ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Surface Urban heat island; Northeastern region; Sentinel 3; Eco-environmental spaces; Thermal comfort
Online: 4 April 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
The Surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) is caused by the difference in temperature between the urban and its surrounding areas. However, in the scientific literature, there is no solid methodology defining urban and non-urban areas, which is essential to estimate the SUHI with greater accuracy. This study uses the official national urban areas limit, to obtain the SUHI more accurately on the nine northeastern Brazilian capitals. The land surface temperature was obtained using the Sentinel 3 satellite data for the years 2019 and 2020. Afterward, the maximum and average SUHI, and the complementary indexes were calculated, such as the Urban Thermal Field Variation Index (UTFVI) and the Thermal Discomfort Index (TDI) for the urban areas and their surrounding areas. The Maximum and Average SUHI, obtained values between 1.85 and 8.25 and -4.92 and 2.59 degree difference, respectively, proving the SUHI existence in the study areas. The UTFVI, with values between 0.010 and 0.040, expresses how bad the eco-environmental spaces of urban are. The TDI, with values between 24.61 and 28.89 ºC, expresses the population’s thermal comfort. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of the surface UHI pioneeringly for the Brazilian Northeast Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: abiotic stress; tolerance; salinity; drought; transcriptome; MYB; NFY; HD-ZIP; HSFF
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:06:03 CEST)
In recent years, many studies have reported that several distinct families of transcription factor (TF) genes play crucial roles in the response of plants to abiotic stress. Although some of these families got systematically studied in many species, little knowledge exists about these genes in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). In this study, 20 genes differentially expressed in the leaves of oil palm plants subjected to salinity or drought stress and encoding TFs belonging to four families of TFs - MYB, HD-ZIP, NF-Y, and HSFF - got selected for further characterization. The genes underwent a structural and functional annotation, besides having their RNA-Seq expression profile validated by the qPCR technique, and a correlation analysis of their response under both stresses got performed. The annotation analysis of the promoter region showed the presence of seven cis-acting elements, all already reported to be involved in plants' response to abiotic stress. The structural and functional characterization of the proteins encoded by the selected genes showed that some groups present patterns of conserved regions and are orthologs to genes already linked to salinity or drought resistance in other plant species. It was possible to confirm the RNA-Seq expression profile of 19 genes, only gene 4 showed the opposite response when using qPCR. Through correlation analysis, it was possible to observe a high level of similarity in the behavior of the 20 genes in response to drought or salinity stress, a behavior already reported in other species. The results presented here shed light on the role of 20 TFs in the leaves of young oil palm plants under severe levels of soil salinity or water deprivation. The high level of similarity in the molecular response to both stresses allowed the identification of genes that might grant strategies aiming to develop oil palm plants with a tolerance to both salinity and drought at once.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Automation; Triticum aestivum; gas exchange; drought tolerance; high-throughput; Cerrado
Online: 19 September 2023 (05:47:28 CEST)
Selecting drought-tolerant and more water-efficient wheat genotypes is a research priority, spe-cifically in regions with irregular rainfall or areas where climate change is expected to result in reduced water availability. The objective of this work was to use high-throughput measurements with morphophysiological traits to characterize wheat genotypes in relation to water stress. Field experiments were conducted from May to September 2018 and 2019, using a sprinkler bar irriga-tion system to control water availability to eighteen wheat genotypes: BRS 254; BRS 264; CPAC 01019; CPAC 01047; CPAC 07258; CPAC 08318; CPAC 9110; BRS 394 (irrigated biotypes) and Aliança; BR 18_Terena; BRS 404; MGS Brilhante; PF 020037; PF 020062; PF 120337; PF 100368; PF 080492; TBIO Sintonia (rainfed biotypes). The water regimes varied from 22 to 100% of the crop evapotranspiration replacement. Water stress negatively affected gas exchange, vegetation indices and grain yield. High throughput variables TCARI, NDVI, OSAVI, SAVI, PRI, NDRE and GNDVI had higher correlation with yield and morphophysiological measurements. The drought re-sistance index indicated that genotypes Aliança BRS 254, BRS 404, CPAC 01019, PF 020062, and PF 080492 were more drought tolerant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bioremediation; copper nitrate; Penicillium sp.; kefir; inorganic contaminant.
Online: 13 March 2023 (02:18:00 CET)
This work aimed to carry out a bioremediation study to evaluate the resistance of Penicillium sp. isolated from kefir grains for the treatment of copper. The fungal culture medium was prepared using a 2% malt-agar medium at pH 7.0 in which Penicillium sp. was inoculated. Penicillium sp. growing in a liquid medium showed a decrease in biomass in presence of Cu(NO3)2 (800 mg.L-1), suggesting that the metal impacts the growth rate of the fungus. Moreover, the combined factors of pH and the presence of the inorganic contaminant impacted the radial growth of the fungus, causing inhibition of 73% at pH 4.0, 75% at pH 7.0, and 77% at pH 9.0 in liquid medium compared to control. However, images obtained with scanning electron microscopy showed the integrity of the fungus cell, even at high doses of copper in the medium. Therefore, it can be concluded that Penicillium sp. isolated from kefir grain can bioremediate the environment and that the harmful effects of heavy metals can be minimized as a result biosorption. Although the growth of Penicillium sp. is inhibited, such retardation requires high doses of copper nitrate, thus ensuring the use of this microorganism for protection against the harmful effects of non-essential copper in the environment.