ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Array electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, controlled source electromagnetics, microseismics, reservoir monitoring, enhanced oil recovery, recovery factor improvement
Online: 23 September 2021 (12:27:38 CEST)
Focusing geophysics to improve recovery factor of hydrocarbon reservoirs adds value and contributes toward ZERO carbon footprint by increasing the recovery factor by of 30-40 % and thus reducing the cost/carbon emission per produced barrel. Thus, the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) market is expected to grow more than 3.5% annually. This will be even more fueled by the Green-House-Gas (GHG) reduction and subsequent CO2 injection into the reservoirs as they are being produced. Presently, geophysics only ac-counts for a small percentage of this market, thus its growth is inevitable since more deterministic observation lead higher operating efficiency. Imaging the fluids (hydro-carbon, water, and CO2) is a key component to optimized production and injection. We designed a novel electromagnetic (EM) acquisition system that combines mul-ti-physics fluid imaging and acquires surface and borehole data with high fidelity. Borehole calibration is needed to upscale reservoir data and parameters to measurement scale. Multiple electromagnetic methods are used as well as microseismics in one layout for Exploration and Production (E & P) problems. Multi-components in electromagnetics allows resolving oil and water-bearing zones equally well while achieving the best ac-curacy suitable for repeat measurements. Because sedimentary basins are intrinsically anisotropic, considering 3-dimensional anisotropy is essential from measurement and 3D modeling viewpoint. Thus, the results have the better subsurface images. Here, we combine hardware design, methodology, 3D modeling, processing, and interpretations into an integrated technology and demonstrate the success with verifiable case histories.