ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated cardboard; edge crush test; orthotropic elasticity; digital image correlation, tensile stiffness, compressive stiffness, sandwich panel
Online: 1 September 2021 (14:20:05 CEST)
The standard edge crush test (ECT) allows to determine the crushing strength of the corrugated cardboard. Unfortunately, this test cannot be used to estimate the compressive stiffness, which is an equally important parameter. It is because, any attempt to determine this parameter using current lab equipment quickly ends in a fiasco. The biggest obstacle is obtaining a reliable measurement of displacements and strains in the corrugated cardboard sample. In this paper, we present a method that not only allows to reliably identify the stiffness in the loaded direction of orthotropy in the corrugated board sample, but also the full orthotropic material stiffness matrix. The proposed method uses two samples: (a) traditional, cut crosswise to the wave direction of the corrugated core, and (b) cut at an angle of 45 degrees. Additionally, in both cases, an optical system with digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the displacements and strains on the outer surface of samples. The use of a non-contact measuring system allows to avoid using the measurement of displacements from the crosshead, which is burdened with a large error. Apart from the new experimental configuration, the article also proposes a simple algorithm to quickly characterize all sought stiffness parameters. The obtained results are finally compared with the results obtained in the homogenization procedure of the cross-section of the corrugated board. The results were consistent in both cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0678.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corrugated board; box strength estimation; packaging flaps; crease line shifting
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:08:44 CEST)
In the modern world, all manufacturers strive for the optimal design of their products. This general trend is recently also observed in the corrugated board packaging industry. Colorful prints on displays, perforations in shelf-ready-packaging and various types of ventilation holes in trays, although extremely important for ergonomic or functional reasons, weaken the strength of the box. To meet the requirements of customers and recipients, packaging manufacturers outdo each other in new ideas for the construction of their products. Often the aesthetic qualities of the product become more important than the attention to maintaining the standards of the load capacity of the packaging (which, apart from their attention-grabbing functions, are also intended to protect transported products). The particular flaps design (both top and bottom) and their influence on the strength of the box is investigated in this study. The updated analytical-numerical approach is used here to predict the strength of the packaging with various flap’s offsets. Experimental results indicated a significant decrease in the static load-bearing capacity of packaging in the case of shifted flap creases. The simulation model proposed in our previous work has been modified and updated to take into account also this effect. The results obtained by the model presented in the paper are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated cardboard; numerical homogenization; strain energy equivalence; perforation; creasing; flexural stiffness; torsional stiffness
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:40:56 CEST)
The corrugated board packaging industry is increasingly using advanced numerical tools to design and estimate the load capacity of its products. That is why numerical analyzes are becoming a common standard in this branch of manufacturing. Such trend causes either the use of advanced computational models that take into account the full 3D geometry of the flat and wavy layers of corrugated board, or the use of homogenization techniques to simplify the numerical model. The article presents theoretical considerations that extend the numerical homogenization technique already presented in our previous work. The proposed here homogenization procedure also takes into account the creasing and / or perforation of corrugated board, i.e. processes that undoubtedly weaken the stiffness and strength of the corrugated board locally. However, it is not always easy to estimate how exactly these processes affect the bending or torsional stiffness. What is known for sure is that the degradation of stiffness depends, among other things, on the type of cut, its shape, the depth of creasing, as well as their position or direction in relation to the corrugation direction. The method proposed here can be successfully applied to model smeared degradation in a finite element or to define degraded interface stiffnesses on a crease line or a perforation line.