ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0075.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Android permissions; Android IoT platform; Android update; Android application
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:30:47 CEST)
The Android-based IoT platform just like the existing Android provides an environment that makes it easy to utilize Google's infrastructure services including development tools and APIs through which it helps to control the sensors of IoT devices. Applications running on the Android-based IoT platform are often UI free and are used without the user’s consent to registered permissions. It is difficult to respond to the misuse of permissions as well as to check them when they are registered indiscriminately while updating applications. This paper analyzes the versions of before and after an application the update running on the Android-based IoT platform and the collected permission lists. It aims to identify the same permissions before and after the update, and deleted and newly added permissions after the update were identified, and thereby respond to security threats that can arise from the permissions that is not needed for IoT devices to perform certain functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: fluid dynamics Android app; compressible flows; isentropic flows; Android app for gas dynamics
Online: 27 October 2019 (15:30:45 CET)
The computing power of smartphones has not received considerable attention in the mainstream education system. Most of the education-oriented smartphone applications (apps) are limited to general purpose services like Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), language learning, and calculators (performing basic mathematical calculations). Greater potential of smartphones lies in educators and researchers developing their customized apps for learners in highly specific domains. In line with this, we present Fluid Dynamics, a highly accurate Android application for measuring flow properties in compressible flows. This app can determine properties across the stationary normal and oblique shock, moving normal shock and across Prandtl $-$ Meyer expansion fan. This app can also measure isentropic flows, Fanno flows, and Rayleigh flows. The functionality of this app is also extended to calculate properties in the atmosphere by assuming the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) relations and also flows across the Pitot tube. Such measurements are complicated and time-consuming since the relations are implicit and hence require the use of numerical methods, which give rise to repetitive calculations. The app is an efficient semi-implicit solver for gas dynamics formulations and uses underlying numerical methods for the computations in a graphical user interface (GUI), thereby easing and quickening the learning of concerned users. The app is designed for the Android operating system, the most ubiquitous and capable surveillance platform, and its calculations are based on JAVA based code methodology. In order to check its accuracy, the app's results are validated against the existing data given in the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: android; malware; convolutional neural network
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:12:48 CEST)
Using smartphone especially android platform has already got eighty percent market shares, due to aforementioned report, it becomes attacker’s primary goal. There is a growing number of private data onto smart phones and low safety defense measure, attackers can use multiple way to launch and to attack user’s smartphones.(e.g. Using different coding style to confuse the software of detecting malware). Existing android malware detection methods use multiple features, like safety sensor API, system call, control flow structure and data information flow, then using machine learning to check whether its malware or not. These feature provide app’s unique property and limitation, that is to say, from some perspectives it might suit for some specific attack, but wouldn’t suit for others. Nowadays most malware detection methods use only one aforementioned feature, and these methods mostly analysis to detect code, but facing the influence of malware’s code confusion and zero-day attack, aforementioned feature extraction method may cause wrong judge. So, it’s necessary to design an effective technique analysis to prevent malware. In this paper, we use the importance of word from apk, because of code confusion, some malware attackers only rename variables, if using general static analysis wouldn’t judge correctly, then use these importance value to go through our proposed method to generate picture, finally using convolutional neural network to see whether the apk file is malware or not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0571.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: dining; health; Kotlin; Android; Android Studio; MongoDB; SQL; Java; calories; dieting; mobile app; menu; mobile application; calorie tracker
Online: 30 December 2022 (06:17:41 CET)
Many apps have been created for food and health-related purposes, given our app’s secondary focus on calorie metrics and health, surveying existing apps, and previous approaches to curtailing the dining experience and promoting health will be helpful. An important aspect to consider when designing an app is a user engagement and how many people one can expect to use an app. Research has been done to study usage metrics and user experiences and opinions regarding mobile app usage, particularly in the health and diet app sector, which pertains to our app’s health features. Even with high user engagement, an app's overall utility and benefit also need to be considered and measured in some qualitative and quantitative sense. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of food and diet apps on personal behavior. Although the app that is the subject of this proposal is not mainly a “dieting” app, its features, such as the calorie counter, can help facilitate these use cases for users inclined to do so.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0470.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Augustana; dining, health; Kotlin; Android; Android Studio; MongoDB; SQL; Java; calories; dieting; mobile app; menu; mobile application; calorie tracker
Online: 26 December 2022 (04:01:23 CET)
This paper discusses the development process regarding a group of four Augustana College seniors' research. The project is a mobile app for Android built-in Android Studio called Augustana Health and Dining. This application will improve the dining experience at Augustana College, provide additional health metrics for personal use and promote healthier lifestyles. The app features the menus of various on-campus dining areas, with calories, allergens, and other essential food information. It also includes a profile section that will display campus meal credits and a calorie counting metric that can be used to track calories consumed to display this information to users so they can make more informed choices on their meals and health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0231.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Android; arduino; bluetooth; grass cutter; sensors; speech recognition
Online: 20 October 2019 (02:03:44 CEST)
We present an Arduino-based automatic robotic system which is used for cutting grass or lawns, mostly healthy grass which needs to cut neatly like in a public park or a private garden. The purpose of this proposed project is to design a programmable automatic pattern design grass cutting robot with solar power which no longer requires time-consuming manual grass-cutting, and that can be operated wirelessly using an Android Smartphone via Bluetooth from a safe distance which is capable of cutting the grass in indeed required shapes and patterns; the cutting blade can also be adjusted to maintain the different length of the grass. The main focus was to design a prototype that can work with a little or no Physical user interaction. The proposed work is accomplished by using an Arduino microcontroller, DC geared Motors, IR obstacle detection sensor, motor shield, relay module, DC battery, solar panel, and Bluetooth module. The grass-cutting robot system can be moved to the location in the lawn remotely where the user wants to cut the grass directly or in desired patterns. The user can press the desired pattern button from the mobile application, and the system will start cutting grass in the similar design such as a circle, spiral, rectangle, and continue pattern. Also, with the assistance of sensors positioned at the front of the vehicle, an automatic barrier detection system is introduced to enhance safety measurements to prevent any risks. IR obstacle detector sensors are used to detect obstacles, if any obstacle is found in front of the robot while traveling; it avoids the barrier by taking a right/right turn or stop automatically appropriately, thereby preventing the collision. Also, the main aim of this project is the formation of a grass cutter that relieves the user from mowing their own grasses and reduces environmental and noise pollution. The proposed system is designed as a lab-scale prototype to experimentally validate the efﬁciency, accuracy, and affordability of the systems. The experimental results prove that the proposed work has all in one capability (Simple and Pattern based grass cutting with mobile-application, obstacle detection), is very easy to use, and can be easily assembled in a simple hardware circuit. We note that the systems proposed can be implemented on a large scale under real conditions in the future, which will be useful in robotics applications and cutting grass in playing grounds such as cricket, football, and hockey, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cybersecurity; Industry 4.0; Android; Operating System; Algorithm; SWOT Analysis
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:28:12 CEST)
The world is attesting a tremendous change today which is remarkably coined as industry 4.0. Several terminologies have developed as a result of the emergency of industry 4.0, notably is cybersecurity which entails the security of communication and network operations activities either on or offline and the measures taken to achieve such security. The most common form of communication by organizations and Business today is the electronic mails (Email), although email is a valuable tool, it also creates security challenges when not properly managed. There is a growing adoption of email as official form of communication in many organizations with majority of users on mobile android devices due to the popularity of the android operating systems and the proliferation of mobile devices. Banks, health care, educational institutions and many other service providers are communicating to their clients through email where sensitive and confidential information are shared. One major threat to email communication is lack of confidentiality for emails accessed via android mobile devices due to weaknesses of android operating system (OS) platform that presents possibilities to penetrate by hackers and android email client since it accepts a onetime login and password authentication which is only required again if the email account is deleted from the android mobile device. In this study, an algorithm was designed and implemented on an android application that allows an email sender to compose an email and set the time the email will stay in the receiver inbox before it automatically wipes off. Primary data was collected from email users using tightly structured questionnaires and respondents comprised of those with email technical background and those that are typical email users inorder to get their opinion on the lack of confidentiality on the android mobile email client, while secondary data from scholarly journals and articles informed the study design. The designed algorithm was tested and evaluated through expert opinion. The result of the study indicates that the designed algorithm addresses the confidentiality issues and threats on android email clients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0241.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Android security; machine learning; malware analysis; malicious application detection; survey
Online: 16 June 2022 (11:01:47 CEST)
A huge number of applications available for Android-based smartphone devices have emerged over the past years. Due to which a huge number of malicious applications has been growing explosively. Many approaches have been proposed to ensure the security and quality of application in the markets. Usually, Machine Learning approaches are utilized in the classification process of malicious application detection. Calculating accurate results of characterizing applications behaviors, or other features, has a direct effect on the results with Machine Learning calculations. Android applications emerge so quickly. The behavior of current applications has gotten progressively malicious. The extraction of malware-infected features from applications is thus become a difficult task. According to our knowledge, a ton of features have been extricated in existing work however no survey has overviewed the features built for identifying malicious applications efficiently. In this paper, we will in general give an extensive review of such sort of work that identifies feature applications by describing various practices of uses with various kinds of features. In this survey we have discussed the following dimensions: extraction and selection of feature methods if any, methods of detection and evaluation performed. In light of our review, we notice the issues of investigating malware-affected features from applications, give the scientific categorization and demonstrate the future headings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Android botnet; Botnet detection; Hybrid analysis; Machine learning classifiers; Mobile malware
Online: 7 June 2019 (13:45:28 CEST)
Smartphone devices, particularly android devices used by billions of people everywhere in the world. Similarly, this increasing rate attracts mobile botnet attackers that is a network of interconnected nodes operated by command and control (C&C) method to expand malicious activities. At present, mobile botnet attacks carried Distributed denial of services (DDoS) that causes to steal sensitive data, remote access, spam generation, etc. Consequently, various approaches are defined in the literature to detect mobile botnet using static or dynamic analysis. In this paper, we have proposed a novel hybrid model, which is a combination of static and dynamic method that relies on machine learning to identify android botnet applications having C&C capability. The results evaluated through machine learning classifiers in which Random forest classifier outperform other ML techniques, i.e. Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Simple logistics. Our proposed framework can achieve 97.48% accuracy in detecting such harmful applications. Furthermore, we highlight some research directions and possible solutions regarding botnet attacks for the entire community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MPS FESTO workstation; production management; cloud computing; process management; Android; iOS; RFID
Online: 10 November 2020 (15:09:37 CET)
Industria 4.0 is present in smart and digital manufacturing, making manufacturing companies improve productivity, reducing delivery time and related costs. The objective of this work is to demonstrate through three integrated MPS Festo stations (Distribution, Pick \& Place and Sorting), using the Internet of Things and Google Analytics technologies, the benefits in relation to remote performance monitoring. The intended objective is achieved through the implementation of the monitoring system at the three MPS Festo stations. The data obtained through the integration of the Festo stations and their respective sensors are processed and analyzed in a cloud infrastructure, so that the main metrics are visualized and transmitted on a panel. This monitoring system improves the perception of process performance, as the main performance metrics are displayed, such as productivity, cycle time and parts produced. The cloud infrastructure allows remote viewing and monitoring of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0042.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Reputation; Android; application; sentiment analysis; reviews; security service; NLP; Google Play; polarity
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:49:51 CEST)
To keep its business reliable, Google is concerned to ensure quality of apps on the store. One crucial aspect concerning quality is security. Security is achieved through Google Play protect and anti-malware solutions. However, they are not totally efficient since they rely on application features and application execution threads. Google provides additional elements to enable consumers to collectively evaluate applications providing their experiences via reviews or showing their satisfaction through rating. The latter is more informal and hides details of rating whereas the former is textually expressive but requires further processing to understand opinions behind. Literature lacks approaches which mine reviews through sentiment analysis to extract useful information to improve security aspects of provided applications. This work goes in this direction and in a fine-grained way, investigates in terms of confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication (CIAA). While assuming that reviews are reliable and not fake, the proposed approach determines review polarities based on CIAA-related keywords. We rely on the popular classifier Naive Bayes to classify reviews into positive, negative and neutral sentiment. We then provide an aggregation model to fusion different polarities to obtain application global and CIAA reputations. Quantitative experiments have been conducted on 13 applications including e-banking, live messaging and anti-malware apps with a total of 1050 security-related reviews and 7.835.322 functionality-related reviews. Results show that 23% of applications (03 apps) have a reputation greater than 0.5 with an accent on integrity, authentication and availability, while the remaining 77% has a polarity under 0.5. Developers should make lot of efforts in security while developing codes and that more efforts should be made to improve confidentiality reputation. Results also show that applications with good functionality-related reputation generally offer bad security-related reputation. This situation means that even if the number of security reviews is low, it does not mean that security aspect is not a consumer preoccupation. Unlike, developers put much more time to test whether applications works without errors even if they include possible security vulnerabilities. A quantitative comparison against well-known rating systems reveals effectiveness and robustness of CIAA-RepDroid to repute apps in terms of security. CIAA-RepDroid can be associated to existing rating solutions to recommend developers exact CIAA aspects to improve within source codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0332.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: reputation; Android; application; sentiment analysis; comments; security service; NLP; Google Play; polarity
Online: 23 March 2020 (04:22:23 CET)
Comments are exploited by product vendors to measure satisfaction of consumers. With the advent of Natural Language Processing (NLP), comments on Google Play can be processed to extract knowledge on applications such as their reputation. Proposals in that direction are either informal or interested merely on functionality. Unlike, this work aims to determine reputation of Android applications in terms of confidentiality, integrity, availability and authentication (CIAA). This work proposes a model of assessing app reputation relying on sentiment analysis and text analysis of comments. While assuming that comments are reliable, we collect Google Play applications subject to comments which include security keywords. An in-depth analysis of keywords based on Naive Bayes classification is made to provide polarity of any comment. Based on comment polarity, reputation is evaluated for the whole application. Experiments made on real applications including dozens to billions of comments, reveal that developers lack to make efforts to guarantee CIAA services. A fine-grained analysis shows that not security reputed applications can be reputed in specific CIAA services. Results also show that applications with negative security polarities display in general positive functional polarities. This result suggests that security checking should include careful comment analysis to improve security of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Android; arduino; bluetooth; hand-gesture recognition; low cost; open source; sensors; smart cars; speech recognition
Online: 3 January 2019 (14:32:23 CET)
Gesture recognition has always been a technique to decrease the distance between the physical and the digital world. In this work, we introduce an Arduino based vehicle system which no longer require manual controlling of the cars. The proposed work is achieved by utilizing the Arduino microcontroller, accelerometer, RF sender/receiver, and Bluetooth. Two main contributions are presented in this work. Firstly, we show that the car can be controlled with hand-gestures according to the movement and position of the hand. Secondly, the proposed car system is further extended to be controlled by an android based mobile application having different modes (e.g., touch buttons mode, voice recognition mode). In addition, an automatic obstacle detection system is introduced to improve the safety measurements to avoid any hazards. The proposed systems are designed at lab-scale prototype to experimentally validate the efﬁciency, accuracy, and affordability of the systems. We remark that the proposed systems can be implemented under real conditions at large-scale in the future that will be useful in automobiles and robotics applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Smartphone; cloud; privacy; framework; mobile privacy; blockchain; permission system; data security; Android OS; Zygote; Dalvik VM
Online: 7 September 2020 (08:53:02 CEST)
The Smartphone industry has expanded significantly over the last few years. According to the available data, each year, a marked increase in the number of devices in use is observed. Most consumers opt for Smartphones due to the extensive number of software applications that can be downloaded on their devices, thus increasing their functionality. However, this growing trend of application installation brings an issue of user protection, as most applications seek permission to access data on a user’s device. The risks this poses to sensitive data is real to both corporate and individual users. While Android has grown in popularity, this trend has not been followed by the efforts to increase the security of its users. This is a well-known set of problems, and prior solutions have approached it from the ground up; that is, they have focused on implementing reasonable security policies within the Android’s open-source kernel. While these solutions have achieved the goals of improving Android with such security policies, they are severely hampered by the way in which they have implemented them. In this work, a framework referred to as CenterYou is proposed to overcome these issues. It applies a pseudo data technique and a cloud-based decision-making system to scan and protect Smartphone devices from unnecessarily requested permissions by installed applications and identifies potential privacy leakages. The current paper demonstrated all aspects of the CenterYou application technical design. The work presented here provides a significant contribution to the field, as the technique based on pseudo data is used in the actual permissions administration of Android applications. Moreover, this system is user and cloud-driven, rather than being governed by over-privileged applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0123.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Mobile device threats; mobile device malware; reverse proxy server; cyber security; android security; ios security; abuse of local area network; DNS spoofing; DNS hijacking
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:23:18 CEST)
Mobile devices have become tools we spend our free time where we carry them with us every moment, they allow us to interact with the environment, we immortalize the moment when necessary. These devices which we spend most of our daily life become very common in recent years and even there are unique business areas emerged. It was announced that the number of people using smartphones is over than 2.5 billion in the first quarter of 2016. As people become more addicted to mobile technology, they become the target of malevolent people. A huge increase in the number of mobile malware is observed as the number of the users increase. Billions of users at risk day by day due to the development of the methods. We have addressed the recent methods used and the types of malware that target mobile devices in our study. We have mentioned the proxy server and reverse proxy server operation logic. We discuss the method of turning mobile devices into reverse proxy servers, risks involved and protection methods.