ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: processing waste; Atlantic cod; collagen; red king crab; enzyme preparation; collagen hydrolysate; culture medium
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:25:50 CEST)
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) processing wastes are massive and unutilized in the Murmansk region of Russia. The samples of skin-containing waste of Atlantic cod fillets production were hydrolyzed using enzyme preparations derived from red king crab hepatopancreases, porcine pancreases and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The activity of enzymes from crab hepatopancreases was significantly higher than the activity of enzymes derived from other sources. The optimal conditions of the hydrolysis process have been figured out. The samples of cod processing waste hydrolysate were analyzed for amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The samples of hydrolysate were used as core components for bacterial culture medium samples. The efficiency of the medium samples was tested for Escherichia coli growth rate; the most efficient sample had efficiency 95.3% of that of a commercially available medium based on fish meal. Substitution of medium components with those derived from industrial by-products is one of the ways to decrease a cost of a culture medium in biopharmaceutical drug production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0417.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: storm tracks; track density; cyclogenesis areas; climate variability and change; the North Atlantic Oscillation; the East Atlantic–West Russia pattern
Online: 27 July 2022 (10:00:33 CEST)
A better understanding of the expected future cyclonic activity, especially in the Mediterranean Basin in winter, is essential for developing scientifically based adaptation and mitigation methods to extreme precipitation and wind anomalies. The aim of this study is to analyze the change of winter cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region, within the Atlantic–European region, at the beginning (as the recent historical period), middle and end of the 21st century. The projections are based on an ensemble of seven CMIP6 models, which showed the best consistency with NCEP/NCAR and ERA5 reanalysis, under the intermediate SSP2-4.5 and highest-emission SSP5-8.5 scenarios. The results show a consistent increase of the frequency of cyclones over Central Europe and the British Isles associated with the shift of cyclone tracks: norward from the Western Mediterranean region and southward from the Iceland Low. The latter leads to a decrease of the frequency in the north of the Atlantic–European region. At the same time, there is a reduction of the frequency of cyclones over the east of the Mediterranean Sea consistent with the decrease of cyclogenesis events. Area-averaged cyclone numbers in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea subregions reduce to the end of the century under the highest-emission scenario, but not constantly and with a raise in the middle of the 21st century under both scenarios, which may be linked to the long-term multidecadal variability or regional features. In general, our study shows that the future winter cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region responds unevenly to global climate changes, because regional and monthly features are important, as well as accounting for the long-term quasiperiodic variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hexane-isopropanol extraction; omega-3 fish oil; Atlantic salmon
Online: 8 December 2020 (14:55:54 CET)
Atlantic salmon (Salmo Salar) is one of the fish species that rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can lower down the risk of cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. The extraction of omega-3 fish oil from Atlantic salmon by using hexane and isopropanol was conducted in this research. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to study the impact of parameters which were temperature (50-90°C), centrifuge speed (1000-3000rpm) and solvent ratio of hexane to isopropanol (0.5-1.5) to the percentage of oil yield. The results obtained shows that 15.23%± 0.61 of oil yield from Atlantic salmon under an optimum condition of 70°C, 3000 rpm and solvent ratio of hexane to isopropanol of 1.5. The acid value, peroxide value and p-anisidine value of the fish oil obtained were 7.48 mg KOH/g, 1.94 meq/kg and 5.56 respectively which were all within the acceptable limit which stipulated by Global Organization for EPA and DHA (GOED) and Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The FTIR analysis proved the presence of alkane and carboxylic acid in the fish oil. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis showed that the fish oil contains higher monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) contents followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and 4.5525% of total omega-3 fatty acids.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: climate change; tropicalization; species distribution; range expansion; North Atlantic
Online: 27 February 2019 (05:14:25 CET)
Climate change and the overall increase of seawater temperature is causing a poleward shift in species distribution, which includes a phenomenon described as tropicalization of temperate regions. This work aims at reporting the first records of four species off the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, namely oceanic puffer Lagocephalus lagocephalus Linnaeus, 1758, Madeira rockfish Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes, 1833, ornate wrasse Thalassoma pavo Linnaeus, 1758, and bearded fireworm Hermodice carunculata Pallas, 1766. These last three species, along with other occurrences of aquatic fauna and flora along the Portuguese coast, reveal an ongoing process of poleward expansion of several species for which a comprehensive survey along the entire Iberian Peninsula is urgent. The putative origins of these subtropical and tropical species off continental Portugal are discussed, as well as the urgent need of public awareness due to potential health risks resulting from the toxicity of two of the four species reported in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0192.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Single-use plastics (SUPs); plastic pollution management; policy; pollution; Atlantic Canada
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:58:00 CET)
Government-led legislation is a key strategy to reduce plastic pollution; however, societal perception can heavily influence government intervention for environmental issues. To understand the public acceptability of government action to reduce plastic pollution, we examine the perception of existing and upcoming legislative action on single-use plastics by means of a structured survey with additional semi-structured interviews. Our focus is on the four Atlantic provinces of Canada, which was the first region in Canada to implement provincial-wide legislation for plastic reduction at the consumer level in 2019. Results show strong public support (77 %, n = 838) for bans on single-use plastic bags at the consumer level, and for further plastic pollution reduction legislation. However, the level of support differed between regions and by demographics. Semi-structured interviews show that decision-makers should increase efforts in raising consumer awareness and standardizing regulations across jurisdictions for smoother transitions prior to legislative action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0238.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Artificial reefs; design; building material; bio-monitoring; species diversity; European Atlantic
Online: 13 January 2021 (10:31:56 CET)
Artificial reefs have been deployed in multiple regions of the world for different purposes including habitat restoration and protection, biodiversity and fish stock enhancement, fisheries management and recreation. Artificial reefs can be a valuable tool for ecosystem protection and rehabilitation, helping mitigate the effects of anthropogenic impacts that we face today. However, knowledge on artificial reefs is unevenly distributed worldwide, with some regions having much more quality information available and published (e.g. European Mediterranean Sea area), while others, for instance the North-East Atlantic area, do not. Here, we provide a characterization of purposely built artificial reefs in North-East Atlantic area based on all available literature (i.e. research papers and reports), highlighting the needs and gaps that are vital for establishing future perspectives for artificial reef deployment and research. In the North-East Atlantic area, sixty-one purposely built artificial reefs have been deployed since 1970, mostly between the years 1990-2009, with Spain being the country with the highest number of artificial reefs. The most reported purpose for their deployment is fisheries productivity and habitat/species protection, although, most artificial reefs are multipurpose in order to maximise the benefits of a given financial investment. The majority of artificial reefs were submerged at < 50 m, mainly between 10-20 m of depth. The most used designs were cubic blocks and complex designs made by an array of combined shapes, which mostly consist of concrete (79%). From all the analysed data on artificial reefs, 67% of the cases reported surveys to assess biodiversity after the deployment. However, in 26% of those cases, data was not available. When data was available, only 31% of cases reported long-term biomonitoring surveys (3 years or more). Based upon these findings, we noticed a general lack of scientifically robust data, including records of species and abundance of both fish and invertebrates, as well as macroalgae. Preventing an adequate determination of the best balance between shape, construction material and bio-colonization. Critiques and suggestions are discussed in the light of current available data in order to perform more efficient research, evaluation and functioning of future artificial reefs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0715.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Western South Atlantic continental margin; benthic Foraminifera; fresh water; nutrients; eutrophication; anoxic
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:51:08 CET)
The present work focuses on fresh water signatures at the sediment-water interface (1 cm) using foraminiferal species in both austral winter and summer in eleven longitudinal transects on the Western South Atlantic continental margin between 27° and 37° S, at water depths of 11.7 to 250 m. Here we show that depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen, grain size (mud and sand percentage), suspended matter, organic matter, SiO4, NO2, and NO3 in this order of importance are responsible for the distribution of foraminiferal species and thecamoebians. The presence of these microfossils indicate freshwater influx in four sectors over the continental shelf: Itajaí-Açu River, Laguna estuarine system, Patos Lagoon and RdlP (Rio de la Plata) will be explored further in detail. Our findings on freshwater signature on the continental shelf sediments through benthic species indicator are comparable to other continental systems worldwide, and a paleo record study would be useful for three South American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay). A freshwater signature in the continental shelf indicates deposition sites probably linked to anthropogenic impact since most of the pollutants and contaminants are dumped into water bodies that eventually reach and accumulate in the ocean. Therefore, the freshwater-related species on the continental shelf reflects exactly where the depositional sediment sites are, and where anthropogenic impacts accumulate. Foraminiferal microhabitat occupation within these zones is discussed in detail. And we conclude that together with the fauna, the abiotic parameters play an important role in determining the occurrence and degree of marine eutrophication induced by the input of polluted river waters, also showing possible anoxic environments on the shelf.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0094.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: West Africa ; Atlantic humpback dolphin ; bottlenose dolphin ; bycatch ; marine bushmeat ; aquatic wild meat ; conservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:38:32 CEST)
Small-boat and shore-based surveys in 2017 confirm that Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii) and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are resident in shallow neritic waters surrounding the protected MPA Tristao Islands in northern Guinea. Inshore-type T. truncatus were encountered also between Conakry and Kayar. First documented in 2012, dolphin bycatches in local fisheries continue to occur. The frequency of beach-cast remains suggests a significant conservation issue. Both multi- and monofilament gillnets are widely deployed, but it remains unclear which gear is the main cause of mortality. Forensic evidence shows that captured dolphins are often utilized for local consumption. Marine bushmeat of cetaceans is documented in many coastal nations in West and Central Africa. In Tristao Islands their use is synchronous with and thought related to declining fish stocks. Significant anthropogenic mortality relative to their low abundance, besides suspected pressures such as prey competition with fisheries and habitat deterioration from coastal development, raise concern for the future of coastal dolphins, in particular endangered S. teuszii, even in this formally protected MPA. Conservation measures need to be re-evaluated for improved efficiency while surveys to monitor trends should be annual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: tephra in marine sediments; Ash Zone I in North Atlantic; tephrochronology of Termination I
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:38:40 CEST)
Based on the geochemical analysis of the volcanic material from the sediment core AMK-340, central zone of the Reykjanes Ridge, we could detect two ash-bearing sediment units accumulated during the Termination I. They correlate to the Ash Zone I in the North Atlantic Late Quaternary sediments having an age of 12170-12840, within the Younger Dryas cold chronozone, and 13600-14540 years, within and Bølling-Allerød warm chronozone. The ash of the Younger Dryas unit is presented mostly by the mafic and persilicic material originated from the Icelandic volcanoes; Vedde Ash is presented in one sediment sample from this unit. The ash of the Bølling-Allerød unit is presented mostly by the mafic shards which are related to the basalts of the rift zone on the Reykjanes Ridge, having presumably the local origin. A detection of Vedde Ash helped to specify the timing of the previously reconstructed paleoceanographic changes for the Termination I in the point of study: a significant warming in the area could occur as early as 300 years prior to the end of the conventional Younger Dryas cold chronozone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0645.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Tectonic joint; Pressure-ridge, Active uplift, Mantle rocks; St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago; Equatorial Atlantic
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:39:49 CEST)
This paper discusses the tectonics of the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) in the Equato-rial Atlantic Ocean, based on the joint-system geometry which show a North-South shorten-ing/transpressional uplift tectonism, is active leading to exhumation of the sub-oceanic mantle. These islets are the summits of a sigmoidal submarine ridge formed by mantle ultramafic rocks. The ridge is crossed by the principal transform deformation zone of the northern transform fault of the St. Paul Multifault System. The South flank ridge exposes serpentinized mantle perido-tites, while the North flank exposes strongly deformed/fractured ultramylonites, recording duc-tile and brittle deformation at lithospheric conditions. The SPSPA show multiple joint systems cutting mylonitic foliation of the exposed rocks, forming three main families: high-angle paral-lel joints of tectonic origin, serpentinization-related joints with random direction and load-release low-angle parallel joints. The tectonic joints show an average direction of N31°E and N28°W, forming a conjugate system with a N1ºW compression axes, coherent with a trans-pressive stress field. Accordingly, the earthquakes focal mechanism close to the islets also shows N-S compression. The previously reported active uplift with an average rate of 1.5 mm/year and the directions of the joint system here reported agreeing with a present-day active N-S compres-sive field at a high angle with the direction of the transform fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0166.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: spatiotemporal database; spatial analysis; seasonal precipitation; spearman correlation coefficient; pacific decadal oscillation; southern oscillation index; north atlantic oscillation
Online: 16 January 2020 (10:59:53 CET)
Temporary changes in precipitation may lead to sustained and severe drought or massive floods in different parts of the world. Knowing variation in precipitation can effectively help the water resources decision-makers in water resources management. Large-scale circulation drivers have a considerable impact on precipitation in different parts of the world. In this research, the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on seasonal precipitation over Iran was investigated. For this purpose, 103 synoptic stations with at least 30 years of data were utilized. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the indices in the previous 12 months with seasonal precipitation was calculated, and the meaningful correlations were extracted. Then the month in which each of these indices has the highest correlation with seasonal precipitation was determined. Finally, the overall amount of increase or decrease in seasonal precipitation due to each of these indices was calculated. Results indicate the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), NAO, and PDO have the most impact on seasonal precipitation, respectively. Also, these indices have the highest impact on the precipitation in winter, autumn, spring, and summer, respectively. SOI has a diverse impact on winter precipitation compared to the PDO and NAO, while in the other seasons, each index has its special impact on seasonal precipitation. Generally, all indices in different phases may decrease the seasonal precipitation up to 100%. However, the seasonal precipitation may increase more than 100% in different seasons due to the impact of these indices. The results of this study can be used effectively in water resources management and especially in dam operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0102.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: global warming and environmental change; Late Quaternary paleoenvironments; Termination I; sea-water paleotemperature; marine microfossils; North Atlantic; stable isotopes
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:56:58 CEST)
The micropaleontological study (radiolarians and foraminifera) of the sediment core AMK-340, Reykjanes Ridge, North Atlantic, combined with the radiocarbon dating and Oxygen/Carbon isotopic record, provided data for the reconstruction of the summer paleotemperature on the water depth of 100 m, and paleoenvironments during the Termination I in the age interval of 14.5–8 ka. The response of the main microfossil species on the paleoceanographic changes within the Bølling-Allerød (BA) warming, the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event, and final transition to the warm Holocene was different. The BA warming was well reflected in the radiolarian and benthic but not planktic foraminiferal record. The high abundances of the cold-water radiolarian species Amphimelissa setosa as the Greenland/Iceland Sea indicator marked a cooling at the end of the BA and within the start of the YD at 13.2–12.3 ka. The micropaleontological and isotopic data together with the paleotemperature estimates for the Reykjanes Ridge at 60° N document that, after the warm BA, the middle YD ca. 12.5–12.2 ka was the next significant step toward the Holocene warming. Start of the Holocene interglacial conditions was reflected in abundant occurrence of the microfossils being indicators of the open boreal North Atlantic environments and lower oxygen isotope values indicating increasing warmth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0480.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cp-rbcL; nr-ITS region; biodiversity; distribution; Mediterranean-Atlantic Europe; mosses; nomenclature; taxonomy; Trichostomum herzogii nom. nov.; Trichostomum meridionale sp. nov.
Online: 30 December 2021 (08:58:49 CET)
The morphologically variable moss Trichostomum brachydontium is very common in south and west Europe, particularly under Mediterranean and Atlantic climates. A morphological study was conducted alongside a molecular phylogenetic study based on nr ITS and cp rbcL regions in order to assess if T. brachydontium is an exceptionally polymorphic species as evidenced by the number of described infraspecific taxa from the last century or, alternatively, if it includes more than one species, and if so, to find the valid name for them. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and chloroplast datasets show that there are four well-supported clades. While the ITS based tree is in good agreement with the morphological data, there are a few inconsistencies with reference to the rbcL tree; this may be explained by incomplete lineage sorting or by hybridization. The morphological survey revealed well-defined discriminate differences between the four phylogenetic lineages. The taxonomic conclusions include the recognition of four species: T. brachydontium s.s., T. herzogii (a new name proposed for var. cuspidatum), T. littorale and T. meridionale (a new name proposed for var. densum). Lectotypes are designated for T. brachydontium and T. littorale. Our results underline the ongoing need of integrative studies to examine further the underestimated diversity of the T. brachydontium complex in other regions.