REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node dissection; lymphadenectomy; radical prostatectomy
Online: 16 March 2022 (02:24:15 CET)
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on lymph node dissection (LND) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite a growing body of evidence, utility, therapeutic and prognostic value of such approach as well as optimal extent of LND, remain unsolved issues. Although LND is the most accurate staging procedure, the direct therapeutic effect is still not evident from the current literature which limits the possibility of establishing clear recommendations. This indicates the need for further robust and adequately designed high quality clinical trials.