BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1148.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: clinical trials; study design, law procedures, statistical approach; health, Patients, Non-Commercial Clinical Trials, enrollment, regulatory agencies, packaging
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:34:23 CET)
Clinical trials often involve new substances characterized or developed for a specific pathology or class of pathologies. At other times, a clinical trial is observational; in other words, a known sub-stance has a range of effects on a given cohort of subjects. The types of trials are different and complex, and often, young clinical novice and the inexperienced researchers may struggle to evaluate how to proceed correctly. In this paper, we aim to create a mini-guide for beginners in clinical trials and provide elements for designing a clinical trial. Our intention is to highlight where to find the materials and how to adapt, even in the absence of sponsors, so that even the most inexperienced and under-resourced researcher can gain an understqanding of the complexi-ty of the process andaddress it appropriately. We do not claim to be exhaustive or cover all ele-ments, but rather, we aim to create a checklist. With this approach, starting discussioms about the experimental phases of the drug and concluding with the clinical trial, we aim to assist those facing this challenging "world."
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson's Disease; translational medicine; gut-brain axis; enteric nervous system; microbiota; rodent models; clinical evidence
Online: 1 May 2023 (11:04:20 CEST)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a neural network referred to as "the brain in the gut" because of its similarities to the central nervous system (CNS). The ENS consists of numerous types of neurons and glial cells distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that span the length of the intestine and control coordinated smooth muscle contractile activity and other intestinal functions. It is well-established that reciprocal communication exists between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although the ENS can function independently, it is connected to the CNS through the afferent and efferent pathways of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. In addition to regulating ENS function by the CNS, these connections are likely to be critically involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder that presents with non-motor and motor symptoms. Surprisingly, ENS lesions have been shown to occur very early in the disease, even before CNS involvement. This has led to the postulation that the ENS may be central to the pathophysiology of PD. Autopsy studies have shown that α-synuclein (αS) aggregates in PD patients are found both in the substantia nigra (SN) and the ENS. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the pathological process leading to PD may initially occur in the ENS years before the appearance of motor features. This process induces misfolding and aggregation of αS in specific subtypes of neurons in the CNS. Finally, it spreads retrogradely in the CNS through preganglionic vagal fibers to the dorsal motor nucleus of this nerve and to other central nervous structures. In addition to the presumed role in the spread of the disease process, it has also been suggested that pathological changes in the ENS might be involved in the gastrointestinal dysfunction frequently seen in Pd patients. Starting from the evidence in animal models and using a translational point of view, in this review, we aim to summarize the role of the ENS in the pathogenesis of PD and how this system could be modulated for a novel therapeutic approach. While acknowledging the presumed role of the microbiome in the gut-brain axis, we will shift the focus from this point of view to focus more on the neurons of the ENS.