ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Aging; Attitudes; Subjective Well-being; Ageism; Psychometric Validation
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:17:06 CEST)
Scientific literature shows increased interest in the aged and the aging phenomenon. The Aging Attitudes Questionnaire - AAQ was validated for the Portuguese population to understand the importance of attitudes towards old age and their impact on the subjective well-being of the elderly. A sample of 400 subjects (from 18 to 93 years) answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the AAQ was composed of three subscales (psychosocial losses, physical change, and psychological growth). The CFA confirmed the tri-factorial structure with very good adjustment of the model to the data with the Cronbach alpha of the total scale scoring .84 and ranging from .65 to .77 for each factor. A total of 9 items were omitted both for poor factor loadings (<0.50. Notwithstanding, 3 items below the criteria were maintained, as they conceptually fit into the factor. Of the final 15 AAQp items, 5 belong to the Psychosocial Loss factor, 6 to Physical Change, and 4 to Psychosocial Growth. This tree factor model explained 50.1 % of the total variance. In conclusion, this study supports that AAQ has acceptable validity, confirming the composite reliability and the discriminant validity, but not the convergent validity. Through multi-group analysis, the invariance of the scale was confirmed. This validation is of pivotal importance once it allows measuring the attitudes towards aging, thus facilitating the promotion of wellbeing across the lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0338.v1
Online: 25 May 2022 (03:48:26 CEST)
Spontaneity and its connections to mental health and wellbeing are a central issue in both theory and practice of psychodrama, and the specialized literature sometimes even associates the presence of pathology to a lack of spontaneity. This paper describes spontaneity in Moreno's theory, its assessment, its association with other measures and concepts, and scientific advances in the field. Specifically, we present results obtained with the English and Portuguese-language versions concerning its assessment. The main purpose of this work was to study the spontaneity measure (SAI-R) in a 3 first-order factors version for a Portuguese sample of 719 subjects, divided into two independent samples. The participants were aged 18 to 69. The mean age of participants was 28.5 years (SD = 7.51), and ages ranged between 18 and 69 years. Data was collected through an online platform of a Portuguese market research company. The results revealed that the 3-factor model has acceptable validity when items 1 (“Creative”) and 7 (“Euphoric”), confirming the composite reliability, the convergent validity, but not the discriminant validity. Through multigroup analysis, the model showed to be stable. Notwithstanding the need for complementary studies, including clinical samples, the SAI-R is a short and valid instrument in clinical and non-clinical contexts when evaluating spontaneity.