one as a new site that can host people’s activities without many of the limitations associated with the material world. Given its absence of physical restrictions, the virtual space appears as a boundless one, whose potential of evolution is still unclear. This sense of limitedness has caused to shift our common sense about physical space as well, including architectural perception and the methods and practices applied to design it. In response, this present study focuses on the ways in which elements and concepts of the virtual world may be transferred to physical space and enrich architectural aims and the broader design discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0403.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: eccentric-connectivity index; augmented eccentric-connectivity index; molecular graph; phosphorus containing dendrimers
Online: 28 May 2018 (12:40:03 CEST)
In the study of QSAR/QSPR, due to high degree of predictability of pharmaceutical properties, the eccentric-connectivity index has very important place among the other topological descriptors, In this paper, we compute the exact formulas of eccentric-connectivity index and its corresponding polynomial, total eccentric-connectivity index and its corresponding polynomial, first Zagreb eccentricity index, augmented eccentric-connectivity index, modified eccentric-connectivity index and its corresponding polynomial for a class of phosphorus containing dendrimers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0927.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: mobile augmented reality; virtual prototyping; technical drawing; scenic design; spatial ability; design science
Online: 16 October 2023 (11:02:46 CEST)
Among the leading immersive technologies, Augmented Reality is one of the most promising and empowering to support designers in production environments. This research investigates the application of mobile augmented reality, based on the Web, as a mediation tool focused on cognitive activities of reading and understanding of Technical Drawings in the production and assembly for Tailor Made projects of the scenographic industry. In this context, the research presents a method to use the WebAR to improve the reading of technical drawings, seeking efficiency on the visualization of models and the exchange of information between professionals, involved in the processes of design, production and assembly of products, in the scope of scenography. This mediation tool was developed using Web AR platforms, compatible with native libraries (ARCore and ARKit) to ensure, first, compatibility with commonly used devices that workers or businesses can access, and secondly, to leverage hybrid tracking techniques that combine vision and sensors to improve the reliability of augmented reality viewing. The proposed solution adopts multiple tracking and navigation techniques in order to expand Space Skills components to provide greater exploratory freedom to users. The research process took place in the light of the Design Science Research Methodology and the DSR-Model, since it aimed to develop a solution to a practical problem, as well as to produce knowledge from this process. Field experiments were conducted in two real companies, with end users on their respective mobile devices, in order to evaluate usability and behavioral intent, through the Acceptance, Intent and Use of Technology questionnaires; and perceived mental workload, NASA-TLX. The experimental results show that the adoption of this tool reduces the cognitive load in the process of reading technical drawings and project´s understanding. In general, it´s usability and intent to use provide significant levels of satisfaction, being positively accepted by all participants involved in the study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1872.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Metaverse; education; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality; Computer Assisted Learning; User Privacy; Smart Cities
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:23:29 CEST)
Recent digital transformations have significantly impacted the current society, economy, and culture. This includes adoption of rapidly emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), immersive technology (e.g., virtual, augmented, mixed and extended reality (VR/AR/MR/XR)), cloud services, and internet of things, in our day-to-day life. `Metaverse’ has emerged as a technology that incorporates many of these transforming technologies to deliver personalised immersive experience related to specific application areas. A potential major beneficiary of Metaverse is the educational ecosystem, where highly immersive learning experiences can be delivered to students, catering to their personal learning needs and train them on life skills such as empathy, ethical qualities, and communication skills. The present-day Metaverse allows physical engagement, enabling users to utilise limb movements to interact with the presented materials. However, ethical concerns and technical limitations impede the widespread implementation of the Metaverse in the real-world. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the existing literature covering the architecture, type and components of Metaverse, followed by practical aspects of metaverse implementation. The paper is concluded by discussing on the open challenges and issues along with their mitigation strategies and future research directions after the detailed usecase of Metaverse in Education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: dynamic point cloud; augmented reality; virtual reality; pose estimation; 3d skeleton; deformation; temporal prediction
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:50:39 CEST)
This paper proposes an algorithm for transmitting and reconstructing the estimated point cloud using temporally estimating a dynamic point cloud sequence. When a non-rigid 3D point cloud sequence (PCS) is input, the sequence is divided into groups of point cloud frames (PCF), and a key PCF is selected. After the 3D skeleton is predicted through 3D pose estimation, the motion of the skeleton is estimated by analyzing the joints and bones of the 3D skeleton. For the deformation of the non-rigid human PC, the 3D PC model is transformed into a mesh model, and the key PCF is rigged using the 3D skeleton. After deforming the key PCF into the target PCF utilizing the motion vector of the estimated skeleton, the residual PC between the motion compensation PCF and the target PCF is generated. If there is a key PCF, the motion vector of the target PCF, and a residual PC, the target PCF can be reconstructed. Just as compression is performed using pixel correlation between frames in a 2D video, this paper compresses 3D PCF by estimating the non-rigid 3D motion of a 3D object in a 3D PC. The proposed algorithm can be regarded as an extension of the 2D motion estimation of a rigid local region in a 2D plane to the 3D motion estimation of a non-rigid object (human) in 3D space. Experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully compress 3D PC sequences. If it is used together with a PC compression technique such as MPEG PCC (point cloud compression) in the future, a system with high compression efficiency may be configured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0699.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: smart material systems; augmented material; creative practices; fashion design; smart experience; smart aesthetics; technology
Online: 2 November 2018 (02:34:10 CET)
During the last decade, smart materials have increasingly impacted on several niches, among which that of one-off/limited edition experimental fashion. Thanks to their performativity, due to the implementation of Smart Materials Systems, they have reached indeed catwalks as well as museums and galleries. As boundaries between what-is-art and what traditionally was not supposed to be art are now turning into osmotic membranes, zooming on how smart materials are highly contributing to outline the new creative landscape can provide with interesting and compelling issues. Introducing three different areas of experimental fashion, named Multi-sensory dresses, Empathic dresses, and Bio-smart dresses and accessories, respectively covering the world of in-Lab experiments and design collaborations in relation to the application of advanced smart materials systems, the article discuss some of the implications in term of Design Thinking and Design Aesthetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0411.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: compressive sensing; image reconstruction; regularization; total variation; augmented Lagrangian; non-local self-similarity; wavelet denoising
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:02:58 CET)
In remote sensing applications, one of the key points is the acquisition, real-time pre-processing and storage of information. Due to the large amount of information present in the form of images or videos, compression of this data is necessary. Compressed sensing (CS) is an efficient technique to meet this challenge. It consists in acquiring a signal, assuming that it can have a sparse representation, using a minimal number of non-adaptive linear measurements. After this CS process, a reconstruction of the original signal must be performed at the receiver. Reconstruction techniques are often unable to preserve the texture of the image and tend to smooth out its details. To overcome this problem, we propose in this work, a CS reconstruction method that combines the total variation regularization and the non-local self-similarity constraint. The optimization of this method is performed by the augmented Lagrangian which avoids the difficult problem of non-linearity and non-differentiability of the regularization terms. The proposed algorithm, called denoising compressed sensing by regularizations terms (DCSR), will not only perform image reconstruction but also denoising. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we compare its performance with state-of-the-art methods, such as Nesterov's algorithm, group-based sparse representation and wavelet-based methods, in terms of denoising, and preservation of edges, texture and image details, as well as from the point of view of computational complexity. Our approach allows to gain up to 25% in terms of denoising efficiency, and visual quality using two metrics: PSNR and SSIM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0372.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: distributed engine control system (DECS), NGVA, Data Distribution Service (DDS), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Augmented Reality (AR)
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:02:28 CEST)
This report is considered different aspects of the concept of the networked distributed engine control system (DECS) of future air vehicles. These aspects include the following: the structure of multiple networks similar to NATO Generic Vehicle Architecture (NGVA), the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in DECS, and the use Augmented Reality (AR) as Human-Machine Interface between AI and pilots. Deployment of AI solutions for monitoring equipment in on-board infrastructure can be provided on physical or virtual servers and in the clouds. In this case, it is possible to use various methods of alerting the pilot and ground personnel on the basis of AR. The use of AI allows covering an unlimited set of scenarios, to provide an assessment of the likelihood of equipment failure, classification alarm is normal, and recognition of the development of defects. To collect Big Data from sensors and the pre-processing of this data before a machine learning (ML) procedure it is proposed to form data sets with the help of the face-splitting matrix product. To decrease the time of reaction of Neural Networks it has been suggested the implementation of advanced tensor-matrix theory on the basis of penetrating face product of matrices. Other important results of the report are a possible version of the AR data format for DECS and a proposal about the use of non-orthogonal frequency discrete multiplexing (N-OFDM) signals to data transfer via fibre optics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Coastal Monitoring, Remote Sensing, In-Situ Sensing, Augmented Virtuality, AUV, Drones, RFID, Wireless Sensor Networks, 3D imaging
Online: 21 December 2017 (16:00:25 CET)
In this paper the authors describe the architecture of a multidisciplinary data acquisition and visualization platform devoted to the management of coastal environments. The platform integrates heterogeneous data acquisition sub-systems that can be roughly divided in two main categories: remote sensing systems and in-situ sensing systems. Remote sensing solutions include aerial and underwater remote data acquisition while in-situ sensing solutions include the use of RFID tracers, Wireless Sensor Networks and imaging techniques. All the data collected by these subsystems are stored, integrated and fused on a single platform that is also in charge of data visualization. This last task is carried out according to the paradigm of Augmented Virtuality which foresees the augmentation of a virtually reconstructed environment with data collected in the real world. The described solution proposes a novel holistic approach where different disciplines concur, with different data acquisition techniques, to a large scale definition of coastal dynamics, in order to better describe and face the coastal erosion phenomenon. The overall framework has been conceived by the so-called Team COSTE, a joint research team between the Universities of Pisa, Siena and Florence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0409.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Animal welfare; Virtual environments; Metaverse; Augmented reality; Precision Livestock Farming; Ethical farming; Sustainability; Livestock; Environmental impact; Digital agriculture
Online: 26 May 2023 (08:22:52 CEST)
The metaverse, a virtual world comprising a collective virtual shared space where users interact with one another through avatars and computer-generated objects, aims to closely mimic our real world by integrating elements of Artificial Intelligence (AI), immersive reality, advanced connectivity, and Web3. As metaverse technologies gain momentum across multiple sectors, including animal farming, their potential for addressing complex challenges such as climate change and sustainability in precision food production systems becomes increasingly apparent. However, it is crucial to consider the ethical implications and the role of sensor data and livestock behavior analysis in developing metaverse technologies for modern animal farming, given the sensitive and controversial nature of animal welfare. Failure to address these ethical considerations and harness the power of sensor data and behavior analysis could lead to a lack of credibility and insensitivity towards adopting metaverse technologies in the animal farming sector. It is essential to ensure that the development of metaverse technologies does not prioritize technology over animal welfare, ethics, socio-economic implications, and the potential for data-driven insights. Addressing diversity and equity in the context of animal farming and the metaverse is crucial to avoid perpetuating existing inequalities during the implementation of metaverse technologies. This groundbreaking paper ventures into unexplored territory, shedding light on the untapped potential of the metaverse for modern animal farming. While research on this topic is still in its infancy, we embark on a journey of visionary speculation, presenting a compelling technology forecast that envisions the extraordinary possibilities awaiting us in the future. By delving into the metaverse's transformative capabilities, we provide a glimpse into a world where animal farming transcends its traditional limitations and embraces a new era of efficiency, sustainability, and ethical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Velocity–pressure coupling; Fully coupled solvers; Augmented Lagrangian; two-phase flows; saddle point; projection method; preconditioning; smooth VOF
Online: 3 December 2020 (13:50:52 CET)
In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and robustness of three classes of methods for solving two-phase incompressible flows on a staggered grid. Here, the unsteady two-phase flow equations are simulated by finite volumes and penalty methods using implicit and monolithic approaches (such as the augmented Lagrangian and the fully coupled methods), where all velocity components and pressure variables are solved simultaneously (as opposed to segregated methods). The interface tracking is performed with a Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method, using the Piecewise Linear Interface Construction (PLIC) technique. The home code Fugu is used for implementing the various methods. Our target application is the simulation of two-phase flows at high density and viscosity ratios, which are known to be challenging to simulate. The resulting strategies of monolithic approaches will be proven to be considerably better suited for these two-phase cases, they also allow to use larger time step than segregated methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Computational Intelligence; Machine/Deep Learning; Fuzzy Computing; Data Analysis; Blockchain; Cloud Computing; Internet of Things; Augmented Reality; Civil Engineering
Online: 16 January 2023 (04:47:54 CET)
Advanced state-of-the-art technologies, mainly computational intelligence including Machine/Deep Learning and Fuzzy Computing, through applied research, can provide added value to modern science and, in general, to entrepreneurship and the economy. Artificial intelligence is the field of computer science that attempts to model concepts such as learning, adaptability and perception to synthesize intelligent behavior in solving complex problems, utilizing elements of adaptation to the environment and philosophical reasoning. About the science of civil engineering and, in general, the construction industry, which is one of the most important in economic entrepreneurship, both in terms of the size of the workforce employed and the amount of capital invested, the penetration of artificial intelligence is possible to change industry business models, eliminate costly mistakes, reduce Jobsite injuries and generally make large-scale engineering projects more efficient. The purpose of the paper is to present the recent research on artificial intelligence methods (machine-deep learning, computer vision, natural language processing, fuzzy systems, robotics, etc.) and the corresponding related technologies related to it (extensive data analysis, blockchain, cloud computing, internet of things, augmented reality), in the fields of application of civil engineering science, including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, hydraulics and water resources management, marine and coastal technology, transport and transportation infrastructure, planning and technical project management, critical infrastructure security and disaster mitigation..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0286.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Metaverse; physical disability; cognitive impairment; mental health; virtual reality (VR); augmented reality (AR); mixed reality (MR); internet-of-things (IoT).
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:35:11 CEST)
Despite the proliferation of Blockchain Metaverse projects, the inclusion of physically disabled individuals in the Metaverse remains distant, with limited standards and regulations in place. However, the article proposes a concept of the Metaverse that leverages emerging technologies, such as Virtual and Augmented Reality, and the Internet of Things, to enable greater engagement of disabled creatives. This approach aims to enhance inclusiveness in the Metaverse landscape. Based on the findings, the paper concludes that the active involvement of physically disabled individuals in the design and development of Metaverse platforms is crucial for promoting inclusivity. The proposed framework for accessibility and inclusiveness in Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed realities of decentralised Metaverses provides a basis for the meaningful participation of disabled creatives. The article emphasises the importance of addressing the mechanisms for art production by individuals with disabilities in the emerging Metaverse landscape. Additionally, it highlights the need for further research and collaboration to establish standards and regulations that facilitate the inclusion of physically disabled individuals in Metaverse projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0240.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; artificial intelligence; big data; cloud computing; education system; disruptive technologies; industry 4.0; internet of things; skills; virtual and augmented reality
Online: 23 October 2019 (03:45:59 CEST)
The 21st century has witnessed precipitous changes spanning from the way of life to the technologies that emerged. We have entered a nascent paradigm shift (industry 4.0) where science fictions have become science facts, and technology fusion is the main driver. Thus, ensuring that any advancement in technology reach and benefit all is the ideal opportunity for everyone. In this study, disruptive technologies of industry 4.0 was explored and quantified in terms of the number of their appearances in published literature. The study aimed at identifying industry 4.0 key technologies which have been ill-defined by previous researchers and to enumerate the required skills of industry 4.0. Comprehensive literature survey covering the field of engineering, production, and management was done from multidisciplinary databases: Google scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Sage, Taylor & Francis and Emerald insight. Results of the electronic survey showed that 35 disruptive technologies were quantified and 13 key technologies: Internet of things, Big data, 3D printing, Cloud computing, Autonomous robots, Virtual and Augmented reality, Cyber physical system, Artificial intelligence, Smart sensors, Simulation, Nanotechnology, Drones and Biotechnology were identified. Both technical and personal skills to be imparted into the human workforce for industry 4.0 were reported. The study identified the need to investigate the capability and the readiness of developing countries in adapting industry 4.0 in terms of the changes in the education systems and industrial manufacturing settings. The study proposes the need to address integration of industry 4.0 concepts into the current education system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: augmented reality; literacy engagement; reading for pleasure; transformative education; emergent digital technologies; United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education; UAE; Storytime; interactive literacy experience; young learners; bilingual literacy; local and global contexts; 3D objects; interactive games; learner agency; family engagement; global community; curriculum integration; creativity; holistic learning experiences
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:43:21 CET)
This case study explores the transformative effects of emergent digital technologies, particularly augmented reality (AR), on literacy engagement and reading for pleasure. The United Arab Emirates Ministry of Education implemented the UAE Storytime programme, utilising AR to create an interactive literacy experience for young learners. The programme incorporated bilingual episodes, featuring stories based on local and global contexts, with 3D objects and interactive games to enhance understanding. The results indicate a positive correlation between the use of AR and literacy engagement. A high proportion of learners scanned the QR codes to access the AR objects, which enhanced their engagement and understanding of the stories. The programme fostered a learner agency, engaged family members in the learning process, and established a sense of global community. The study recommends the integration of similar initiatives into the curriculum to promote collaboration, creativity, and holistic learning experiences.