ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1023.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Atypical anorexia nervosa; anorexia nervosa; Asian adolescents; eating disorders
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:33:45 CEST)
Atypical Anorexia Nervosa (AAN) had been found to have significant physical and psychological complications at presentation but has not been described in a multi-ethnic Asian population. This retrospective cohort analysis aimed to characterize the baseline presentation of adolescents with Anorexia nervosa (AN) (N=317) and AAN (N=141) in an Asian cohort that presented to a specialist paediatric eating disorder program between January 2010 to October 2020 for assessment. In patients with AAN, there were increased proportions of males (16% vs 7%) and of Malay ethnicity (11% vs 4%) compared to AN. Adolescents with AAN had lower admission rates (61% vs 81%) as well as lower rates of bradycardia (45% vs 75%) and hypotension (7% vs 21%) but higher rate of syncope (13% vs 7%) compared to adolescents with AN. However, adolescents with AAN had higher frequency of psychological complications including self-harm and drug overdose (14% vs 1.5%) requiring admission as well as higher rates of purging (45.1% vs 14.8%) and for Eating Disorder Questionnaire score in the shape domain was more severe. Asian adolescents with AAN manifest with physical complications of malnutrition and had worse eating disorder psychopathology with higher frequency of other psychological co-morbidities underlining the severity of the illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010006
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: rendering; graphics; heritage; Japanese; Asian
Online: 28 February 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Ukiyo-e is a traditional Japanese painting style most commonly printed using wood blocks. Ukiyo-e prints feature distinct line work, bright colours, and a non-perspective projection. Most previous research on ukiyo-e styled computer graphics has been focused on creation of 2D images. In this paper we propose a framework for rendering interactive 3D scenes with ukiyo-e style. The rendering techniques use standard 3D models as input and require minimal additional information to automatically render scenes in a ukiyo-e style. The described techniques are evaluated based on their ability to emulate ukiyo-e prints, performance, and temporal coherence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0266.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Asian architecture; Asian heritage; China; Japan; Urban Design; Garden and Landscape Design; Reformation of the Arts.
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:50:54 CEST)
With this article we would like to clarify the often-disregarded fact by virtue of which the European Missionaries in Asia acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent they became harbingers of Culture and Science more than Faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to Language, e.g. the Chinese Characters (considered to be the sole natural language), Geography, Cosmology and even Governance. We would try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Asian rice; salt stress; morphology; physiology; biochemistry
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:51:35 CET)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a primary energy food for Asian population. One of the most constraints in rice production is soil salinity because of the rice is very susceptible to salt. Meanwhile, many agricultural land in Asia are in the saline area. It is important to identify and develop salt-tolerant rice varieties that can adapt in Asian climate. By combining morphological, physiological, and biochemical assessments for screening the salt tolerant of 116 Asian rice cultivars was able to classify into tolerant, moderate, and sensitive rice cultivars under salinity stress condition, and also for understanding the salt tolerance mechanisms. The rice cultivars which belong to salt-tolerant including Pokkali from India, TCCP 266 from Philippines, IR 45427 also from Philippines, and Namyang 7 from Korea. Whereas, salt-sensitive rice varieties like IR29 from Philippines, IR58 also from Philippines, Daegudo from Korea, and Guweoldo also from Korea. The salt-tolerant varieties showed signs of tolerance, including lower percent reduction of percentage germination, root length, root fresh weight, shoot length, plant biomass, and chlorophyll content. In order to maintain the cellular osmotic balance under saline condition, the salt-tolerant ones exhibited less membrane damage, lower Na/K ratio, high proline and sugar accumulation, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pokkali from India, TCCP 266 from Philippines, IR 45427 also from Philippines, and Namyang 7 from Korea are recommended as valuable germplasm resource for Asian rice breeding program in saline agricultural area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: NNV; synthetic peptides; Asian seabass; antigenicity; immunogenicity
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:57:35 CET)
Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) has spread throughout the world, affecting more than 120 freshwater and marine fish species. While vaccination effectively prevents disease outbreaks, the difficulty of producing sufficient viruses using cell lines continues to be a significant disadvantage for producing inactivated vaccines. This study, therefore, explored the application of synthetic peptides as potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of NNV in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Using the epitope prediction tool and molecular docking, three predicted immunogenic B cell epitopes (30-32 aa) derived from NNV coat protein were selected and synthesised, corresponding to amino acid positions 5 to 34 (P1), 133 to 162 (P2) and 181 to 212 (P3). All the predicted peptides interact with Asian sea bass’s MHC class II by docking. The antigenicity of these peptides was determined through ELISA and all peptides were able to react with NNV-specific antibodies. Subsequently, the immunogenicity of these synthetic peptides was investigated by immunisation of Asian seabass with individual peptides (30 μg/fish) and a peptide cocktail (P1+P2+P3, 10 μg each/fish) by intraperitoneal injection, followed by a booster dose at day 28 post-primary immunisation. There was a subset of immunised fish that were able to induce upregulation of CD4 in the head kidney and spleen. Importantly, antibodies derived from fish immunised with synthetic peptides reacted with whole NNV virions. Taken together, these findings indicate that synthetic linear peptides based on predicted B cell epitopes exhibited both antigenic and immunogenic properties, suggesting that they could be potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of NNV in fish.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: energy metabolism; South Asian; diet; physical activity
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:26:08 CEST)
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide not only in Western countries but also in Asian countries. Among Asian countries, South Asian countries experience the rapid increase of overweight and obesity that co-exist with the rapid increase of obesity-related non communicable diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular. The phenomena in South Asian countries are triggered by growth in population size, population aging, urbanization and changes in lifestyle including increases in energy intake and reductions in physical activity. The imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure leads to the development of positive energy balance, which over the time acumulate in a higher body fat. South Asians were reported to have a more unfavorable body composition with a higher body fat percentage as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. The differences in body composition between South Asians and Caucasians contribute to differences in resting energy expenditure, in which South Asians have a lower resting energy expenditure as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. Resting energy expenditure is the largest component of daily total energy expenditure, and therefore play an important role in determining the energy balance between energy intake and expenditure.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0271.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; African elephant; Asian elephant; captivity; housing; mobility
Online: 18 January 2021 (17:30:32 CET)
The African bush and forest elephants, Loxodonta Africana and Loxodonta cyclotis, and the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus, are the largest land-dwelling animals. Elephants need to be highly mobile and active in order to find fresh food and water, and in the case of males, to locate females in estrus for breeding. Asian elephants walk up to 21 km each day and African elephants can walk up to 28 km per day. This high level of mobility in the wild is also important for maintaining an optimum musculoskeletal health. However, most zoo elephants live in restricted spaces and cold climates that require extended periods of indoor confinement are therefore unable to be as physically active. Zoo enclosures for elephants are relatively small with hard surfaces (i.e. concrete, tarmac and hard packed dirt), so they cannot exercise and are forced to stand on unnaturally hard surfaces continually. Physical inactivity in captivity makes them more prone to gaining weight and developing bone and joint diseases such as osteomyelitis, joint ankylosis and osteoarthritis (OA). Many health and welfare problems in captive elephants are likely to be caused by the lack of mobility. This perspective article focuses on the possible link between captivity, mobility, physical inactivity and the development of OA in captive elephants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Asian dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; long-range transportation
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:35:05 CEST)
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particle (TSP) was observed at Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high (transported at higher altitude, around 4000 m) and AD-low (transported at lower altitude, around 2500 m). The TSP concentrations in-creased sharply in the AD and was higher in AD-high (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m³) than that in AD-low (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m³). While AD didn’t have significant effect on ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs concentration in non-AD periods, AD-high, AD-low were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, 436 ± 265 pg/m³, respectively. PAHs compositions were also consistent. As a result, TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitude from the desert region while PAHs concentration was under the impact of air mass at lower altitude which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated by inhalation lifetime cancer risk which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, in-dicating a potential carcinogenic risk at KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Asian women; breast cancer; transfer learning; artificial intelligence
Online: 1 March 2023 (08:51:04 CET)
This study utilised an ensemble of pre-trained networks and digital mammograms to develop a supplementary diagnostic tool for radiologists. Digital mammograms and their associated information were collected from the department of radiology and pathology, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Thirteen pre-trained networks were selected and explored in this study. ResNet101V2 and ResNet152 had the highest mean PR-AUC, MobileNetV3Small and ResNet152 had the highest mean precision, ResNet101 had the highest mean F1 score, and ResNet152 and ResNet152V2 had the highest mean Youden J index. Subsequently, three ensemble models were developed using the top three pre-trained networks based on PR-AUC, precision, and F1 score. The final ensemble model had a mean precision, F1 score, and Youden J index of 0.82, 0.68, and 0.12, respectively. Additionally, the final model demonstrated a balanced performance across mammographic density. In conclusion, this study exhibited the good performance of the ensemble transfer learning on digital mammograms for the purpose of breast cancer risk estimation. This model can be utilised as a supplementary diagnostic tool for radiologists, thus, reducing their workloads.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: asian breast cancers; mammography screening; risk-based screening
Online: 4 August 2022 (06:20:25 CEST)
Close to half (45.4%) of 2.3 million breast cancers (BC) diagnosed in 2020 were from Asia. While the burden of breast cancer has been examined on the level of broad geographic regions, literature on more in-depth coverage of the individual countries and subregions of the Asian continent is lacking. This review examines the breast cancer burden in 47 Asian countries. Breast cancer screening guidelines and risk-based screening initiatives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0599.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: urbanization; urban greenspace; urban population; Xinjiang; central asian countries
Online: 10 October 2023 (07:54:21 CEST)
Central Asian countries are the core area of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). However, as part of the former Soviet Union, we know very little about the urbanization processes in these countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Here, were used land-cover type data, vegetation index data, and grided population data to quantify the urban expansion, urban population changes, and urban environment changes across cities in Central Asia from 2000 to 2020, and took Xinjiang, China as a reference. We found that the urbanization in the study area was uneven. Specifically, the urban expansion in Xinjiang, China and Kazakhstan was faster than in the other countries in the study area. Due to rapid urban expansion, the urban population density in Xinjiang, China decreased from 2000 to 2020, but rapid urban population growth was maintained. Consequently, the pressure of the urban population growth in Xinjiang, China was less than that in the other countries of Central Asia. On average, more than 35% of the urban built-up areas underwent significant greening in Xinjiang, China and more than 3.63 million residents directly benefited from the increase in urban greenness. Although the urban greenness in Xinjiang increased significantly, the overall greenness was still lower than in most cities in Central Asia. In the future, the cities in Xinjiang, China should continue to promote the construction of urban ecological civilization and strengthen their role as a link in the Belt and Road Initiative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: metabolic syndrome; diabetes; hypertension; obesity; frailty; older people; Asian
Online: 29 December 2021 (12:09:59 CET)
Background: There has been evidence that metabolic syndrome (MetS) may increase the risk of frailty. However, there is limited evidence on this association in Asian populations. Aims: This study aims to identify the association between MetS and frailty in older people in Vietnam. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a dataset obtained from an observational study on frailty and sarcopenia in patients aged ≥60 at a geriatric hospital in Vietnam. Frailty was defined by the frailty phenotype. Participants were defined as having MetS if they had ≥3 out of 5 criteria from the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adults Treatment Panel (ATP) III. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the risk of having frailty in patients with MetS. Results: There were 669 participants (mean age 71, 60.2% female), 62.3% had MetS and 39.0% was frail. The prevalence of frailty was 42.2% in participants with MetS, 33.7% in participants without MetS (p=0.029). On logistic regression models, MetS was associated with increased likelihood of being frail (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.28), allowing for age, sex, education, nutritional status, history of hospitalisation and chronic diseases. Conclusion: There was a significant association between MetS and frailty in this population. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm this association.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Asian tiger mosquito; eggs diapause; insecticides efficacy; mosquito control
Online: 10 August 2021 (08:13:40 CEST)
Aedes albopictus is an invasive mosquito species responsible for local transmission of chikungunya and dengue viruses in Europe. In the absence of available treatments, insecticides-based control is one of the most important viable strategies to prevent emerging problems. Diflubenzuron (DFB) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) are among the most commonly used larvicides for Ae. albopictus control which pose major concerns for potential resistance development. Studies on the resistance emergence of Ae. albopictus to both DFB and Bti and its persistence in the wild are essential for the efficient and sustainable planning of the control programs. In this concept, larvae from a recently laboratory established population were subjected to increasing selective pressure for nine successive generations against both DFB and Bti. At the end of this process, the resistance levels and the overwintering success of the selected populations relative to control (colonies that received no selection) were determined. Results revealed a substantial and a moderate increase on the resistance levels following selection with DFB and Bti respectively. Interestingly, the selection process to both larvicides had no apparent impacts on the overwintering capability relative to control suggesting the successful persistence of the resistant individuals in the wild from year to year.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Asian elephant; Elephas maximus; cannabidiol; cannabis; CBD; endocannabinoid system
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:59:03 CEST)
The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is one of the largest herbivore mammals in the world. A portion of the total elephant population is under human care, where health problems such as skin lesions and decreased appetite are reported. The objective of this study was to apply the therapeutic properties of cannabidiol (CBD) to aid treatment of palmar abscesses and a suboptimal food intake in a female Asian elephant in Mexico. A CBD-isolate compounded medication was administered orally at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. CBD administration showed positive effects such as reduction in abscess size, decreased food selectivity, increased food intake, weight gain and increased mobility. More research in elephants is needed to understand their cannabinoid pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and proposing a dosage range and therapeutic applications for this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0303.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chitin; Vespa velutina; Asian hornet; polymer; invasive species; insects
Online: 25 November 2019 (03:44:34 CET)
The isolation and characterization of chitin (CHI) obtained from Vespa velutina (CHIVV) is described. Moreover, a trapping procedure is presented to selectively catch the invasive species. The chitin contents of dry Vespa velutina was observed to be 11.7 %. The physicochemical properties of CHIVV was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solid-state NMR (ssNMR), elemental analysis (EA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Obtained CHIVV is close to pure (43, 47% C, 6.94% H, and 6.85% N) and full acetylated with a value of 95.44%. Also, lifetime and kinetic parameters such as activation E and the frequency factor A using model-free and model-fitting methods, were determined. For CHIVV the solid state mechanism that follows the thermodegradation is of type F2 (Random nucleation around two nuclei). Vespa velutina chitin should not be used at temperatures above 60ºC, since its half-life would be only one year, and from an industrial point of view it would not be profitable. Based on certain factors such as the current and probable continued abundance of Vespa velutina and the quality of the product obtained, the invasive Asian hornet is a promising alternative source of chitin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Asian Americans; child; diet; eating; feeding behavior; sodium, dietary
Online: 3 August 2018 (05:05:05 CEST)
Obesity has been identified as an emerging health concern for Chinese American children; however, very little is known about diets in Asian American children. The objective of our paper was to describe the dietary intakes of urban Chinese American schoolchildren using a state-of-the-art approach for dietary assessment. Data for this analysis come from the Food Journal Project 2017, a pilot and feasibility study conducted by a multi-sector collaboration. Children aged 8-12 (n=83) completed two dietary assessments using a food diary from January-June 2017. Children were then interviewed using the food diary as a guide and dietary data were entered into the online ASA24 system by study staff. Chinese American children were identified using surname, and were compared to non-Chinese peers with respect to nutrient intake and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Chinese American children consumed more sodium dense diets, more protein, and less sugar compared to non-Chinese children. With regards to the HEI-2010, Chinese American children had less favorable whole grains and sodium scores; and more favorable seafood protein and empty calories scores compared to non-Chinese children. Sodium reduction and increasing whole grain intakes may be warranted in this group, but should be verified with additional studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0506.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Afro-Asian interactions, Asian Latin American literature and characters, Sanfancón, china mulata, “magical negro,” chinos mambises, Brazil, Cuba, transculturation, discourse of mestizaje
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:38:04 CEST)
This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean), which, under the guise of incorporating the Other, favored whiteness, all the while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Asian seabass; Streptococcosis; Columnaris; Bivalent nanovaccines; Immune responses; Disease resistance
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:14:52 CET)
In the present study, bivalent nanovaccines of S. iniae and F. covae were administered by immersion vaccination at 30 and 40 days after hatching (DAH), and the third vaccination was orally administered by feeding at 50 DAH. Five different groups were designed: group 1 was set as the control group, and groups 2-4 were vaccinated using the same protocols. ELISA revealed that the levels of total IgM and specific IgM to S. iniae, and F. covae were significantly elevated in groups 2-4 at 10, 20, and 30 days after vaccination (DAV). A qRT‒PCR analysis of immune-related genes revealed significantly higher IgT expression in the vaccinated groups compared with the control group, as revealed by 44-100-fold changes in the vaccinated groups compared with the control (p < 0.001) at every tested time point after vaccination. All vaccinated groups expressed IgM, MHCIIα and TCRα at significantly higher levels than the control group at 10 and/or 20 DAV (p < 0.05). In the S. iniae challenge tests, the survival of vaccinated groups 2-4 ranged from 62.15 ± 2.11 to 75.70 ± 3.36%, which significantly differed from that of the control group (44.44 ± 1.92%). Similarly, all vaccinated groups showed higher survival rates of 68.89 ± 3.85 to 77.78 ± 5.09% during F. covae challenge than the control groups (50.00 ± 3.33%) (p < 0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: arboviruses; dengue virus serotype 2; cosmopolitan genotype; asian-american genotype
Online: 8 November 2023 (15:42:03 CET)
Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) is responsible for dengue epidemics on a global scale and is recognized for being associated with severe cases of the disease. This study conducted the phylogenetic investigation of DENV-2 in the Northern region of Brazil. DENV-2 isolates from 2017 to 2021, originating from Northern Brazilian states, were selected. Only one lineage (I) of the Asian-American genotype and one lineage (5) of the cosmopolitan genotype were observed. All sequences of the Asian-American genotype used in this study were segregated into a paraphyletic subgroup aligned with sequences from an American clade. These results indicate a probable geographic link starting from Puerto Rico. Additionally, sequences from Acre were identified and grouped into a monophyletic clade of the cosmopolitan genotype. These results indicate the cocirculation of two DENV-2 distinct lineages: Lineage 1, Asian-American genotype (probable origin from Puerto Rico); Lineage 5, cosmopolitan genotype (probable origin from Peru). Our results provide important data regarding the study of DENV genotypes and lineages distribution, as well as opening up possibilities for probable introduction and dissemination routes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2064.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Trends; diversity; cardiovascular disease (CVD); mortality; risk factors; Asian countries
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:17:21 CEST)
We explored the trends and the diversity of the mortality and risk factors of age-standardized cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBD) from 2000 to 2020 in five advanced Asian countries, including China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report. Overall, the CVD mortality rates decreased gradually in all five Asian countries. Singapore had the highest rates before 2011, but Taiwan replaced Singapore as the nation of the highest mortality rates after 2012. Additionally, South Korea had the highest CBD mortality rates before 2016, while Taiwan experienced a peak in 2011 and remained high thereafter. The absolute difference (AD) and relative difference (RD) for CVD mortality rates showed clear declining trends in all five countries, with South Korea and China displaying the highest reductions, respectively. It is noteworthy that overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend in all these five Asian countries, with China demonstrating the highest AD and RD. Except for Taiwan, where a negative association of r=-0.732 was observed, CVD mortality was positively associated with CBD, hypertension, and DM mortality in all other four countries, therefore, further investigation into these relationships are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0186.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: screening model; breast cancer; explainable model; machine learning; Asian women
Online: 13 June 2022 (11:06:10 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the feasibility of the development of an over-the-counter (OTC) screening model using machine learning for breast cancer screening in the Asian women population. Data were retrospectively collected from women who came to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Five screening models were developed based on machine learning methods; random forest, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), elastic-net logistic regression and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Features used for the development of the screening models were limited to information from the patients’ registration form. The model performance was assessed across the dense and non-dense groups. SVM had the best sensitivity while elastic-net logistic regression had the best specificity. In terms of precision, both random forest elastic-net logistic regression had the best performance, while, in terms of PR-AUC, XGBoost had the best performance. Additionally, SVM had a more balanced performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity across the mammographic density groups. The three most important features were age at examination, weight and number of children. In conclusion, OTC models developed from machine learning methods can improve the prognostic process of breast cancer in Asian women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0387.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Asian longhorned tick; Haemaphysalis longicornis; Bourbon virus; Emerging arbovirus; Virginia
Online: 30 March 2022 (08:24:04 CEST)
Haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann, 1901) (Acari: Ixodidae), the Asian longhorned tick, is an invasive tick species present in the USA since at least 2017 and has been detected in one-third of Virginia counties. While this species is associated with the transmission of multiple pathogens in its native geographical range of eastern Asia, little is known about its ability to acquire and transmit pathogens in the USA, specifically those that are transmissible to humans, although from an animal health perspective it has already been shown to vector Theileria orientalis Ikeda strains. Emerging tick-borne viruses such as Bourbon virus (genus: Thogotovirus) are of concern as these newly discovered pathogenic agents have caused fatal clinical cases, and little is known about their distribution or enzootic maintenance. This study examined H. longicornis collected within Virginia (from ten counties) for Bourbon and Heartland virus using PCR methods. All ticks tested negative for Heartland virus via qRT-PCR. Bourbon virus-positive samples were confirmed on two different gene targets, and with Sanger sequencing of the PB2 (segment 1) gene. Bourbon virus RNA was detected in one nymphal stage H. longicornis from Patrick County, one nymph from Staunton City, one larval pool and one adult female tick from Wythe County, Virginia. An additional 100 Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus 1758; lone star tick) collected at the same Patrick County site revealed one positive nymphal pool, suggesting that Bourbon virus may have spilled over from the native vector, potentially by co-feeding on a shared Bourbon virus-infected vertebrate host. Blood tested from local harvested deer revealed a 12.0% antibody seroprevalence against Bourbon virus, exposure which further corroborates that this tick-borne virus is circulating in the Southwest Virginia region. Through these results it can be concluded that H. longicornis can carry Bourbon virus and that pathogen spillover may occur from native to invasive tick species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0548.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Huanglongbing, Candidatus Liberibacter, Asian citrus psyllid, blotchy mottle, visual symptoms
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
Citrus Greening, which is mainly caused by bacteria, is one of the severe citrus diseases affecting all citrus cultivars and causing the deliberate abolition of trees worldwide. This infectious disease cannot be spread by wind, rain, or contact by contaminated personnel. The primary vector that spreads this disease through feeding citrus leaves is the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), a minuscule insect. The management of citrus greening is also very costly as there is no fruitful technique is developed to cure this disease except removing all infected plants from good ones to eliminate the dissemination of the pathogen. Citrus greening identification is also the most difficult job, as the symptoms are similar to other citrus diseases and nutrient deficiency. Asymmetrical blotchy mottling patterns on leaves are the main symptoms to detect this disease. Here we have discussed some visual signs of citrus greening, which will ultimately help root level farmers to identify and prevent this disease before it drastically impacts citrus plants. Whether it is affected by citrus greening or lack of nutrients, we have also discussed the pen test method of determining the symptoms as symmetrical or asymmetrical across the mid-vein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0629.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: liquidity synchronization; liquidity risk; economic growth volatility; emerging Asian economies
Online: 24 December 2020 (14:01:35 CET)
This study investigates the country level determinants of liquidity synchronization and degrees of liquidity synchronization during economic growth volatility. As a non-diversifiable risk factor, liquidity co-movement shock spreads market wide and thus disrupts the overall functioning of the financial market. Firms in Asian markets operate in legal and regulatory environments distinct from those of firms analyzed in the previous literature. Comprehensive analyses of liquidity synchronicity in emerging markets are limited. A major knowledge gap pertaining to Asian emerging markets serves as the primary motivation for this study. Seven Asian emerging economies are selected from the MSCI emerging market index: Bangladesh, China, India, Indo-nesia, Malaysia, Pakistan and the Philippines for analysis from 2010 to 2019. The empirical findings show high levels of liquidity synchronicity in weaker economic and financial environments with low GDP growth, high inflation and interest rates and underdeveloped financial systems taking the form of low levels of private credit. Liquidity synchronicity is also affected by poor investor protection, political instability, weak rule of law and government ineffectiveness. Moreover, levels of liquidity synchronicity are higher in period of economic growth volatility.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: crude oil; East Asian stock markets; wavelet; copula; dynamic hedging
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:28:25 CET)
This paper examines the dynamic dependence structure of crude oil and East Asian stock markets at multiple frequencies using wavelet and copulas. We also investigate risk management implications and diversification benefits of oil-stock portfolios by calculating and comparing risk and tail risk hedging performance. Our results provide strong evidence of time-varying dependence and asymmetric tail dependence between crude oil and East Asian stock markets at different frequencies. The level and fluctuation of their dependencies increase as time scale increases. Furthermore, we find the time-varying hedging benefits differ at investment horizons and reduced over the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0142.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Air pollution, PM2.5, emergency room, Asian dust storms, case-crossover
Online: 17 March 2017 (18:13:31 CET)
A case-crossover study examined how PM2.5 from Asian Dust Storms (ADS) affects the number of emergency room (ER) admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and respiratory diseases (RDs). Our data indicated that PM2.5 concentration from ADS was highly correlated with ER visits for CVDs and RDs. The odds ratios (OR) increased by 2.92 (95% CI: 1.22-5.08) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.30-2.91) per increase 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 levels, for CVDs and RDs, respectively. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 from ADSs was significantly associated with increase in ER visits for CVDs among those 65 years of age and older (an increase of 2.77 in OR) and for females (an increase of 3.09 in OR). In contrast, PM2.5 levels had a significant impact on RD ER visits among those under 65 years of age (OR=1.77). The risk of ER visits for CVDs increased on the day when the ADS occurred in Taiwan and the day after (lag 0 and lag 1); the corresponding risk increase for RDs only increased on the fifth day after the ADS (lag 5). In Taiwan’s late winter and spring, the severity of ER visits for CVDs and RDs increases. Environmental protection agencies should employ an early warning system for ADS to reduce high-risk groups’ exposure to PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: South Asian monsoon; rainy season, TIMESAT, APSIM, crop modeling, climate adaptation
Online: 3 November 2022 (09:24:42 CET)
The rice-wheat rotation is the dominant cropping system in Bihar, where food security of the rural population depends heavily on the production of rice and wheat. In Bihar, climatic shocks induced by low temperatures and terminal heat stress can significantly affect rice and wheat yields. The present work evaluates the benefit of using the monsoon onset as the date for planting rice in reducing thermal stress on rice-wheat systems. High-resolution gridded crop simulations using the APSIM model were performed to simulate potential yields of rice and wheat using the monsoon onset and the farmers’ practice as planting dates. The monsoon onset was calculated using an agronomic definition and farmers’ practice dates were estimated using satellite data. Model outputs were analyzed in terms of planting dates, yields, and the incidence of low temperature stress on rice and high temperature stress on wheat by means of the APSIM yields limiting factors. The results show that the rice planting and harvest dates using the monsoon onset are in general 20-30 days earlier, decreasing the incidence of thermal stress in rice and wheat, and generating higher and more stable yields. These results can help design mitigation strategies for the impacts of climate shocks induced by low and high temperature events in the context of the advances in sub-seasonal and seasonal forecasting, targeting climate services for farmers in Bihar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0358.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Asian elephant; MaxEnt; habitat suitability; protected area; climate change; human footprint
Online: 28 February 2022 (12:00:28 CET)
The reduction of biodiversity loss is one of the targets of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The protection of endangered species is critical for conserving global biodiversity. Asian elephants，as one of the last few mega-herbivores on Earth, are currently threatened by climate changes and anthropogenic modifications. The modelling of their living habitats is of top priority to the conservation of Asian elephant. In this study, we used the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to identify the current and potential future habitats of Asian elephants in South and Southeast Asia. We performed analyses for future projections with 17 scenarios by using the present results as baseline. To optimise the modelling results, we delineated the core habitats by using the Core Mapper Tool and compared them with existing protected areas (PAs) through gap analysis. The results showed that the current total area of core habitats is 491,455 km2 in size and will be reduced to 332,544 km2 by 2090 under SSP585 (the shared socioeconomic pathway). The projection analysis under differential scenarios suggested that most of the core habitats in the current protected areas would remain stable and suitable for elephants in the future. However, the remaining 75.17% of the core habitats lay outside the current PAs, and finally we mapped approximately 219,545 km2 of suitable habitats as priority protected areas in the future. Although our model did not perform well in some regions, our analyses and findings still could provide useful references to the planning of protected areas and conservation of Asian elephant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0314.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Asian hornet; Vespa velutina; Venom; Electrical; Stimulation; Allergy; Stings; Invasive species
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:38:04 CET)
The yellow-legged Asian hornet (Vespa velutina Lepeletier 1836 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)) is naturally distributed in China, Southeast Asia and India; however it has since detected outside of its native area, confirmed as being established in South Korea, Europe and Japan. Health risks and deaths caused by the invasive Vespa velutina stings have become a public health concern, being the most common cause of anaphylaxis due to hymenopterans in some European regions. This in turn has led to increased demand from medical practitioners and researchers for Vespa velutina venom for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this study, a straightforward, quick and inexpensive method for obtaining Vespa velutina venom by electric stimulation is described. The venom extracts were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), confirming the composition of the obtained material. The availability of Vespa velutina venom will lead to improved diagnostic and therapeutic methods, mainly by venom immunotherapy (VIT), in patients allergic to this invasive species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0339.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Asian tiger mosquito; feeding pattern; minimum infection rate; emerging arboviruses; dengue virus
Online: 30 September 2021 (11:48:25 CEST)
Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is a mosquito native to Southeast Asia. Currently, it has a wide distribution in America where natural infection with arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance has been reported. In spite of their importance in the transmission of endemic arbovirus, basic information of parameters affecting their vectorial capacity is poorly investigated. The aim of the work was to update the distribution range of Ae. albopictus in the Americas, review the blood-feeding patterns and compare the minimum infection rate (MIR) of the dengue virus (DENV) between studies of vertical and horizontal transmission. The current distribution of Ae. albopictus encompasses 21 countries in the Americas. Extensive review has been conducted for the blood-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus. The results suggest that the mosquito is capable of feeding on 16 species of mammals and five species of avian. Humans, dogs, and rats are the most common host. Eight arboviruses with the potential to infect humans and animals have been isolated in Ae. albopictus. In the United States of America (USA), Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, La Crosse Virus, West Nile virus, and Cache Valley virus were isolated in the Asian mosquito. In Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Costa Rica, DENV (all serotypes) has been frequently identified in field-caught Ae. albopictus. Overall, the estimated MIR in Ae. albopictus infected with DENV is similar between horizontal (10.95) and vertical transmission (8.28). However, in vertical transmission, there is a difference in the MIR values if the DENV is identified from larvae or adults (males and females emerged from a collection of eggs or larvae). MIR estimated from larvae is 14.04 and in adults is 4.04. In conclusion, it has to be highlighted that Ae. albopictus is an invasive mosquito with wide phenotypic plasticity to adapt to broad and new areas, it is highly efficient to transmit the DENV horizontally and vertically, it can participate in the inter-endemic transmission of the dengue disease, and it can spread zoonotic arboviruses across forest and urban settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Asian tiger mosquito; feeding pattern; minimum infection rate; emerging arboviruses; dengue virus
Online: 7 September 2021 (10:38:13 CEST)
The aim of the work was to update the distribution range of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse in the Americas, review the blood-feeding patterns and compare the minimum infection rate (MIR) of the dengue virus (DENV) between studies of vertical and horizontal transmission. The current dis-tribution of Ae. albopictus encompasses 21 countries in the Americas. Extensive review has been conducted for the blood-feeding patterns of Ae. albopictus. The results suggest that the mosquito is capable of feeding on 16 species of mammals and five species of avian. Humans, dogs, and rats are the most common host. Eight arboviruses with the potential to infect humans and animals have been isolated in Ae. albopictus. In the United States of America (USA), Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Keystone virus, La Crosse Virus, West Nile virus, and Cache Valley virus were isolated in the Asian mosquito. In Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, and Costa Rica, DENV (all serotypes) has been frequently identified in field-caught Ae. albopictus. Overall, the estimated MIR in Ae. albopictus infected with DENV is similar between horizontal (10.95) and vertical transmission (8.28). However, in vertical transmission, there is a difference in the MIR values if the DENV is identified from larvae or adults (males and females emerged from a collection of eggs or larvae). MIR es-timated from larvae is 14.04 and in adults is 4.04. In conclusion, it has to be highlighted that Ae. albopictus is an invasive mosquito with wide phenotypic plasticity to adapt to broad and new areas, it is highly efficient to transmit the DENV horizontally and vertically, it can participate in the inter-endemic transmission of the dengue disease, and it can spread zoonotic arboviruses across forest and urban settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0500.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: East Asian summer monsoon, Seasonal prediction, dynamic prediction, summer rainfall prediction, NESM3.0, ENSO teleconnection
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:42:45 CEST)
It has been an outstanding challenge for global climate models to simulate and predict East Asia (EA) summer monsoon (EASM) rainfall. This study evaluates the dynamical hindcast skills with the newly developed Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology Earth System Model version 3.0 (NESM3.0). To improve the poor prediction of an earlier version of NESM3.0, we have modified convective parameterization schemes to suppress excessive deep convection and enhance insufficient shallow and stratiform clouds. The new version of NESM3.0 with modified parameterizations (MOD hereafter) yields significantly improved rainfall prediction in the northern and southern China but not over the Yangtze River Valley. The improved prediction is primarily attributed to the improvements in the predicted climatological summer mean rainfall and circulations, seasonal march of the subtropical rain belt, Nino 3.4 SST anomaly, and the rainfall anomalies associated with the development and decay of El Nino events. However, the MOD still has notable biases in the predicted leading mode of interannual variability of precipitation. The leading mode captures the dry (wet) anomalies over the South China Sea (northern EA) but misplaced precipitation anomalies over the Yangtze River Valley. The model can capture the interannual variation of the circulation indices very well, but the bias in the circulation-rainfall connection caused predicted rainfall errors. The results here suggest that over EA land regions, the skillful rainfall prediction relies on not only model’s capability in predicting better summer mean and seasonal march of rainfall and ENSO teleconnection with EASM, but also accurate prediction of the leading modes of interannual variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: asian sand dust; in utero exposure; secondary sex ratio; male reproduction; daily sperm production
Online: 20 September 2016 (11:39:47 CEST)
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproductive function in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproductive function have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproductive function in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproductive function of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproductive function of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0254.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Korean Heritage; Asian Architecture; Tadao Ando; Hypogeal Chambers; Architectural Proportions; Ashlar Construction; Innovative Architectural Projects.
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:23:12 CET)
The purpose of this article is to disclose the architectural proportions and nature of the Korean national treasure in Seokguram Grotto, Gyeongju. The authors compare its features with those of other ancient hypogeal or ashlar constructions and intend to rediscover its relevant hidden configuration and latent structural properties to show its uniqueness. The methods employed in the research belong initially to architectural design and composition to advance at a later stage, into the nuances of stone masonry, lighting effects or cohesive construction. In this discussion and thorough analysis, different philosophical and scientific subtleties come afloat. The results demonstrate a significant potential capable to be applied in part to recent architectural developments like Tadao Ando’s Buddha Hill in Hokkaido (2017) and the authors’ own project for a Buddhist monument.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Asian citrus psyllid; citrus greening bacterium; huanglongbing; transcriptomics; virus-vector relationship; vitellogenin; cytoskeleton; endocytotic pathway
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:03:45 CEST)
Citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) limits the citrus production worldwide. CLas is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in a persistent-propagative manner. Application of insecticides to manage the psyllid vectors and disease is the most common practice. Understanding the molecular interaction between CLas and ACP and interrupting the interrelationship can provide an alternative to insecticides for managing citrus greening disease. Transcriptome analysis of ACP in response to CLas showed differential expression of 3911 genes (2196 up-regulated, and 1715 down-regulated) including the key genes of ACP involved in cytoskeleton synthesis and nutrition-related proteins. Majority of the differentially expressed genes were categorized under molecular function followed by cellular components and biological processes. KEGG pathway analysis showed differential regulation of carbohydrate, nucleotide and energy metabolic pathways, the endocytotic pathway and the defense-related pathways. Differential regulation of genes associated with the key pathways might favors CLas to become systemic and propagate in its insect vector. The study provides an understanding of genes involved in circulation of CLas in ACP. The candidate genes involved in key physiological processes and CLas transmission by ACP would be potential targets for sustainable management of ACP and CLas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0044.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: proinflammatory cytokine; interleukin-8; asian seabass; Streptococcus iniae; Flavobacterium covae; antimicrobial activity
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:39:33 CET)
Using qRT-PCR analysis, the LcIL-8 expression level indicated broad expression in most detected tissues, with the most predominant expression in whole blood at 6 to 24 h after infection with S. iniae at concentrations of 105 colony-forming unit (CFU)/fish (p < 0.05). After immersion with F. covae, the LcIL-8 transcript was upregulated in the gills, liver and intestine, with the highest expression level found in the gills. However, LcIL-8 was downregulated in all tested tissues at 48 and 96 h after infection with the two pathogenic strains, indicating that Lc-IL8 has a short half-life during the early immune responses to pathogens. MIC analysis of rLcIL-8 protein against S. iniae was 10.42 ± 3.61 µg/mL. Furthermore, the functional analyses clearly demonstrated that 10 and 100 µg of rLcIL-8 protein efficiently enhanced the phagocytic activity of Asian seabass phagocytes in vitro (p < 0.05). Additionally, in vivo injection of S. iniae following the rLcIL-8 protein indicated that 50 and 100 µg of rLc-IL-8 were highly effective in protecting fish from the tested pathogen (p < 0.001). These results indicate that rLcIL-8 plays a crucial role in the defense mechanisms against bacterial infections in the target fish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0096.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; ZIKV; Rhesus macaques; Non-human primates; NHP; infection; natural history; Asian-lineage; African-lineage
Online: 9 April 2018 (03:53:26 CEST)
The establishment of a well characterized non-human primate model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is critical for the development of medical interventions. In this study, challenging Indian rhesus macaques (IRMs) with ZIKV strains of the Asian lineage resulted in dose dependent peak viral loads between days 2 and 5 post infection; and a robust immune response which protected the animals from homologous and heterologous re-challenge. In contrast, viremia in IRMs challenged with an African lineage strain was below the assays lower limit of quantitation and the immune response was insufficient to protect from re-challenge. These results corroborate previous observations but are contrary to reports using other African strains obviating the need for additional studies to elucidate the variables contributing to the disparities. Nonetheless, the utility of an Asian lineage ZIKV IRM model for countermeasures development was verified by vaccinating animals with a formalin inactivated reference vaccine and demonstrating sterilizing immunity against a subsequent subcutaneous challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Asian weaver ants; arboreal dominance; Elaeis guineensis; spatial distribution; ecosystem service; biological control agent; novel nesting behavior
Online: 5 April 2023 (11:14:28 CEST)
The Asian weaver ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) is a natural enemy, generalist predator of diverse major pest species (i.e. the highly destructive oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis) in economically strategic agricultural landscapes in Australia and Southeast Asia countries. For effective implementation of the weaver ant for biological control of the invasive bagworms Metisa plana, the dominant pest in the oil palm plantation, its distribution was investigated in Malaysia. From 2018-2022, censuses were first carried out to record Oecophylla colonies presence. Oecophylla colonies’ occupation patterns were monitored on 8 selected plantations. To distinguish between brood and barracks nests, 26 captured nests were evaluated to define the main predictor variable for its practical visual identification. More than 11000 palms with 10821 nests for over 500 colonies were sampled in this study. Results showed that O. smaragdina colonies distribution pattern exhibited three-dimensional ubiquitous occupation dominance. We also found that by observing the colony’s dense population spatial arrangements, it demonstrates them as spreading by waves featuring interconnected irregular geometrical patches shaped for each colony. The height to the ground nest location in palm canopies was the significant visual discriminant factor between Brood and barrack nests. Moreover, polydomous arboreal nesting behavior occupation occurred irrespective of palms or associated host plants sizes (≥ 3 m), throughout the year. However, colony nesting behaviors were polydomous and monodomous on shorter plants (≥ 2 m), while being strictly monodomous on small plants (≤ 1.5 m). Colonies occupied an average 3 to 4 palms yearly beginning from the newly founding phase up to the stable mature phase (3 to 4 years). Furthermore, we found that matured stable colonies (3 ≥ age ≥13) occupied 10-12 palms on average, on 800 m2 to 2500 m2 area delimited by a minimum average 20 m2 of “no ants land” zone between each colony. Our results suggest that a sustained agriculture system in this area would be possible with the presence of matured colonies nests exploitation which could provide an efficient biological control ecosystem service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0488.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Modern Architecture in East Asia; Architectural Design; Laszlo Hudec; Antonin Raymond; Innovative Architectural Projects. Space Syntax. Asian traditions.
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:07:36 CET)
The purpose of this article is to disclose the strenuous efforts of Laszlo Hudec in China and Antonin Raymond in Japan and India to create a modern architectural stance by heralding an incipient space syntax. In the turn of the 19th Century, for dynastic, politic and economic reasons, Eastern Asia had very little modern Architecture. It is a surprising fact that, out of happenstance, two European architects Antonin Raymond and Laszlo Hudec, had to intervene to remedy this situation, to the point of becoming 20th Century icons in Japan and China. Their fruitful careers spanned over thirty years and included locations, like Tamil Nadu or the Philippines. The Oriental territories were not an easy ground for the bold architectural achievements that they produced. Despite of faraway strangeness and uncountable personal losses, in revolutions and wars, which eventually forced them both to leave for the United States of America and never to return, they were successful in the manner of establishing a broad avenue for Modern Asian Architecture which is still recognisable today thanks to their systematic approach. However, theirs is an endangered heritage and the intention of this article is to be a just remembrance of in which way such actions could be performed, how they predated by many years a syntactic approach to architectural composition and why their legacy should be preserved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0040.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Asian monsoon; black carbon; long-range transport; land and sea breeze; sulfate; surface area; surface coating of particles
Online: 8 June 2017 (08:26:27 CEST)
Observation of the ambient aerosol surface area concentrations is important to understand the aerosol toxicity because an increased surface area may be able to act as an enhanced reaction interface for certain reactions between aerosol particles and biological cells, as well as an augmented carrier surface for co-pollutants. In this study, the concentration of aerosol surface area was measured from April 2015 to March 2016 in Fukuoka, Japan. We investigated the monthly and diurnal variations in the correlations between the aerosol surface area and black carbon (BC) and sulfate concentrations. Throughout the year, aerosol surface area concentration was strongly correlated with the concentrations of BC, which has relatively large surface area since BC particles are usually submicron agglomerates consisting of much smaller (tens of nanometers) sized primary soot particles. The slopes of the regression between the aerosol surface area and BC concentrations was highest in August and September 2015. This appears to have been the results of an increase in the proportion of the airmass that originated on the main islands of Japan. This may enhance the introduction of the BC from the main islands of Japan that is relatively fresh (or “uncoated”), thereby maintaining its larger surface area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1376.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: automotive industry; changes in supply chains; counteracting the effects of COVID-19; operational and strategic decisions to abandon Asian suppliers
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:45:19 CET)
The purpose of this article is to present the COVID-19 pandemic disruptions occurring in the supply chain of automotive companies, taking into account the type of business. The specific objectives are: to identify and characterise the types of enterprises operating in automotive supply chains, to identify changes during the pandemic in automotive enterprises, depending on the type of activity, to show disruptions in automotive supply chains and ways to counteract these disadvantages depending on the type of activity. Automotive enterprises operating in Poland were selected for the study purposefully. A random selection method was used to select 500 automotive companies for the study. The data sources were surveys conducted in June 2023 among 500 enterprises in the form of a face-to-face telephone interview. Automotive companies experienced supply chain disruptions, regardless of the type of business. Most often, these were caused by lockdowns and official closures, low stocks of materials and products, and problems with employees. There was no difference by type of business. Disruptions were most often short-lived, up to 1 year. Companies countered disruptions by using mostly operational measures, which were short-lived. Only a small percentage of operators made strategic decisions and countered disruptions over a longer period. The scale of these actions was greater among manufacturers than among dealers and car service companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0318.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment; Mahāpratisarā; dhāraṇī; Buddhism; practice; amulet; early Korea; Silla; pagoda; tomb; cross-cultural practice; inter-Asian interconnection
Online: 20 February 2023 (04:15:58 CET)
Through an investigation of recently discovered Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment amulets from the Silla kingdom, this paper reveals that early Korea had more diverse forms of dhāraṇī practices than previously assumed. This paper’s analysis of these amulets from Korea contributes toward filling the gap in our current understanding of the material practice pertaining to the Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment widely practiced in medieval East Asia. Based on an interdisciplinary analysis of the two amulet sheets of the Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment from Silla, this paper explored hitherto unknown aspects of early Korean dhāraṇī practice. Previously, the only material dhāraṇī practice in early Korea was thought to be the enshrinement of textual relics in pagodas based on the Pure Light Incantation, which has little connection to contemporaneous Chinese dhāraṇī practice. However, the newly discovered Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment amulets, whose date this paper inferred to be between the eighth and ninth century, show that the Unified Silla also had a dhāraṇī practice closely linked to the Chinese practice. However, unlike the Chinese Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment amulets that were buried in tombs, the Silla amulets were likely enshrined in one of the pagodas erected on Mount Nam, Gyeongju. At the same time, the Silla epigraph from Myogilsang Pagoda at Haeinsa shows that the Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment was placed in the pagoda so as to wish for good afterlives of the soldiers who died at the battle, suggesting that placing the Incantation of Wish-Fulfillment in a pagoda had a function similar to that of burying the Chinese amulet in the tomb.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0097.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: planar Brownian motion; complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes; Lévy~processes; Stable processes; windings; skew-product representation; Spitzer's Theorem; Bougerol's identity; Asian options; pricing
Online: 24 October 2016 (04:57:32 CEST)
Motivated by a common Mathematical Finance topic, this paper surveys several results concerning windings of 2-dimensional processes, including planar Brownian motion, complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes and planar stable processes. In particular, we present Spitzer's asymptotic Theorem for each case. We also relate this study to the pricing of Asian options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0236.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Inclusive growth; economic; environmental; and social indicators; asian cooperation dialogue; Driscoll Kraay’s standard errors regression; fishery and aquaculture production; tradeoffs between development and sustainability; renewable energy utilization
Online: 3 November 2023 (14:44:59 CET)
This study investigates how a range of economic, environmental, and social indicators have influenced the concept of inclusive growth in 19 member countries of the Asian Cooperation Dialogue over the period spanning from 1995 to 2021. To analyze these relationships, the research employs the Driscoll Kraay's Standard Errors regression technique, designed to account for factors such as cross-sectional dependence, hetero-scedasticity, and autocorrelation within the data. Furthermore, various preliminary tests were conducted to assess the data for cross-sectional dependence, slope heterogeneity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation. Additionally, the Westerlund cointegration test was employed to evaluate the potential long-term equilibrium relationships among the variables. The findings reveal that the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable, which in this case is the level of inclusive growth (ING), differs significantly among three distinct income categories: lower-middle-income countries (LMYCs), upper-middle-income countries (UMYCs), and high-income countries (HYCs). Notably, the results underscore the overall statistical significance and robust fit of the regression model for all three income groups. One of the primary contribu-tions of this research is the provision of empirical evidence concerning the role played by fishery and aquaculture production in fostering inclu-sive growth in the Asian context. This research also highlights the trade-offs between economic development and environmental sustainability in terms of trade openness, agriculture, forestry and fishing, ecological footprint, and renewable energy utilization. Enhancing inclusive growth in Asia requires improving fishery and aquaculture management, diversifying economic activities, reducing ecological footprint, and increasing renewable energy utilization. The paper suggests some future work directions for extending the analysis to other regions and indicators, as well as incorporating dynamic panel data models and causality tests. The paper also suggests some policy implications for fostering inclusive growth in Asia through regional cooperation, capacity building, technology transfer and green financing.