ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; vitamin C requirements; vitamin C recommendations; body weight; obesity; smoking; aging; socioeconomic status; NHANES
Online: 8 March 2023 (03:47:32 CET)
Vitamin C status is known to be associated with several demographic and lifestyle factors. These include gender, age, ethnicity, pregnancy/lactation, body weight, smoking status and dietary habits. In the present study, our aim was to interrogate the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2018 datasets to assess the impact of these factors on vitamin C dose-concentration relationships to establish if there are higher requirements for vitamin C in certain subpopulations and the possible extent of these additional requirements. The relevant data were extracted from the NHANES 2017-2018 datasets, the final cohort of which comprised 2828 non-supplementing adult males and females (aged 18 – 80+ years) with both vitamin C serum concentrations and dietary intake data available. The data was subsequently stratified by gender, age tertiles (≤36, 37-58, ≥59 years), ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and total Hispanic), socioeconomic tertiles (poverty income ratios: >3.0, 1.36 – 3.0, ≤1.35), weight tertiles (≤72, 72-91, ≥91 kg), BMI tertiles (≤26, 26-32, ≥32 kg/m2) and smoking status. Sigmoidal (four parameter logistic) curves with asymmetrical 95% confidence intervals were fitted to the dose-concentration data. We found that males required vitamin C intakes ~1.2-fold higher than females to reach ‘adequate’ serum concentrations of 50 µmol/L. Males had both higher body weight and a higher prevalence of smoking than females. Smokers required vitamin C intakes ~2.0-fold higher than non-smokers to reach adequate vitamin C concentrations. Relative to adults in the lighter weight tertile, adults in the heaver weight tertile required ~2.0-fold higher dietary intakes of vitamin C to reach adequate serum concentrations. We did not observe any impact of ethnicity or socioeconomic status on the vitamin C dose-concentration relationship, and although no significant difference between younger and older adults was observed at vitamin C intakes > 75 mg/day, at intakes < 75 mg/day, older adults had an attenuated serum response to vitamin C intake. In conclusion, certain demographic and lifestyle factors, specifically gender, smoking and body weight, have a significant impact on vitamin C requirements. Overall, the data indicate that the general population must consume ~110 mg/day of vitamin C to attain adequate serum concentrations, smokers require ~165 mg/day relative to non-smokers, and heavier people (100+ kg) require ~155 mg/day to reach the same vitamin C concentrations. These findings have important implications for global vitamin C dietary recommendations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin C; vitamin C status; vitamin C deficiency; global health; dietary intake; obesity; smoking; communicable disease; infection; non-communicable disease
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:49:42 CEST)
A recent review of global vitamin C status indicated a high prevalence of deficiency, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as in specific subgroups within high-income countries. Here we provide a narrative of potential factors influencing vitamin C status. The in vivo status of vitamin C is primarily affected by dietary intake and supplement use. Dietary intake can be influenced by cultural aspects such as staple foods and traditional cooking practices. Environmental factors can also affect vitamin C intake and status; these include geographic region, season and climate, as well as pollution. Demographic factors such as sex, age, and race are known to affect vitamin C status, as do socioeconomic factors such as deprivation, education and social class, and institutionalization. Various health aspects affect vitamin C status; these include body weight, pregnancy and lactation, genetic variants, smoking, and disease states, including severe infections as well as various non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Some of these factors have changed over time, therefore we also explore if vitamin C status has shown temporal changes. Overall, there are numerous factors that can affect vitamin C status to different extents in various regions of the world. Many of these factors are not taken into consideration during the setting of global recommended dietary intakes for vitamin C.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vitamin C status; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency; low and middle income countries; LMIC; dietary intake; supplement; non-communicable disease; communicable disease; infection
Online: 24 May 2020 (18:16:25 CEST)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that must be obtained through the diet in adequate amounts to prevent hypovitaminosis C and the potentially fatal deficiency disease scurvy. Global vitamin C status and prevalence of deficiency has not previously been reported, despite vitamin C’s pleiotropic roles in both non-communicable and communicable disease. This review highlights the global literature on vitamin C status and the prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency. Related dietary intake is reported if assessed in the studies. We also explore if global vitamin C status has changed over time. Overall, the review illustrates the shortage of high quality epidemiological studies of vitamin C status in many countries, particularly low- and middle-income countries. The available evidence indicates that vitamin C deficiency is common in low- and middle-income countries and not uncommon in high income settings. Further high quality studies are required to confirm these findings, including in the countries not yet represented, and to fully understand associations with a range of disease processes. Our findings suggest a need for interventions to prevent deficiency in a range of at risk groups and regions of the world.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbate; obesity; body weight; vitamin C intake; plasma ascorbate concentrations; vitamin C requirements; dietary vitamin C
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:45:27 CET)
Higher body weight is known to negatively impact plasma vitamin C status. However, despite this well-documented inverse association, recommendations on daily vitamin C intakes by health authorities worldwide do not include particular reference values for people of higher body weight. This suggests that people of higher body weight and people with obesity may be insufficient in vitamin C in spite of ingesting the amounts recommended by their health authorities. The current preliminary investigation sought to estimate how much additional vitamin C people with higher body weights need to consume in order to attain a comparable vitamin C status to that of a lower weight person consuming an average Western vitamin C intake. Data from two published vitamin C dose-concentration studies were used to generate the relationship: a detailed pharmacokinetic study with seven healthy non-smoking men and a multiple depletion-repletion study with 68 healthy non-smoking men of varying body weights. Our estimates suggest that an additional intake of 10 mg vitamin C/day is required for every 10 kg increase in body weight to attain a comparable plasma concentration to a 60 kg individual with a vitamin C intake of ~110 mg/day, which is the daily intake recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thus, individuals weighing e.g. 80 and 90 kg will need to consume ~130 and 140 mg vitamin C/day, respectively. People with obesity will likely need even higher vitamin C intakes. As poor vitamin C status is associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, these findings may have important public health implications. As such, dose-finding studies are required to determine optimal vitamin C intakes for overweight and obese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; ascorbate; pneumonia; community acquired pneumonia; oxidative stress; protein carbonyls; hypovitaminosis C; vitamin C deficiency
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:12:26 CEST)
Pneumonia is a severe lower respiratory tract infection that is a common complication and a major cause of mortality of the vitamin C-deficiency disease scurvy. This suggests an important link between vitamin C status and lower respiratory tract infections. Due to the paucity of information on the vitamin C status of patients with pneumonia, we assessed the vitamin C status of 50 patients with community-acquired pneumonia and compared these with 50 healthy community controls. The pneumonia cohort comprised 44 patients recruited through the Acute Medical Assessment Unit (AMAU) and 6 patients recruited through the intensive care unit (ICU); mean age 68 ± 17 years, 54% male. Clinical, microbiological and haematological parameters were recorded. Blood samples were tested for vitamin C status using HPLC with electrochemical detection and protein carbonyl concentrations, a marker of oxidative stress, using ELISA. Patients with pneumonia had depleted vitamin C status compared with healthy controls (23 ± 14 µmol/L vs 56 ± 24 µmol/L, P <0.001). The more severe patients in the ICU had significantly lower vitamin C status than those recruited through AMAU (11 ± 3 µmol/L vs 24 ± 14 µmol/L, P = 0.02). The total pneumonia cohort comprised 62% with hypovitaminosis C and 22% with deficiency, compared with only 8% hypovitaminosis C and no cases of deficiency in the healthy controls. The pneumonia cohort also exhibited significantly elevated protein carbonyl concentrations compared with the healthy controls (P < 0.001), indicating enhanced oxidative stress in the patients. We were able to collect subsequent samples form 28% of the cohort (mean 2.7 ± 1.7 days; range 1-7 days). These showed no significant differences in vitamin C status or protein carbonyl concentrations compared with baseline values (P = 0.6). Overall, the depleted vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress observed in the patients with pneumonia indicates an enhanced requirement for the vitamin during their illness. Due to the important roles that vitamin C plays in the immune system, low vitamin C status is possibly both a cause and a consequence of the disease. Therefore, these patients would likely benefit from additional vitamin C supplementation to restore their blood and tissue levels to optimal. This may decrease oxidative stress and aid in their recovery.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: immune system; viral infection; influenza; COVID-19; micronutrients; vitamins; omega-3 fatty acids; minerals; vitamin C; vitamin D
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:30:45 CET)
Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, are responsible for approximately 2.65 million deaths per year. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: 1) Supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; 2) Supplementation above the RDA, but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and 3) Public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1867.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: vitamin C; ascorbic acid; diabetes; diabetes mellitus; body weight; C-reactive protein; dietary intake; dietary requirements; NHANES; EPIC-Norfolk
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:52:33 CEST)
Vitamin C is an essential enzyme cofactor and antioxidant with pleiotropic roles in human physiology. Circulating vitamin C concentrations are lower in people with diabetes mellitus suggesting a higher dietary requirement for the vitamin. We interrogated the NHANES 2017/2018 and EPIC-Norfolk datasets to compare vitamin C requirements between those with and without diabetes mellitus using dose-concentration relationships fitted with sigmoidal (four parameter logistic) curves. The NHANES cohort (n=2828 non-supplementing adults) comprised 488 (17%) participants with diabetes (self-reported or HbA1c ≥6.5%). The participants with diabetes had a lower vitamin C status (median [IQR]) than those without (38 [17, 52] µmol/L vs 44 [25, 61] µmol/L, p<0.0001), despite comparable dietary intakes between the two groups (51 [26, 93] mg/d vs 53 [24, 104] mg/d, p=0.5). Dose-concentration relationships indicated that the group without diabetes reached adequate vitamin C concentrations (50 µmol/L) with an intake of 81 (72, 93) mg/d, whilst the those with diabetes required an intake of 166 (126, NA) mg/d. In the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, comprising 20692 non-supplementing adults, 475 (2.3%) had self-reported diabetes at baseline. The EPIC cohort had lower a BMI than the NHANES cohort (26 [24, 28] kg/m2 vs 29 [25, 34] kg/m2, respectively). Correspondingly, the EPIC participants without diabetes required a lower vitamin C intake of 64 (63, 65) mg/d while those with diabetes required 129 (104, NA) mg/d to reach adequate circulating vitamin C status. C-reactive protein concentrations were strongly correlated with body weight and BMI and provided a surrogate biomarker for vitamin C requirements. In conclusion, people with diabetes have 1.4- to 1.6-fold higher requirements for vitamin C than those without diabetes. This corresponds to additional daily vitamin C intake requirements of ~30-40 mg for people with diabetes.