ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0322.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Coffee arabica; Hypothenemus hampe; baited traps; IPM
Online: 12 April 2021 (21:06:14 CEST)
The coffee industry loses millions of dollars annually worldwide due to the Coffee Berry Borer (CBB); these losses imply a decrease in quality and production. Traps are used to monitor their flight and for pest control. The main objective was to determine the flight pattern and trap capture percentages of the CBB population over time using column traps (CTs) in two independent field experiments. CTs were composed of four traps installed at four different heights 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5m above ground. Our results demonstrated a significant difference in CBB capture by traps placed at different heights above the ground. The CT capture maintained a pattern throughout this study's lag; the lower the height, the greater the percentage of CBBs captured. In Experiments A and B, the traps placed at 0.5m caught 67% and 85% of the CBBs captured, respectively. Furthermore, the trap set at 1.5m above the ground in the multi-level CT showed a higher capture percentage than the individually placed trap (also at 1.5m). The pattern of the capture and proportion of the CBB in the CTs were maintained throughout the study despite the season, changes in temperature, and relative air humidity. We suggested that CTs could be explored as a useful tool for capturing the CBB, considering its monitoring and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0254.v1
Online: 15 May 2020 (10:22:59 CEST)
In addition to being a source of freshener, coffee has an enormous possibility to be developed as a source of antioxidants for functional beverages. However, efforts to increase the value added of coffee as a health functional drink are still hindered by the presence of high level of caffeine, which is thought to have adverse effects on health, especially for coffee lovers who are vulnerable to caffeine. This study aims to optimise the steaming duration to produce low caffeine coffee while maintaining the sensory attributes and antioxidant compounds contained in it. Indonesian Arabica (Leksana variety) green coffee beans were steamed with multi-level steaming durations (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) followed by roasting (medium-dark roast degree), grinding, and brewing (espresso method). The results indicate that caffeine content in the coffee was inversely proportional to the steaming duration. The lowest caffeine content was obtained from the treatment of 80 min steaming with a decrease of caffeine level up to 28.73%. However, the longer process of steaming caused a significant decrease in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The hedonic test shows that the steaming treatment of coffee can increase preferences of panellists. There were two driving attributes that influence the overall liking of coffee, namely: bitterness and aftertaste. Coffee obtained from the treatment of 60 min steaming was most preferred by panellists. The results of APLSR biplot mapping show that there was a big change in almost all attributes in the coffee samples after 40 min steaming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Coffea arabica; antioxidant; acetylcholinesterase inhibition; catalepsy; unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion; caffeine
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:22:27 CEST)
Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse correlation between coffee consumption and the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of caffeine and roasting degree are still matter of debate. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated (light, medium, and dark roast) and decaffeinated instant coffee samples in acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant assays, as well as in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Caffeinated coffees inhibited the acetylcholinesterase in much smaller concentrations than decaffeinated coffee. All coffee samples showed antioxidant capacity without relation with the caffeine content. Dopaminergic-like activity in the haloperidol-induced catalepsy test was observed with caffeinated coffee, but not in the decaffeinated sample. The medium roast coffee reduced the number of rotations of rats after methamphetamine administration on the 6-hydroxydopamine unilateral lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. However, the coffee treatment did not avoid the loss of dopaminergic neurons on substantia nigra pars compact and only the smallest dose of coffee was able to avoid the decrease of dopamine levels in the lesioned side of the striatum. Altogether, these results suggest that coffee exerts moderate pro-cholinergic and pro-dopaminergic effects and caffeine seems to be the main responsible for these effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0528.v3
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Fermentation; Honey production; Principal component analysis; Organoleptic characteristics; Coffea arabica
Online: 30 June 2021 (12:50:43 CEST)
The post-harvest processes of coffee are widely accepted as key factors in determining the quality of the product. In the Cauca department, Southwestern Colombia, this stage is carried out empirically by farmers in the region, using old methods that do not assure consistent quality. This study proposes to determine the best post-harvest temperature and time conditions for coffee produced in the region. For this purpose, we carried the fermentation and honey process out on different coffee samples of the Coffea Arabica species of the Castillo variety. Subsequently, the cup profile quality of the coffee samples was determined by a sensory evaluation by experts. Finally, we applied descriptive statistical techniques to the resulting data and principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to find similarities between the samples. The results suggest that the honey process gets better evaluations in the cup profile over any condition of temperature and fermentation time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0321.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee leaf tea; novel food; coffee by-products; Coffea arabica; caffeine; epigallocatechin gallate
Online: 23 June 2022 (09:22:46 CEST)
The production of coffee leaf tea (Coffea arabica) in El Salvador and the influences of processing steps on non-volatile compounds and volatile aroma-active compounds were investigated. The tea was produced according to process steps of conventional tea (Camellia sinensis) with available possibilities on the farm. Influencing factors were the leaf type (old, young, yellow, shoots), processing (blending, cutting, rolling, freezing, steaming), drying (sun drying, oven drying, roasting) and fermentation (wild, yeast, Lactobacillus). Subsequently, the samples were analysed for the maximum levels of caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and epigallocatechin gallate permitted by the European Commission. The caffeine content varied between 0.37 g/100 g dry mass (DM) and 1.33 g/100 g DM, the chlorogenic acid between not detectable and 9.35 g /100 g DM and epigallocatechin gallate could not be detected at all. Furthermore, water content, essential oil, ash content, total polyphenols, total catechins, organic acids, and trigonelline were determined. Gas chromatography—mass spectrometry-olfactometry and calculating of the odour activity values (OAVs) were carried out to determine the main aroma-active compounds, which are β-ionone (honey-like, OAV 132-927), decanal (citrus-like, floral, OAV 14-301), α-ionone (floral, OAV 30-100), (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal (cucumber-like, OAV 18-256), 2,4-nonadienal (melon-like, OAV 2-18), octanal (fruity, OAV 7-23), (E)-2 nonenal (citrus-like, OAV 1-11), hexanal (grassy, OAV 1-10), and 4-heptenal (green, OAV 1-9).