ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0176.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: purple sweetpotato; anthocyanin; polyphenolics; caffeoylquinic acid; temperature
Online: 25 December 2017 (10:01:14 CET)
The health benefits of purple sweetpotato, which is used as an edible food in its natural state and in processed foods and as a natural color pigment, have been recognized. In Japan, sweetpotato has been economically produced in regions below 36°4′N latitude, however, cultivation areas are beginning to expand further north. The anthocyanin and polyphenolics in purple sweetpotatoes cultivated in different locations; I (42°92′ N, 143°04′ E), II (35°99′ N, 140°01′ E), and III (31°72′ N, 131°03′ E), were compared over two years. Total anthocyanin and polyphenolic contents in purple sweetpotatoes tended to be high in location I. Their contents significantly differed over the two years in locations I and III and was dependent on temperature during cultivation. The anthocyanin and polyphenolic compositions differed between locations. The peonidin/cyanidin ratios were higher in location III compared with I and II in all varieties. The relative amount of chlorogenic acid was higher in location I, while the amount of 3,4- and 4,5-dicaffeoyolquinic acids were higher in location III, suggesting that the variability of the anthocyanin and polyphenolic content and composition was dependent on cultivation conditions. This study suggested that northern areas in Japan are an alternative production area and may yield higher amounts of anthocyanin and polyphenolics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: In silico; Estrogen Receptor; Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; Phytochemical; Anthocyanin; SERM
Online: 25 December 2020 (16:03:32 CET)
The estrogen hormone receptor (ER) mediated gene expression mainly regulate the development and physiology of primary and secondary reproductive system alongside bone-forming, metabolism and behaviour. Over-expressed ER is associated with several pathological conditions and play a key role in breast cancer occurrence, progression and metastasis. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. or roselle is a rich source of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds including anthocyanins and reportedly have strong estrogenic activity. To validate these findings, we have investigated the estrogen receptor binding affinity and safety of some previously recorded polyphenols using a suite of computational methods. Our investigation showed the estrogen-receptor binding potential of Pelargonidin, Delphinidin, Cyanidin, and Hibiscetin are more efficient than popular breast cancer drugs, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, with favourable toxicological parameters and low half maximal inhibitory concentration. This is the first report to investigate the phytochemical basis of estrogenic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0342.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Anthocyanin biosynthesis; biosafety regulations; colored vegetables; crossbreeding; gene editing; human health; transgenes
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:38:22 CET)
Malnutrition, unhealthy diets, and lifestyle changes have become major risk factors for non-communicable diseases while ad-versely impacting economic growth and sustainable development. Anthocyanins, a group of flavonoids that are rich in fruits and vegetables, contribute positively to human health. This review focuses on genetic variation harnessed through crossbreeding and biotechnology-led approaches for developing anthocyanins-rich fruit and vegetable crops. Significant progress has been made in identifying genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in various crops. Thus, the use of genetics has led to the development and release of anthocyanin-rich crop cultivars in Europe and USA. Such a trend is emerging in the developing world. The purple pota-to “Kufri Neelkanth” has been released for cultivation in northern India, and a few colored grain wheat lines, developed through crossbreeding, are being tested for their productivity and adaptation. Although tomato is deficient in anthocyanins, some of its wild relatives are known to accumulate anthocyanins in their sub-epidermal fruit tissue. In Europe, anthocyanin-rich tomato cul-tivar ‘Sun Black’ developed via the introgression of Aft and atv genes has been released. The development of anthocyanin-rich food crops without any significant yield penalty has been due to the use of genetic engineering involving specific transcription factors or gene editing. The anthocyanin-rich food ingredients have the potential of being more nutritious than those devoid of anthocyanins. The inclusion of anthocyanins as a target characteristic in breeding programs can ensure the development of culti-vars to meet the nutritional needs for human consumption, particularly in the developing world.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Hyperspectral Imaging, Phenolics, Anthocyanin, Table Grapes, Total Soluble Solid, PLS, MLR, Model.
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:35:56 CET)
Table grape quality is of importance for consumers and thus for producers. The objective quality determination is usually destructive and very simple with the assessment of only a couple of parameters. This study proposed to evaluate the possibility of hyperspectral imaging to characterize table grapes quality through its sugar, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents. Different pre-treatments (WB, SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative) and different methods were tested: PLS with full spectra, then Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) were realized after selecting the optimal wavelengths thanks to the regression coefficients (-coefficients) and the Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) scores from the full spectra. All models were good showing that hyperspectral imaging is a relevant method to assess sugar content and global phenolic content. The best model was dependent on the variable. The best models were from the full spectra and with the 2nd derivative pre-treatment for TSS; from VIPs optimal wavelengths using SNV pre-treatment for Total Flavonoid and total Anthocyanin content. Thus, relevant models were proposed using the full spectra, as well as specific windows and wavelengths in order to reduce the data sets and limit the data storage to enable an industrial use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0021.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: vertical farming; controlled environment; lettuce cultivars; anthocyanin; light quality; LEDs; light recipe; stomata
Online: 1 June 2022 (13:17:55 CEST)
Indoor crop cultivation systems such as vertical farms or plant factories necessitate artificial lighting. Light spectral quality can affect plant growth and metabolism and, consequently, the amount of biomass produced and the value of the produce. Conflicting results on the effects of light spectrum in different plant species and cultivars make it critical to implement a singular lighting solution. In this study we explored the response of green and red leaf lettuce cultivars (’Aquino’, CVg, or ‘Barlach’, CVr, respectively) to long-term blue-enriched light application (WB). Plants were grown for 30 days in a growth chamber with optimal environmental condi-tions (temperature: 20°C, relative humidity: 60%, ambient CO2, Photon Flux Density (PFD) of 260 µmol m-2 s-1 over an 18-h photoperiod). At 15 days after sowing (DAS) white spectrum LEDs (WW) were compared to WB (λPeak = 423 nm) maintaining the same PFD of 260 µmol m-2 s-1. At 30 DAS, both lettuce cultivars resulted adapted to the blue light variant, though the adaptive re-sponse was specific to the variety. Rosette weight, light use efficiency and maximum operating efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light, Fv/Fm’, were comparable between the two light treatments. Significant light quality effect was detected on stomatal density and conductance (20% and 17% increase under WB, respectively, in CVg) and, on the modified anthocyanin re-flectance index (mARI) (40% increase under WB, in CVr). Net photosynthesis response was gen-erally stronger in CVg compared to CVr; e.g. net photosynthetic rate, Pn, at 1000 µmol m-2 s-1 PPFD increased from WW to WB by 23% in CVg, compared to 18% in CVr. Results obtained suggest the occurrence of distinct physiological adaptive strategies in green and red pigmented lettuce cultivars to adapt to the higher proportion of blue light environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0703.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: açaí; total polyphenol; total anthocyanin; antioxidant; elemental analysis; essential elements; biological activity; wound healing
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:14:48 CEST)
Chemical composition analysis of açaí extracts revealed higher levels of total polyphenol content in purple açaí samples for both commercial (4.3 – 44.7 gallic acid equivalents mg/g) and non-commercial samples (30.2 – 42.0 mg/g) compared to white (8.2 – 11.9 mg/g) and oil samples (0.8 – 4.6 mg/g). The major anthocyanin compounds found in purple açaí samples were cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside with total concentrations in the range of 3.6 – 14.3 cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents mg/g. The oligomeric proanthocyanidins were quantified in the range of 1.5 – 6.1 procyanidin B1 equivalents mg/g. Moreover, açaí presented significant levels of calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc and copper, essential minor and trace elements, in comparison with other berries. All of the açaí extracts at 50 μg/mL potently inhibited the release of reactive oxygen species in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, but none inhibited the release of nitric oxide. Furthermore, all the açaí samples demonstrated potential as wound healing agents due to the high levels of migration activity in human fibroblast cells.