REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: metabolic syndrome; caffeinated coffee; decaffeinated coffee; green coffee extract; chlorogenic acid
Online: 4 August 2021 (22:04:19 CEST)
Coffee is rich in phenolic acids, such as caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid (CGA). Polyphenol-rich diets have been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome (MeTS). Background and Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis discusses the effects of coffee consumption and its dose-response on MeTS parameters. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Scopus® were searched for relevant articles published between 2015 and 2020. This review focused on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of coffee consumption on anthropometric measurements, glycaemic indices, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Data from relevant studies were extracted and analysed using random, fixed, or pooled effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Green coffee extract (GCE) supplementation (180 to 376 mg) was found to reduce waist circumference (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.39; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.10), triglyceride levels (WMD = -0.27; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.10), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (WMD = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.90), systolic blood pressure (WMD = -0.44; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.32), and diastolic blood pressure (WMD = -0.83; 95% CI: -1.40, -0.26). Decaffeinated coffee (510.6 mg) reduced the fasting blood glucose levels (WMD = -0.81; 95% CI: -1.65, 0.03). The meta-analysis showed that the intake of GCE containing 180 to 376 mg of CGA (administered in a capsule) and liquid decaffeinated coffee containing 510.6 mg of CGA improved the MeTS outcomes in study participants. Conclusions: The findings of the review suggested that the effect of coffee on MeTS parameters varies depending on the types and doses of coffee administered. A more detailed RCT on specific coffee doses (with adjustment for energy and polyphenol intake) and physical activity is needed to further confirm the observed outcomes.