REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0359.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Core set; Climate change; Nitrogen use efficiency; Omic approaches; Plant genetic resources; Stress; Systems biology; Water use efficiency
Online: 15 July 2021 (13:28:14 CEST)
Germplasm is a long-term resource management mission and investment for civilization. For both food and nutritional health, the present changing environmental scenario has become an urgent universal concern. Multiple excellent studies have been previously performed, although the advancement and innovation of practices will require the exploration of the potentiality of crop germplasm. In this study, we emphasized (i) germplasm activates, current challenges and ongoing trends of the crop germplasm, and (ii) how the system biology will be helpful to understand the complex traits such as water use efficiency (WUE), and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) to mitigate challenges for sustainable development under growing food requirement and climate change conditions. We focused on a vision for transforming PGR into a bio-digital resource system, for the development of climate-smart crops for sustainable food production. Moreover, this review attempted to address current challenges, research gaps and describe the advanced integrated strategies that could provide a platform for future crop improvement research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0033.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: MV20/20; PoDFA; LiMCA; Business Analytics; anomaly detection; statistical process control; K-Means; DBSCAN; multi-layer perceptron; activation fucntion; inclusion; confusion matrix
Online: 19 August 2022 (06:03:08 CEST)
This paper presents work done as part of a transformation effort towards a greener and more sustainable Aluminium manufacturing plant. The effort includes reducing the carbon footprint by minimising waste and increasing operational efficiency. The contribution of this work includes the reduction of waste through the implementation of autonomous, real-time quality measurement and classification at an Aluminium casthouse. Data is collected from the MV20/20 which uses ultrasound pulses to detect molten Aluminium inclusions, which degrade the quality of the metal and cause subsequent metal waste. The sensor measures cleanliness, inclusion counts and distributions from 20 - 160 microns. The contribution of this work is in the development of business analytics to implement condition-based monitoring through anomaly detection, and to classify inclusion types for samples that failed. For anomaly detection, multivariate K-Means and DBSCAN algorithms are compared as they have been proven to work in a wide range of datasets. For classification, a two-stage classifier is implemented. The first stage classifies the success or failure of the sample, while the second stage classifies the inclusion responsible for the failed sample. The algorithms considered include logistic regression, support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function network. The multi-layer perceptron offers the best performance using k-fold cross-validation, and is further tuned using grid search to explore the possibility of an even better performance. The results reveal that the model has achieved a global maximum in performance. Recommendations include the integration of additional sensor systems and the improvements in quality assurance practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0178.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: chromatic number; graph partitioning; NP to P; motif identifier; protein design
Online: 11 May 2018 (08:58:35 CEST)
Graph coloring is a manifestation of graph partitioning, wherein, a graph is partitioned based on the adjacency of its elements. Partitioning serves potentially as a compartmentalization for any structural problem. Vertex coloring is the heart of the problem which is to find the chromatic number of a graph. The fact that there is no general efficient solution to this problem that may work unequivocally for all graphs opens up the realistic scope for combinatorial optimization algorithms to be invoked. The algorithmic complexity of graph coloring is non-deterministic in polynomial time (NP) and hard. To the best of our knowledge, there is no algorithm as yet that procures an exact solution of the chromatic number comprehensively for any and all graphs within the polynomial (P) time domain. However, several heuristics as well as some approximation algorithms have been attempted to obtain an approximate solution for the same. Here, we present a novel heuristic, namely, the 'trailing path', which returns an approximate solution of the chromatic number within polynomial time, and, with a better accuracy than most existing algorithms. The ‘trailing path’ algorithm is effectively a subtle combination of the search patterns of two existing heuristics (DSATUR and Largest First), and, operates along a trailing path of consecutively connected nodes (and thereby effectively maps to the problem of finding spanning tree(s) of the graph) during the entire course of coloring, where essentially lies both the novelty and the apt of the current approach. The study also suggests that the judicious implementation of randomness is one of the keys towards rendering an improved accuracy in such combinatorial optimization algorithms. Apart from the algorithmic attributes, essential properties of graph partitioning in random and different structured networks have also been surveyed, followed by a comparative study. The study reveals the remarkable stability and absorptive property of chromatic number across a wide array of graphs. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the potential use of graph coloring in protein design – yet another hard problem in structural and evolutionary biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0129.v1
Online: 7 July 2020 (16:26:57 CEST)
The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country like Bangladesh is enormous. A research conducted by South Asian network of Economic Modelling predicted that the pandemic could double the poverty. But it is not that only the socioeconomic condition is dropping in Bangladesh, the impact of COVID-19 pandemic is manifold. The poor condition of Bangladesh's health sector has also been exposed due to the pandemic. People are not getting proper treatment due to lack of isolation beds, oxygen, ICU etc. The health sector of Bangladesh is not much developed and now with this pandemic it has become impossible to provide treatment facility for all the patients. Education sector, which is the backbone of a country,has also been greatly affected by the pandemic. We know that different types of cultural occasions are an inherited tradition of Bangladesh, COVID-19 have not even spared these traditions, all the cultural programes and festivals have been cancelled due to this pandemic.In this paper, our aim is to present the present status of all these sectors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; evolution of SARS-CoV-2; replication; emerging disease 2019 and diagnostic tools
Online: 30 April 2020 (10:39:54 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease in humans that is known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age and gender. Diagnosis of the disease is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: pintle type rotary spool valve; flow distributor valve; computational fluid dynamics (CFD); orbit motor
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:34:52 CEST)
In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of spool port/ groove geometry on the pressure drop and chamber pressures which effect the performance parameters of the flow distributor valve. The work mainly involves formulation of detailed mathematical model of the valve and compare them on the same platform. For mathematical modelling, Matlab has been used. The size of the orifices is considered same throughout the model for better comparison. Initially the construction and functioning of flow distributor valve along with working principles of hydrostatic motor (Rotary Piston) is shown. Next shown the analytical analysis of area change and pressure drops due to different geometry of the spool valve ports. After that the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been shown. A complete mathematical model to describe such flow distributor valve is developed after having a comprehensive knowledge of orifice characteristics, flow interactions based on valve geometry. Equations of flow through different orifices (fixed and variable area) of the valve have been developed based on the relationships obtained earlier.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Epitranscriptomics, acute myeloid leukemia, microRNA, CISH, Immunotherapeutics.
Online: 10 May 2021 (13:53:12 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations have contributed greatly to human carcinogenesis. Conventional epigenetic studies have been predominantly focused on DNA methylation, histone modifications and chromatin remodelling. However, recently, RNA modification (m6A-methylation) also termed ‘epitranscriptomics’ has emerged as a new layer of epigenetic regulation due to its diverse role in various biological processes. In this review, we have summarized the therapeutic potential of m6A-modifiers in controlling haematological disorders especially acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It is a type of blood cancer affecting specific subsets of blood-forming hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) which proliferate rapidly and acquire self-renewable capacities with impaired terminal cell-differentiation and apoptosis leading to abnormal accumulation of white blood cells, and thus an alternative therapeutic approach is required urgently. Here, we have described how RNA m6A-modification machineries EEE (Editor/writer: Mettl3, Mettl14; Eraser/remover: FTO, ALKBH5 and Effector/reader: YTHDF-1/2) could be reformed into potential druggable candidate or as RNA modifying drug (RMD) to treat leukemia. Moreover, we have shed-light on the role of microRNA and suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS/CISH) in increasing anti-tumor immunity towards leukemia. We anticipate, our investigation will provide a fundamental knowledge in nurturing the potential of RNA modifiers in discovering novel therapeutics or immunotherapeutic procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0477.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: High Throughput Plant Phenotyping; Deep Neural Network; Flower Detection; Temporal Phenotypes; Benchmark Dataset; Flower Status Report
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:00:24 CET)
A phenotype is the composite of an observable expression of a genome for traits in a given environment. The trajectories of phenotypes computed from an image sequence and timing of important events in a plant’s life cycle can be viewed as temporal phenotypes and indicative of the plant’s growth pattern and vigor. In this paper, we introduce a novel method called FlowerPhenoNet which uses deep neural networks for detecting flowers from multiview image sequences for high throughput temporal plant phenotyping analysis. Following flower detection, a set of novel flower-based phenotypes are computed, e.g., the day of emergence of the first flower in a plant’s life cycle, the total number of flowers present in the plant at a given time, the highest number of flowers bloomed in the plant, growth trajectory of a flower and the blooming trajectory of a plant. To develop a new algorithm and facilitate performance evaluation based on experimental analysis, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we introduce a benchmark dataset called FlowerPheno which comprises image sequences of three flowering plant species, e.g., sunflower, coleus, and canna, captured by a visible light camera in a high throughput plant phenotyping platform from multiple view angles. The experimental analyses on the FlowerPheno dataset demonstrate the efficacy of the FlowerPhenoNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Features Classification; Self-Organizing Map; Optimal Neural Networks; Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization; Internet of Things
Online: 19 September 2018 (16:15:56 CEST)
Ovarian Cancer (OC) is a type of cancer that affects ovaries in women, and is difficult to detect at initial stage due to which it remains as one of the leading causes of cancer death. The ovarian cancer data generated from the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) was used and a novel approach was proposed for distinguishing the ovarian cancer by utilizing Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Optimal Recurrent Neural Networks (ORNN). SOM algorithm was utilized for better feature subset selection and was also utilized for separating profitable, understood and intriguing data from huge measures of medical data. In supervised learning techniques, the SOM-based feature selection seems to be a tougher challenge because of the absence of class labels that would guide the search for relevant information to the classifier model. The classification approach can identify ovarian cancer data as benign/malignant. The ovarian cancer detection process can be improved by optimizing the weights of RNN structure using Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization (AHSO). The proposed model in this study can be used to detect cancer at early stages with high accuracy and low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0207.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: crop intensification; energy balance; North East Hill Region; organic farming; soil health; water productivity
Online: 18 July 2019 (09:06:21 CEST)
Organic farming has positive, impact on environment, soil health, and healthy food quality. Worldwide demand for organic foods is increasing by leaps and bounds in recent years. The present investigation was undertaken during 2014 to 2018 to evaluate the effect of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) co-culture with maize (Zea mays L.) on productivity enhancement over prevailing maize-fallow system, and to assess the feasibility of inclusion of short duration winter crops after maize with appropriate residue management practices on productivity and soil health. The experiment comprised of six cropping systems in main plot and three soil moisture conservation (SMC) measures options in sub plot. Results indicated that the inclusion of second crop in place of fallow and cowpea co-culture with maize increased average maize grain yield by 6.2 to 23.5% as compared to that of maize-fallow (MF). Use of maize stover mulch (MSM) + weed biomass mulch (WBM) increases maize grain yield by 19.1 and 6.5% over those of MSM and no mulch (NM), respectively. Various soil moisture conservation (SMC) measures had significant (p=0.05) effect on crop yields and water productivity. Double cropping system had significantly (p=0.05) higher amount of soil available NPK, soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) at 0-15 cm and at 15-30 cm depth than those under MF. The SWC measures of MSM+WBM had significantly higher available N, SOC, and MBC by 5.5, 4.8 and 8.1% than those under NM, respectively. Correspondingly, soils under MSM and MSM+WBM had 2.24 and 2.99% lower bulk density (ρb) in 0-15 cm and 2.21 and 2.94% lower ρb in 15-30 cm than that of NM. The energy use efficiency (EUE) was significantly higher under MCV (7.90%) over rest of the cropping sequences. MSM+WBM and MSM recorded 25.1 and 16.6% higher net energy over NM, respectively. The net return (INR 159.99×103/ha) and B:C ratio (2.86) were significantly higher with MCV system followed by MCR cropping sequence. MSM+WBM had significantly higher net return (INR 109.44×103/h), B:C ratio (2.46) over those under MSM (INR 97.6×103/h) and NM (INR 78.61×103/h). Overall the cowpea co-culture with maize and inclusion of short cycle winter crops along with MSM+WBM in maize-based cropping systems was found productive in terms of crop and water, profitable, energy efficient and sustained the soil health.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0492.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: glideosome-associated connector; protein; crystallography; structure
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:13:26 CET)
A model for parasitic motility has been proposed in which parasite filamentous actin (F-actin) is attached to surface adhesins by a large component of the glideosome, known as the glideosome-associated connector protein (GAC). This large 286 kDa protein interacts at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane with the phosphatidic acid-enriched inner leaflet and cytosolic tails of surface adhesins to connect them to the parasite actomyosin system. GAC is observed initially to the conoid at the apical pole and re-localised with the glideosome to the basal pole in gliding parasite. GAC presumably functions in force transmission to surface adhesins in the plasma membrane and not in force generation. Proper connection between F-actin and the adhesins is as important for motility and invasion as motor operation itself. This notion highlights the need for new structural information on GAC interactions, which has eluded the field since its discovery. We have obtained crystals that diffracted to 2.6-2.9 Å for full-length GAC from Toxoplasma gondii in native and selenomethionine-labelled forms. These crystals belong to space group P212121, cell dimensions are roughly a=119 Å, b=123Å, c=221Å, α=90, β=90, γ=90 with 1 molecule per asymmetric unit, suggesting a more compact conformation than previously proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0089.v1
Online: 5 July 2019 (04:53:09 CEST)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a polygenic metabolic disease described by hyperglycemia, which is caused by insulin resistance or reduced insulin secretion. Interaction between various genetic variants and environmental factors triggers T2DM. The main aim of this study was to find the risk associated with genetic variant (rs5210) of KCNJ11gene in the development of T2D in Indian Population. A total number of 300 cases of T2D and 100 control samples were studied to find the polymorphism in KCNJ11 through PCR-RFLP. The genotype and allele frequencies in T2DM cases were significantly different from the control population. We found a significant association of KCNJ11 (rs5210) gene polymorphism with T2DM in North Indian patients indicating the role of this variant in developing risk for T2DM.