ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0356.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: pulse oximetry; congenital heart disease; neonate; hypoxemia; Latin America; Ibero-American Society of Neonatology
Online: 24 February 2020 (14:08:22 CET)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is among the 4 more common causes of infant mortality in Latin America. Pulse oximetry screening (POS) is useful for early diagnosis and improved outcomes of critical CHD. We describe POS implementation efforts in Latin American countries guided and/or coordinated by the Ibero American Society of Neonatology (SIBEN) as well as the unique challenges that are faced for universal implementation. SIBEN collaborates to improve neonatal quality of care and outcomes. A few years ago, a Clinical Consensus on POS was finalized. Since then, we participated in 12 Latin American countries to educate neonatal nurses and neonatologists on POS and to help with its implementation. The findings reveal that despite wide disparities in care that exist between and within countries, and the difficulties and challenges for implementing POS, significant progress was made. We conclude that universal POS is not easy to implement in Latin America but, when executed, not only it has been of significant value for babies with CHD but also for many with other hypoxemic conditions. The successful and universal implementation of POS in the future is essential to reduce the mortality associated with CHD and other hypoxemic conditions and will ultimately lead to the survival of many more Latin American babies. POS saves newborns’ lives in Latin America.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Electronic Medical Record; American Healthcare System; Unified EMR
Online: 13 March 2023 (06:14:27 CET)
Innovation development in healthcare has paved the path towards the improvement in system efficiency, patient care and cost-effective healthcare services, increasing the overall efficiency of the healthcare system in a significant manner. Electronic medical record system has fostered interoperability and collaboration in healthcare departments by enabling different systems to exchange and use patient data. This trend has been accelerated dominantly by the pandemic, leading to increased use of telemedicine, referring specifically to the use of electronic communication to provide healthcare services remotely. Moreover, an increased prevalence towards the use of artificial intelligence and machine learning in healthcare has contributed effectively towards the rigorous and informed analysis of large amounts of data as well as to identify patterns or trends that may be useful for improving care delivery or identifying potential issues. A unified electronic medical record System that will generate competitive opportunities and success prospects with reference to enhanced interoperability in US healthcare departments, can contribute towards the improvement in the quality and efficiency of care by making it easier for healthcare providers to access and share patient information as well as reducing the risk of errors in effective patient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Antibiotic resistance; Mutation rates; American Indian
Online: 30 June 2023 (11:49:29 CEST)
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common bacterial infection linked to gastric malignancies. While H. pylori infection and gastric cancer rates are decreasing, antibiotic resistance varies greatly by community. Little is known about resistance rates among rural Indigenous populations in the United States. From 2018 to 2021, 396 endoscopy patients were recruited from a Northern Arizona clinic, where community H. pylori prevalence is near 60%. Gastric biopsy samples positive for H. pylori (n=67) were sequenced for clarithromycin and metronidazole-associated mutations, 23S ribosomal RNA (23S), and oxygen-insensitive NADPH nitroreductase (rdxA) regions. Medical record data were extracted for endoscopic findings and prior H. pylori history. Data analysis was restricted to individuals with no history of H. pylori infection. Of 49 individuals, representing 64 samples that amplified in the 23S region, a clarithromycin-associated mutation was present in 38.8%, with T2182C the most common mutation, 90%. While prevalence of metronidazole resistance-associated mutations was higher, 93.9%, mutations were more variable, with D95N the most common, followed by L62V. No statistically significant sex differences were observed for either antibiotic. Given the risk of treatment failure with antibiotic resistance, there is a need to consider the resistance profile during treatment selection. The resistance rates in this population of American Indian patients undergoing endoscopy are similar to other high-risk populations. This is concerning given the high H. pylori prevalence and low rates of resistance testing in clinical settings. The mutations reported are associated with antibiotic resistance, but clinical resistance must be confirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0180.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: American grapevine rootstocks; vertical garden; offshoot growth; footprint
Online: 16 July 2018 (05:23:00 CEST)
In this study, grapevine was used as the research material. This plant which epitomizes the opinion that vertical gardens can have a positive influence on human psychology with their beautiful view, e.g., the hanging gardens of Babylon about 2500 years ago. The study in question was conducted in 2016 at Bingol University, Faculty of Agriculture, the Department of Garden Plants research and application area. The offshoot growth was measured in a fertilizer experiment that formed the control, first application (200 g/100 L water, leaf) and second application (100 g/100 L water + 20% leaf + root). Moreover, the plant’s footprint in the vertical area was determined. The average offshoot growth of 1103 P American grapevine rootstock in the first and second applications was measured as 61.5 cm and 39.5 cm respectively, and it was 43.0 cm and 51.0 for C American grapevine rootstock. The average growth of 1103 P and 1616 C American grapevine in the control group was determined as 30.6 cm and 32.1 cm. The average growth of both American grapevine rootstocks used in the experiment was determined to be higher for the first and second applications than the controls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Native American students; Retention, Enrollment, Graduation
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:35:04 CEST)
Native Americans are the single most underrepresented racial group in American higher education today; those enrolled in college are also disproportionately first-generation students. In order to help universities attract and retain Native American students, this study utilizes the four R’s of indigenous research to document the motivations of first-generation Native American students to attend and remain at a mid-sized public university in the northwest. Student participants report that social and cultural support were key factors in their decisions to attend and remain at their institution. Implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations are made to higher education institutions seeking to attract and retain Native American students.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1632.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Bioarchaeology; Skeletal collections; Human Remains; Native American
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:11:20 CEST)
In the 21st century, museums have come to realize that the human skeletons they display might have problematic origins. The older anthropological skeletal collections typically originate from anatomical dissection of the executed and the very poor, or from scavenged graves of indigenous people. Such collections are currently being re-evaluated in many countries, and reburying or repatriating museum skeletons have become viable options. A particularly difficult question is what to do with human remains of unknown origins. Here, we present and discuss one such case, where a human skeleton of unclear origin in the 1930’s was brought to a local museum in Bollnäs, Sweden, under likely unethical circumstances. Most of the bones have now been lost, except for the skull, the sacrum and one lumbar vertebra, which in 2007 were transferred to the Museum of Ethnography in Stockholm. The skull was there put on display as the “Bollnäs skull”, and was presented to the public to illustrate the dilemmas involved in handling human remains in the post-colonial era. The original gift letter from 1934 stated that the skeleton came from San Nicolas Island outside the California coast, but this letter contained numerous instances of incorrect information and was therefore deemed not trustworthy. However, our critical examination of the skull and its background information indicates that San Nicolas Island is a plausible origin, and we suggest that a bioarchaeological comparison should be made between the skull and living descendants of the San Nicolas Island population, and/or with archaeological human skeletons excavated from the island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Football; athletic performance; body composition; Latin-American soccers
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:34 CEST)
Knowledge of body composition is essential for athletes for their sport performance. It has yet to be determined whether differences in body composition are present between international and non-international players playing in the same elite professional club competition. Similarly, it is not yet clear whether differences in body composition according to ethnic origin exist in the elite professional game, where relative homogeneity is to be expected among soccer players. There is no single anthropometric profile that guarantees sporting success, as the somatotype of football players differs according to their individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the description and comparison of the body composition profile of latin american professional football players playing in european leagues. The sample was composed of 238 subjects football players from European professional football leagues. Differences were found in all variables measured. The present study shows that in Latin American professional football players playing in Europe, there are significant differences in different body composition variables such as weight, height, WC, skinfold and fat values. This means that the treatment of these data and the possible classifications of sporting performance carried out in football clubs should be different to other European or African-American football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0388.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: prostate cancer; SNP; TP53; Pro47Ser; Arg72Pro; African American
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:41:25 CEST)
Growing evidence indicates the involvement of a genetic component for CaP susceptibility and clinical severity. Somatic mutations of TP53 have been associated with 50% of diverse human cancers. Studies have also reported the role of germ line mutations and single nucleotide poly-morphisms (SNPs) of TP53 as possible risk factors for cancer development. In this single De-partment of Defense institutional retrospective study, we identified common SNPs in the TP53 gene in AA and CA men and performed association analyses for functional TP53 SNPs with clinico-pathological features of CaP. The CPDR Oncoarray database on blood derived genomic DNA from 321 men treated by radical prostatectomy at WRNMMC were used to examine clini-co-pathological associations with TP53 SNPs. The SNP genotyping analysis on the final cohort of 308 patients (212 AA; 95 CA) identified 74 SNPs in the TP53 gene region with a minor allele fre-quency (MAF) of at least 1%. Two SNPs were non-synonymous in the exonic region of TP53: rs1800371 (Pro47Ser) and rs1042522 (Arg72Pro). The Pro47Ser variant, had a minor allele frequency of 0.01 in AA, however, was not detected in CA. Arg72Pro was the most common SNP with a minor allele frequency of 0.50 (0.41 in AA; 0.68 in CA). Additionally, Arg72Pro was associated with time to biochemical recurrence (BCR) after statistical adjustment for patient age at diagnosis, self-reported race, and Gleason score (p= 0.046; HR = 1.52). The present study demonstrated ancestral differences in allele frequencies of TP53 Arg72Pro and Pro47Ser SNPs in AA and CA CaP, providing a valuable framework for the interrogating CaP disparity among AA and CA men.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: CYP3A5; androgen receptor; African American; CYP3A5 inhibitors/inducers
Online: 6 March 2020 (03:33:52 CET)
Androgen receptor signaling is crucial for prostate cancer growth and is positively regulated in part by intratumoral CYP3A5. As African American (AA) men often carry the wild type CYP3A5 and express high level of CYP3A5 protein, we blocked the wild type CYP3A5 in AA origin prostate cancer cells and tested its effect on androgen receptor signaling. q-PCR based profiler assay identified several AR regulated genes known to regulate AR nuclear translocation, cell cycle progression and cell growth. CYP3A5 processes several commonly prescribed drugs and many of these are CYP3A5 inducers or inhibitors. In this study, we test the effect of these commonly prescribed CYP3A5 inducers/inhibitors on AR signaling. The results show that the CYP3A5 inducers promoted AR nuclear translocation, downstream signaling and cell growth whereas CYP3A5 inhibitors abrogated them. The observed changes in AR activity is specific to alterations in CYP3A5 activity. Both the inducers tested demonstrated increased cell growth of prostate cancer cells, whereas the inhibitors showed reduced cell growth. Further, characterization and utilization of the observation that CYP3A5 inducers and inhibitors alter AR signaling may provide guidance to physicians prescribing CYP3A5 modulating drugs to treat comorbidities in elderly patients undergoing ADT, particularly AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; ulcerative colitis; American ginseng; Panaxynol; macrophages
Online: 19 March 2018 (08:32:22 CET)
Ulcerative colitis has a significant impact on the quality of life for the patients, and can substantially increase the risk of colon cancer in patients suffering long-term. Conventional treatments provide only modest relief paired with a high risk of side effects, while complementary and alternative medicines can offer safe and effective options. Over the past decade, we have shown that American ginseng has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can suppress mouse colitis and prevent colitis associated colon cancer. With the goal of isolating a single active compound, we further fractionated the hexane fraction, and found the most abundant molecule in this fraction was the polyacetylene, Panaxynol. After isolating and characterizing Panaxynol, we tested the efficacy of Panaxynol in the treatment and prevention of colitis in mice and studied the mechanism of action. We demonstrate here that Panaxynol effectively treats colitis in a Dextran Sulfate Sodium mouse model by targeting macrophages for DNA damage and apoptosis. Positive outcomes from this study could take American ginseng one-step further towards becoming a conventional drug for the treatment of colitis, and possibility exploring other autoimmune diseases associated with macrophage dysfunction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1279.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis; Pseudocercospora ulei; South American Leaf Blight; Genetic resistance; early performance; clone selection
Online: 20 September 2023 (07:44:01 CEST)
The cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis, the primary commercial source of natural rubber, is strongly impacted by South American Leaf Blight (SALB) disease, caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora ulei. Various management strategies have been implemented, including the selection of resistant genotypes and the identification of escape zones. This study evaluated the growth, early yield, and resistance to SALB of nine Colombian elite genotypes from the ECC-100 series and IAN 873 clone (control) in a large-scale clone trial in a low SALB pressure zone in the Colombian Amazon, 2017 - 2020. Favorable early performance was evident, although there was a significant increase in the severity and sporulation of P. ulei over time, especially in the ECC 35, ECC 60, and IAN 873 genotypes. However, these scores represented a low susceptibility. Genotypes with higher resistance to SALB demonstrated greater growth and early yield compared to higher susceptible genotypes. The ECC 64, ECC 73, ECC 90, ECC 25, and ECC 29 genotypes were more desirable in low SALB pressure zones due to their higher resistance and early performance. It is important to highlight that this research contributes to the selection of new SALB-resistant Colombian genotypes of H. brasiliensis in the growth stage. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate their productivity in the mature stage and long-term resistance to SALB, before recommending and promoting their commercial adoption in the Colombian Amazon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: arboviruses; dengue virus serotype 2; cosmopolitan genotype; asian-american genotype
Online: 8 November 2023 (15:42:03 CET)
Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) is responsible for dengue epidemics on a global scale and is recognized for being associated with severe cases of the disease. This study conducted the phylogenetic investigation of DENV-2 in the Northern region of Brazil. DENV-2 isolates from 2017 to 2021, originating from Northern Brazilian states, were selected. Only one lineage (I) of the Asian-American genotype and one lineage (5) of the cosmopolitan genotype were observed. All sequences of the Asian-American genotype used in this study were segregated into a paraphyletic subgroup aligned with sequences from an American clade. These results indicate a probable geographic link starting from Puerto Rico. Additionally, sequences from Acre were identified and grouped into a monophyletic clade of the cosmopolitan genotype. These results indicate the cocirculation of two DENV-2 distinct lineages: Lineage 1, Asian-American genotype (probable origin from Puerto Rico); Lineage 5, cosmopolitan genotype (probable origin from Peru). Our results provide important data regarding the study of DENV genotypes and lineages distribution, as well as opening up possibilities for probable introduction and dissemination routes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0077.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; native American Indian; treatment; ACE2 receptor; pathophysiology; virulence
Online: 15 April 2020 (08:08:52 CEST)
Background: On Dec 19, 2019, the public health department of China reported that an outbreak of pneumonia was caused by a novel Coronavirus. The virulence of the new virus COVID-19 was much greater than either the SARs and MERSs viruses and on March 11, 2020, the World Health Department (WHO) declared a worldwide pandemic. Understanding the pathophysiology of virulence of the SARS-COV-2 virus is absolutely necessary for understanding the transmission, virulence factors, reduce risk factors, clinical presentation, predict outcomes of the disease and provide guidance for any current or future treatment protocols. Methodology: A comprehensive PubMed search was performed during December 20, 2019 and April 03, 2020, utilizing the words: Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S-protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal. Results: The SARS-COV-2 virus is much more virulent than either the SAR’s or MER’s virus and its ability to cause serious disease inversely corresponds to the person’s ability to produce T-cells which declines linearly with age. The ACE2 receptor binding site does not vary among different ethnic groups but do in ACE-2 expression levels. This variance in expression level may explain for different infectivity rates among men and women and predict and explain different susceptibilities to infection by different ethnic groups. Furthermore, by understanding the underlying pathophysiology one can explain and provide guidance to the clinical effectiveness of any treatment. Conclusions: The underlying pathophysiology of COVID-19 explains not only the virulence, and clinical presentation, but, explains at a molecular level the comorbidity risk factors such as hypertension, sex, and age. Ethnic and anatomic expression patterns of ACE-2 and associated pathophysiology suggests that Native Americans and Asians may be particularly susceptible to this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: vaginal; cesarean section; African American women; infant mortality; race/ethnicity
Online: 23 March 2020 (11:21:46 CET)
Objective: Racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality (IM) continue to persist in the United States, with Black/African Americans (AA) being disproportionally affected with threefold increase in mortality compared to Whites. Epidemiologic data have identified maternal characteristics as risk IM such as eclampsia, maternal education, smoking, maternal weight, maternal SES, and family structure. Understanding the cause of causes including the method of labor and delivery and the racial heterogeneity may facilitate intervention mapping in narrowing the Black White IM risk differences. We aimed to assess the temporal/racial trends and the methods of delivery, mainly vaginal versus cesarean section (C-section) as exposure function of IM. Methods: The United States linked Birth/Infant Death records (2007-2016) were used with a cross-sectional ecologic design. The analysis involved chi squared statistic, incidence rate estimation, and period percent change. Results: Of the 40,445,070 births between 2007 and 2016, cumulative mortality incidence was 249,135 (1.16 per 1000). The IM rate was highest among Black/AA (11.41 per 1000), intermediate among Whites (5.19 per 1000), and lowest among Asian /Pacific Islanders (4.24 per 1000). The cumulative incidence rate difference, comparing vaginal to cesarean procedure was 1.73 per 1000 infants, implying excess IM with C-section. Compared to C-section, there was a 31% decreased risk of IM among mothers with vaginal delivery, rate ratio (RR) = 0.69, 95% CI 0.64-0.74. Racial disparities was observed in the method of delivery associated with IM. Black/AA mothers with vaginal delivery had a 6% decreased risk of IM compared to C-section, RR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.95, while Whites with vaginal delivery had a 38% decrease risk of IM relative to C-section, RR= 0.68, 95%CI 0.67-0.69, p<0.001. Conclusion: Infant mortality varied by race, with Black/AA disproportionally affected which is explained in part by labor and delivery procedures, suggesting reliable and equitable intrapartum assessment of Black/AA mothers during labor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Flood hazard; CaMa-Flood; Flood Map Viewer; Floodplain mapping; Flood risk; North American Regional Reanalysis; Property exposure
Online: 11 April 2022 (03:35:28 CEST)
Flood events and their associated damages have escalated significantly in the last few decades. To add to the gruesome situation, many reports and studies warn that flood risk would aggravate significantly in future periods due to significant alterations in the climate patterns and socio-economic dynamics. Floodplain mapping is looked upon as a viable option to tackle this global issue as it provides both quantitative and qualitative information on flood dynamics. Moreover, with the increasing availability of global data and enhancement in computational simulations, it has become easier to simlate flooding patterns at large scales. This study deter-mines the usability of publicly available datasets in capturing flood hazards over Canada. Run-off data set from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), along with a few other rele-vant inputs are fed to CaMa-Flood, a robust global hydrodynamic model to generate flooding patterns for 1 in 100 and 1 in 200-yr return period events over Canada . The simulated maps are compared and validated with the existing maps of a few flood-prone regions in Canada, thereby establishing their performance over both regional and country-scale. Later, the simulated flood-plain maps are used in conjunction with property related information at 34 cities (within the top 100 populous cities in Canada) to determine the degree of exposure due to flooding in 1991, 2001, and 2011. The results indicate that around 80 percent of inundated spots belong to high and very-high hazard classes in a 200-yr event, which is roughly 4 percent more than simulated for 100-yr event. NARR derived floodplain maps perform very well while compared over the six flood-prone regions. While analyzing the exposure of properties to flooding, we notice an in-crease in the number during the last three decades, with the maximum rise observed in Toronto, followed by Montreal, and Edmonton. To disseminate the extensive flood-related information, a web-based public tool, Flood Map Viewer (http://www.floodmapviewer.com/) is developed. The development of the tool was motivated by the commitment of the Canadian government to provide $63 M over the next three years for the completion of flood maps for higher-risk areas. The study reaches out to demonstrate how publicly available datasets can be utilized with a lesser degree of uncertainty in representing flooding patterns over large regions. The flood re-lated information derived from the study can be used along with vulnerability for quantifying flood risk, which will help in developing appropriate pathways for resilience building for long-term sustainable benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0467.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Sign Language Recognition (SLR); Large Scale Dataset; American Sign Language; Turkey Sign Language; Chinese Sign Language; AUTSL; CSL
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:24:04 CEST)
Sign Language Recognition (SLR) aims to bridge speech-impaired and general communities by recognizing signs from given videos. Researchers still face challenges developing efficient SLR systems because of the video’s complex background, light illumination, and subject structures. Recently many researchers developed a skeleton-based sign language recognition system to overcome the subject and background variation of hand gesture signs. However, skeleton-based SLR is still under exploration due to the lack of information and annotations on hand key points. More recently, researchers included body and face information with the hand gesture for the SLR, but their performance and efficiency are unsatisfactory. We proposed a Multi-Stream Graph-based Deep Neural Network (SL-GDN) for a skeleton-based SLR system to overcome the problems. The main purpose of the proposed SL-GDN approach is to improve the efficiency and performance of the SLR system with a low computational cost based on the human body pose in the form of 2D landmark locations. In the procedure, firstly, we constructed a skeleton graph based on the selected 27 whole-body key points among 67 key points to solve the inefficiency problems. Then we proposed multi-stream SL-GDN to extract features from the whole-body skeleton graph for four streams. Finally, we concatenated the four different features and applied a classification module to refine the feature and recognize corresponding sign classes. Our data-driven and graph construction method increases the system’s flexibility and brings high generability to adapt various data samples. We used three large-scale benchmark SLR datasets to evaluate the proposed model: WLASL, AUTSL and CSL. The demonstrated performance accuracy table proved the superiority of the proposed model, and we believe this will be considered a great invention in the SLR domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0609.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: American cranberry (Oxycoccus macrocarpus); leaves; extract; modification; amino acid; hepatoprotective activity.
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:28:46 CEST)
The liver performs a fundamental role in the regulation of diverse physiological processes. Despite enormous advances in modern medicine, there are no completely effective drugs that stimulate hepatic function, offer complete protection to the organ, or aid in regenerating hepatic cells. Thus, it is necessary to identify alternative plant-origin pharmaceuticals more effective and less toxic for the treatment of hepatic diseases. The aim of this research was to establish the chemical composition of the American cranberry (Oxycoccus macrocarpus) leaves extract and its aminoacids preparations as well as their hepatoprotective activity. 19 phenolic compounds (8 flavonoids (flavones and flavonols), 4 anthocyanins, 2 catechins, and 3 hydroxycinnamic acids) and main amino acids (valine, arginine, glycine, histidine, aspartic acid, and taurine) were identified and quantified in the American cranberry (O. macrocarpus) leaves extract and its 7 aminoacids preparations. The therapeutic and prophylactic consumption of the American cranberry leaves extracts led to a decrease in the intensity of the lipid peroxidation process compared to the control pathology group in the experiment of acute toxic damage to the liver by tetrachloromethane on rats. The most pronounced hepatoprotective activity was established for the American cranberry leaves extracts’ preparations with arginine and valine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastric cancer; Navajos; Native Americans; American Indians; virulence factors
Online: 1 March 2022 (06:52:14 CET)
Background: In Arizona Helicobacter pylori prevalence of infection among Navajo adults is about 62% and gastric cancer incidence rate is 3-4 times higher than that of the non-Hispanic White population. Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of specific H. pylori virulence factors (cagA and vacA) among Navajo patients undergoing and their association with gastric disease. Methods: Virulence genes, cagA and vacA, in H. pylori were investigated in gastric biopsies from 96 Navajo patients over age 18 who were undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Biopsies from the antrum and fundus were used for molecular characterization to determine cagA type and number of EPIYA motifs and presence of alleles in the signal (s) and medium (m) regions of the vacA gene. Results: H. pylori infection was found in 22.9% of the biopsy samples. The cagA gene amplified in 57.6% of samples and showed a predominant “Western cagA” type, with the EPIYA-ABC motif (45.4%), most prevalent. The vacA allele s1bm1 was the most prevalent (54.5%). Conclusions: H. pylori genotypes were predominantly cagA Western-type and ABC EPIYA motifs. The vacA s1bm1 genotype was the most prevalent and seemed to be associated with gastritis. American Indian/Alaska Native populations are at higher risk for gastric cancer. It is important to identify genotypes of H. pylori and virulence factors involved in the high prevalence of H. pylori and associated disease among the Navajo population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0647.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: American Mink; COVID-19; Neovison vison; SARS-CoV-2; Spike; wildlife
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:39:13 CET)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19 , is considered a pathogen with animal origin, mainly transmitted human to human. It has been experimentally and naturally demonstrated that several animals can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. There are strong evidences that minks are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, since several cases of human to mink infection have been reported, and it has been suggested mink to human infection exists, which so far it is the most reliable example of a zoonotic event of COVID-19 . However, all these cases reported are form mink farms, with the exception of one case in the USA in which the virus was detected in a mink located in the wild, but it was demonstrated that the animal was infected on a fur farm. In the present work, we have detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in two wild American minks (Neovison vison) in Valencian Community (Eastern Spain) during invasive species trapping campaigns. The animals were trapped from areas known for harbouring self-sustained populations, far away from the nearest fur farm. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in mesenteric lymph nodes samples by RT-PCR. A partial region of the Spike protein gene was amplified and sequence obtaining a 397 nt size sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shown that both sequences were identical to the consensus variant SARS CoV-2 sequence (from Wuhan). This research describes the first infection report of a true wild American mink not related to infected fur farms or direct contact with humans, which is believed to be the first example of wild animals in which SARS-CoV-2 has been detected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Groundwater Modeling; Hydrologic Monitoring Network; American Samoa; Jupyter Notebooks; GitHub; Python
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:45:15 CET)
Recent advancements in cloud-computing and social-networking are influencing how we communicate professionally, work collaboratively, and approach data-science tasks. Here we show how the groundwater modeling field is well positioned to benefit from these advancements. We present a case study detailing a vertically-integrated, collaborative modeling framework jointly developed by participants at the American Samoa Power Authority and at the University of Hawaii Water Resources Research Center. The framework components include direct collection and analysis of climatic and streamflow data, development of a water budget model, and initiation of a dynamic groundwater modeling process. The framework is entirely open-source and applies newly available data-science infrastructure using Python-based tools compiled with Jupyter Notebooks and cloud computing services such as GitHub. These resources allow for seamless integration of multiple computational components into a dynamic cloud-based workflow that is immediately accessible to stakeholders, resource managers, or anyone with an internet connection
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0195.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: thermal comfort; green spaces; South American city; urban morphology; climate perception
Online: 23 March 2018 (05:03:39 CET)
This paper presents a research carried out in the city of Chillan, a medium size city located on the southern limit of the Chilean Mediterranean domain, at 36º 36`s south latitude. Chillán provides a good representative example of warm summers in central and southern Chilean cities. Five public spaces were selected, representing different typologies and relating to different urban background conditions. Users in these public spaces were observed, counted and photographed five times a day (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 hours, local time) during a heat wave event in the summer of 2016, while meteorological parameters were established at different points within the public space. The variables evaluated were impervious surfaces, Skyview factor, H/W, azimuth, shadow and radiation. Local public environmental management should pay attention to the complex relations between urban climate, public spaces and thermal comfort since they affect the quality of life of the most vulnerable sectors of the population. This is particularly important given the increasing episodes of high temperatures and intense heat waves occurred in the city of Chillán in recent summers, which are related to urban heat islands and climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0946.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum; Canine visceral leishmaniasis; Human visceral leishmaniasis; Lutzomyia longipalpis; American visceral leishmaniasis, canine euthanasia
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:49:30 CEST)
Background: Porteirinha is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), with intense disease transmission of the disease. We evaluated the impact of canine euthanasia as a single control measure on the incidence of VL in humans and canines. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was carried out over four years (1998–2002) in eight of the 12 neighborhoods of the city. The dynamics of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) transmission were evaluated for 2 years, before beginning the screening-culling intervention. The comparative morbidity index (CMI) was used to stratify areas with the greatest risk of CVL, and the spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases was compared using univariate and bivariate K functions. Results: Human cases conglomerated in three neighborhoods. Spatial clusters were detected for CVL in 1998, 2000, and 2001, but not in 1999, when greater spatial dispersion occurred. The screening and culling intervention reduced the number of human VL cases and decreased the incidence of CVL, mainly in neighbor-hoods with a high CMI. Conclusions: The systematic euthanasia of seropositive dogs was shown to be an effective control action of the Program for Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (PCLV) in Brazil. The fundamental role of domestic dogs in the epidemiological chain of VL was reaffirmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: canine tegumentary leishmaniasis; canine subclinical infection; Leishmania braziliensis; Human American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis
Online: 23 June 2023 (12:11:10 CEST)
Dogs play an important role in the transmission of Leishmania infantum but epidemiologic and clinical studies of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL) are scarce. In an endemic area of human American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis, we determine the prevalence and incidence of both CTL and subclinical (SC) L. braziliensis infection in dogs and evaluated if the presence of dogs with the CTL or the SC L. braziliensis infection is associated with the occurrence of human ATL. SC infection in healthy animals and CTL in animals with ulcers was determined by PCR on biopsied healthy skin or on the ulcer or detecting antibodies against soluble leishmania antigen. We compared the occurrence of human ATL in homes with dogs with CTL or SC infection with control homes without dogs or with dogs without CTL or SC infection. The prevalence of SC infection was 35% and of CTL 31%. The incidence of SC infection in dogs was 4.6% and of CTL was 9.3%. The frequency of ATL in humans was 50% in homes with infected dogs and 13% in homes without L. braziliensis infection in dogs. CTL and SC infection is highly prevalent, and dogs may participate in the transmission chain of L. braziliensis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0769.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Latin American, Covid 19, indigenous rights, health culture, government agencies.
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:15:25 CEST)
Background: and objectives: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a culturally integrated response in all Latin American government systems. In this study, we investigate the multidimensional associations of actions in Latin American indigenous peoples against Covid-19 Methods: We performed a data mining analysis of scientific literature records from 19 academic journals, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, indigenous peoples, and future measures, rights and actions. The literature is analyzed in a multidimensional way, either isolated or combined. It uses switchable statistical methods, the R Studio, worddj, Gephi, and Iramuteq for both textual and multidimensional analysis. Results and Conclusions: In this analysis, the literature is classified into 4 linked groups which are the indigenous people, the rights of territorial protection, the indigenous health culture, the Covid-19 pandemic with its protection efforts. Taking the indigenous peoples as an axis, we observe that the covid pandemic and the protection of their territories do not have the same force in the current context, the indigenous people are more linked to the protection of their territory. Indigenous peoples have a link of cultural strength in traditional health independent of Covid treatment. It should be noted that government agencies are taking measures regarding the covid pandemic with an effort not marked within the health culture of indigenous peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0689.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: Japanese-American Internment Camps; Gaman bunka or culture of resignation; Art and violence; sustainability in hostile environments; redress to victims
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:32:43 CEST)
In this article, we have tried to answer the questions of how an entire city's fiction was created for the development of Japanese American internment camps and in which way contributions of sustainable crafts and even art could have interceded. To this aim, we have searched the literature and reviewed archives, primarily from the American West Coast. We have found that beyond adaptation to the circumstances, the visual representation of the city's settlement, founding, and daily activities, instead of typical panoptic or somber prisons’ imagery, are depicted in the selected images and that their use precisely fostered its sustainability. This leads us to deduce that a "city fiction" was necessary for such survival and endurance and that its artistic representation was primarily involved in the state's ideological apparatus. On the other hand, fissures subtly seethed the violence exerted in the camps by stealth and in a hidden fashion. We have concluded that artistic activity justified the city's fiction, together with other examples, highlighting the conditions of systemic violence and oppression for the inmates. In this framework, the artworks generated constitute a historical document of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0204.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Office of Innovation; novel drugs; novel therapies; regulatory science; Latin American Regulatory landscape
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:51:16 CEST)
Regulatory agencies across the Latin American Region have strengthened the regulatory science through the development of new tools, standards and various other related parameters to evaluate and assess safety, efficacy, quality and performance. The former have been implemented to promote and incorporate new drugs and technologies, which still, are a challenge to well-established regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, in today’s environment, the existing regulatory framework protecting public’s health creates barriers for market entry of novel drugs and medical devices. This article aims to the pioneering work that Cuban Regulatory Agency (CECMED) has been developing with the aim to build a strong regulatory framework geared to accelerated innovation and the successful transition from research and development to clinical development. The Office of Innovation recently established at the CECMED is the first flagship in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Its aim is to play a leading role as a driving force for the national and regional biopharmaceutical innovation. This article will discuss the Office of Innovation its conceptualisation and management taking into account the Latin American regional and national Cuban context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0094.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: South American Monsoon System 1; SAMS 2; SISAL 3; speleothems 4; Quaternary 5
Online: 5 October 2018 (09:43:08 CEST)
Here we present an overview of speleothem δ18O records from South America, which mostly are available in the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis (SISAL_v1) database. South American tropical and subtropical δ18O time series are primarily interpreted as being driven by the amount effect and, consequently show the past history of the convection intensity of convergence zones such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the South America Monsoon System. We investigate past hydroclimate scenarios in South America related to the South American Monsoon System in three different time scales: Late Pleistocene, Holocene and the last two millennia. The precession driven insolation is the main driver of convective variability over the continent during the last 250 kyrs, including the Holocene period. However a dipole is observed between the west and east portions of the continent. Records located in the central region of Brazil appear to be weakly affected by insolation driven variability and more susceptible to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Cold episodic events in Northern Hemisphere increase the activity of the South American Monsoon System on all time scales, in turn increasing rainfall amounts in South America, as was documented during Heinrich events in the late Pleistocene and Bond events in the Holocene, as well as during the Little Ice Age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: American cranberry; Vaccinium macrocarpon; leaf extract; chemical composition; L-arginine; insulin resistance effect; 3D printing
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:57:18 CEST)
One of the key pathogenetic links of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the formation of insulin resistance (IR). Besides a wide selection of synthetic antidiabetic drugs, various plant-origin extracts are also available to support the treatment of T2DM. This study aimed to investigate and gain knowledge of the chemical composition and potential IR correction effect of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) leaf extracts and formulate novel 3D-printed oral dosage forms for such extracts. The bioactivity and IR of L-arginine-loaded cranberry leaf extracts were studied in vivo in rats. The cranberry leaf extracts consisted of quinic, 3-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic), p-coumaroylquinic acids, quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-xyloside, quercetin-3-O-arabino-pyranoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-O-p-coumaroyl-hexoside-2 identified by HPLC. In-vivo studies with rats showed that the oral administration of the cranberry leaf extracts had a positive effect on insulin sensitivity coefficients under ITT test, and affected HOMA-IR levels and liver lipid content with experimental IR. A novel 3D-printed immediate-release dosage form was developed for the oral administration of cranberry leaf extracts using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a carrier gel in a semi-solid extrusion (SSE) 3D printing. In conclusion, American cranberry leaf extracts loaded with L-arginine could find uses in preventing health issues associated with IR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: QNBC (Quadruple negative breast cancer); AR (Androgen receptor); AA (African American); CA (Caucasian); BC (Breast cancer)
Online: 27 July 2022 (04:07:32 CEST)
Background: We previously found that QNBC tumors are more frequent in African Americans compared to TNBC tumors. To characterize this subtype further, we sought to determine the miRNA-mRNA profile in QNBC patients based on race. Methods: Both miRNA and mRNA expression data were analyzed from TCGA and validated using datasets from the METABRIC, TCGA proteomic, and survival analysis by KMPLOT. Results: miRNA-mRNAs which include FOXA1 and MYC (mir-17/20a targets); GATA3 and CCNG2 (mir-135b targets); CDKN2A, CDK6, and B7-H3 (mir-29c targets); and RUNX3, KLF5, IL1-β, and CTNNB1 (mir-375 targets) were correlated with basal-like and immune subtypes in QNBC patients and associated with a worse survival. Conclusion: Thus, QNBC tumors have an altered gene signature implicated in racial disparity and poor survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0310.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Ecuador; American Pacific; Bivalve mollusks; Concha prieta; Value chain; Productivity; Quality-of-life; Competitiveness, Mangrove forest.
Online: 14 August 2021 (15:51:30 CEST)
The bivalve mollusk, Anadara tuberculosa (Black Shell, in Spanish Concha prieta, "CP"), is found on America's Pacific coast, where it is harvested for subsistence and commercial markets. This paper aims to diagnose the performance of the black shell's value chain. We also identify several challenges that must be addressed to improve the sustainability of the black shell fishery in Ecuador. The descriptive methodology was quantitative, with a non-experimental, field, cross-sectional, and ex post facto design. Similar questionnaires were designed, validated, and applied to each link in the production chain to collect information. The performance of the value chain was diagnosed in the dimensions of productivity, competitiveness, and quality of life, reaching a 75.1% index, a result that indicates that the value chain has a moderate to good performance level. However, the value chain can be improved if the following challenges are met: 1) Restoration of the mangrove ecosystem, 2) Promotion of low-intensity shellfish aquaculture, 3) Good sanitary management and purification, 4) Promotion of value-focused ventures, 5) Strengthening of organizations and agreements for the use and custody of mangroves, and 6) Strengthening of institutions that contribute to the advancement of these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0151.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: American Carbon Registry; California Action Reserve; California Air Resources Board; VERRA; Clean Development Mechanism; net ecosystem exchange
Online: 7 July 2021 (11:54:59 CEST)
Despite the use of commercial forest carbon protocols (CFCPs) for more than two decades, claiming ~566 MMtCO2e and a market value of ~USD $15.7 billion, comparative analysis of CFCP methodology and offset results is limited. In this study, five widely used biometric-based CFCPs are characterized, and common characteristics and differences are identified. CFCP claims of net forest carbon sequestration are compared with results of directly measured CO2 by eddy covariance, a meteorological method integrating gross vertical fluxes of forest and soil carbon, and the only alternative non-biometric source of net forest carbon sequestration data available. We show here that CFCPs share a structural feature delimiting forest carbon values by zero-threshold carbon accounting (gC m-2 ≤ 0), a pattern opposite to natural emissions of forest CO2 exchange based on direct measurement and a fundamental biological constraint on net forest carbon storage (i.e., soil efflux, ecosystem respiration). Exclusion of forest CO2 sources to the atmosphere precludes net carbon accounting, resulting in unavoidable over-crediting of CFCP project offsets. CFCP carbon results are significantly different from global forest CO2 net ecosystem exchange population results (FluxNet2015 gC m-2) at the 95% to 99.99% confidence levels, inferring an annual median error of ~247% (gC m-2), consistent with over-crediting. Direct CO2 measurement provides an urgently needed alternative method for commercial forest carbon products that has the potential to harmonize global markets and catalyze the role of forests in managing climate change through nature-based solutions.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: mineral physics; ultrasonic interferometry; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; law of corresponding states; equations-of-state; Columbia University; American Geophysical Union
Online: 29 March 2019 (07:54:57 CET)
From 1964 to the early 1970s, Orson Anderson led a research program at the Lamont Geological Observatory in the newly-emerging field of “mineral physics”. In collaboration with colleagues Edward Schreiber and Naohiro Soga, Orson exploited the techniques of physical acoustics to study the behavior of the sound velocities of minerals at elevated pressures and temperatures. This research program also included semi-empirical studies of relationships between the bulk modulus and the molar volume of solids and the use of lattice dynamics to calculate the elastic moduli of cubic structures as a function of pressure to predict instabilities, as well as theoretical investigations of the Lagrangian vs. Eulerian formulations of finite strain equations of state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0520.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: monsoon; North American Monsoon; precipitation; Sonoran Desert; Gulf of California; phenology; climate change; climatology; El Niño; ENSOsea surface temperature; Sonora; Arizona
Online: 8 November 2023 (07:53:21 CET)
The North American Monsoon (NAM) in southern Arizona continues to be a topic of interest to ecologists, climatologists, and citizens as well as the triggers and characteristics of plant growth and reproduction in relation to the onset of the monsoon. In researching the onset of the North American Monsoon (NAM) in south-central Arizona relative to the phenology of Saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) and other Sonoran Desert species we identified interesting and previously unreported features in the NAM rainfall data. We present preliminary descriptive analyses of (1) monsoon onset as measured by the first day after June 1 with precipitation ≥10 mm (1990-2022), (2) first day of year warming of Sea Surface temperatures (SST) in the Gulf of California to ≥29º C measured across five open-sea blocks (mean 9452 km2), and (3) El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) anomaly with a threshold of +/- 0.5º C for the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) in the Niño 3.4 region (5ºN-5ºS, 120º-170ºW). Three patterns emerge from our analyses: (1) The day of the year of monsoon onset occurs approximately 12 days earlier in the year from 1990-2022 in south-central Arizona. (2) There appears to be a signal in the rainfall onset data very roughly approximating cycles of ENSO Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) anomalies in Niño region 3.4. (3) Gulf of California sea surface temperature (SST) and monsoon onset data support an expected link between the timing of SST warming and monsoon rainfall onset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Heritage Tourism; Native American Heritage Places; United States National Parks; Arches National Park; Canyonlands National Park; Hovenweep National Park
Online: 23 October 2020 (11:08:48 CEST)
Abstract: Sustainable use of Native American heritage places is viewed in this analysis as serving to preserve their traditional purposes and sustain the cultural landscapes that give them heritage meaning. The research is about the potential impacts of heritage tourism to selected Native American places at Arches National Park, Canyonlands National Park, and Hovenweep National Monument. The impacts of tourists to a heritage place must be understood as having both potential effects on the place itself and on an integrated cultural landscape. Impacts to one place potentially change other places- functions in a Native American landscape and the integrity of the landscape itself. The analysis is based on 696 interviews with representatives from nine tribes and pueblos, who in addition to defining the cultural meaning of places, officially made 349 heritage management recommendations. The U.S. National Park Service interprets Natives American resources and then brings millions of tourists to these through museums, brochures, outdoor displays, and ranger-guided tours. Native American ethnographic study participants argued that tourist education and regulation can increase the sustainability of Native American places in a park and can help protect related places beyond the park.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0506.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: Afro-Asian interactions, Asian Latin American literature and characters, Sanfancón, china mulata, “magical negro,” chinos mambises, Brazil, Cuba, transculturation, discourse of mestizaje
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:38:04 CEST)
This essay studies Afro-Asian sociocultural interactions in cultural production by or about Asian Latin Americans, with an emphasis on Cuba and Brazil. Among the recurrent characters are the black slave, the china mulata, or the black ally who expresses sympathy or even marries the Asian character. This reflects a common history of bondage shared by black slaves, Chinese coolies, and Japanese indentured workers, as well as a common history of marronage. These conflicts and alliances between Asians and blacks contest the official discourse of mestizaje (Spanish-indigenous dichotomies in Mexico and Andean countries, for example, or black and white binaries in Brazil and the Caribbean), which, under the guise of incorporating the Other, favored whiteness, all the while attempting to silence, ignore, or ultimately erase their worldviews and cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0296.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Chinese National science-sustainability paradox; Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional analysis; Environmental science mediating the energy science for sustainability; Chinese environmental science versus the American energy science
Online: 16 July 2018 (15:31:02 CEST)
The Science-Sustainability poses an interdisciplinary paradox. On the one hand, the science for sustainability has increased in OECD economies in and in China as well as in the US in particular; on the other hand; the sustainability situation has worsened (Co2 emission has risen). On the face value, the adverse correlation shows a paradox. However, without explicating the science-sustainability relationship, it leads to a premature conclusion. In this study, we have drawn on three concrete questions for concrete answers. First, whether and how interdisciplinary sciences—energy science and environmental science—contribute to the sustainability. Second, whether and how the Sino-US inter-institutional analysis varies in the science-sustainability paradox. The empirical analysis from a panel data in the interdisciplinary and inter-institutional context show mixed patterns in three ways. First, the increase in the environmental science shows an improvement in the sustainability; the energy science shows a decline in the sustainability. Second, the Chinese environmental science has a comparative advantage to American environment science for the sustainability development, and the Chinese energy science has a comparative disadvantage to the US in the sustainability development. Third, the environmental science mediates the energy science in the science-sustainability relationships. Standing alone, the increase in the energy science harms sustainability; mediated by environmental science, it benefits sustainability. The study explains the adverse role of energy science in Jevons Paradox. The study also offers some policy paths for further research how capitalisms differently innovate, form strategies, and implement the practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Professional development for scientists; tenure-track faculty; tenure; professoriate; professional development practicum; professional development experiential learning; Accomplishing Career Transitions; American Society for Cell Biology; Minorities Affairs Committee
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:43:19 CET)
Experiential learning can facilitate the development of transferrable skills necessary for success in attaining tenure and promotion in academia. In this article, we discuss the benefits of designing and implementing an individualized professional development experience or practicum. By doing this, we describe the experiential learning component of the Accomplishing Career Transitions (ACT) Program of the American Society for Cell Biology. The ACT program aims to assist postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty from backgrounds underrepresented in STEM as they strive to transition into tenure-track positions and ultimately attain tenure at research-intensive or teaching-intensive academic institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0063.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: retirement village; optimal control; optimal stopping, HARA, American put option; long-term care needs, costs and products for the elderly; disability/health state transitions; life-cycle modelling related to the retirement phase
Online: 12 December 2016 (11:18:16 CET)
We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree's utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to her full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA) utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.