ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Polypharmacy management, COVID -19, Gender medicine, economic perspective
Online: 7 September 2022 (02:29:58 CEST)
Background: Covid-19 patients with any pre-existing cardio-vascular disease (CVD) are at highest risk for viral infection and for developing of severe disease. Pathophysiological mechanism is characterized by the viral link to Angioten-sin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the involvement of the endothelial system with the release of cytokines and direct damage on myocardium, micro throm-bosis, and alterations of oxygen diffusion. Aim of the study is to analyze clinical course, treatment and outcome in patients (gender stratified) with pre-existing CVD. Methods: Out of the 1299 (700 M/599 F) patients admitted to Internal Medicine COVID Unit of “Castelli Hospital”, Lazio, Italy, from 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021, 278 patients (167 M/111 F), mean age 76 (76 M/ 75 F) had previous CVD. Demographic characteristics, length of the stay (LOS) and oxygen therapy were evaluated. Results: Most common CVD pathologies were Hearth Failure (HF): 131 (72 M/59 F), Atrial Fibrillation (AF): 45 (25 M/20 F), Myocardial Infarction (MI): 26 (19 M/7 F) and associations among them. 100% of CVD COVID patients under-went Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) and were treated with more than 5 drugs. HF was linked with increased LOS (23 days) compared to AF (21 days), MI (18 days) and no CVD (16 days). Overall mean LOS was 16,5 days. 21,4% of total pa-tients had CVD. Conclusions: Timely identification and evaluation of patients with pre-existing CVD are fundamental for adequate treatment based on gender, severity and state of illness and for risk reduction. Keywords: polypharmacy, gender medicine; COVID 19; Sars CoV 2; cardiovas-cular disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0948.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Molnupiravir; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Nirmatrelvir; oral antiviral
Online: 11 August 2023 (13:23:50 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 represents a threat for frailty patients. Objective: Investigate efficacy, safety and economic value of treatment with Molnupiravir in a cohort of fragile patients affected by COVID-19. Methods: Observational, prospective study. The data collected allowed to assess efficacy and safety of Molnupiravir in real life, compare the results with a subgroup of patients treated with Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir and to effect a cost-effectiveness analysis. Results: In January-December 2022, 435 patients (225 males, 220 females; median age 72 years), were enrolled; 24 patients were unvaccinated, 280 patients had ≥2 risk factors. Molnupiravir appeared to give better results than the SOC both clinically and economically. In these patients in comparison with literature data or SOC, hospitalization was 2.5% vs 6.8% (p<0.005), overall adverse effects 14,3% vs 30.4% (p<0.0001), severe adverse effects 2.6 vs 6.9% (p<0.001), thus involving a potential total savings of about € 92.954 per patient (8% of standard of care cost). Conclusions: early Molnupiravir treatment helped fragile patients who partially responded to vaccine, or with absolute contraindications to vaccination, to overcome COVID-19 without the need of hospitalization. Molnupiravir represents a clinical and economic effective treatment, avoiding disease progression in old patients suffering from multiple pathologies and taking several drugs.