COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0299.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: elderly; aging population; ambient intelligence; fall detection; indoor localization; real-world implementation; sensors; activities of daily living; assisted living
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:46:08 CEST)
Falls, highly common in the constantly increasing global aging population, can have a variety of negative effects on their health, well-being, and quality of life, including restricting their capabilities to conduct Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), which are crucial for one’s sustenance. Timely assistance during falls is highly necessary, which involves tracking the indoor location of the elderly during their diverse navigational patterns associated with ADLs to detect the precise location of a fall. With the decreasing caregiver population on a global scale, it is important that the future of intelligent living environments can detect falls during ADL.s while being able to track the indoor location of the elderly in the real world. Prior works in these fields have several limitations, such as – the lack of functionalities to detect both falls and indoor locations, high cost of implementation, complicated design, the requirement of multiple hardware components for deployment, and the necessity to develop new hardware for implementation, which make the wide-scale deployment of such technologies challenging. To address these challenges, this work proposes a cost-effective and simplistic design paradigm for an Ambient Assisted Living system that can capture multimodal components of user behaviors during ADLs that are necessary for performing fall detection and indoor localization in a simultaneous manner in the real world. Proof of concept results from real-world experiments are presented to uphold the effective working of the system. The findings from two comparison studies with prior works in this field are also presented to uphold the novelty of this work. The first comparison study shows how the proposed system outperforms prior works in the areas of indoor localization and fall detection in terms of the effectiveness of its software design and hardware design. The second comparison study shows that the cost for the development of this system is the least as compared to prior works in these fields, which involved real-world development of the underlining systems, thereby upholding its cost-effective nature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0672.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Services; Applications; Context Awareness; Data Availability; Personalization; Privacy; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 9 June 2023 (05:34:18 CEST)
Smart Living, an increasingly prominent concept, entails incorporating sophisticated technologies in homes and urban environments to elevate the quality of life for citizens. A critical success factor for Smart Living services and applications, from energy management to healthcare and transportation, is the efficacy of human action recognition (HAR). HAR, rooted in computer vision, seeks to identify human actions and activities using visual data and various sensor modalities. This paper extensively reviews the literature on HAR in Smart Living services and applications, amalgamating key contributions and challenges while providing insights into future research directions. The review delves into the essential aspects of Smart Living, the state of the art in HAR, and the potential societal implications of this technology. Moreover, the paper meticulously examines the primary application sectors in Smart Living that stand to gain from HAR, such as smart homes, smart healthcare, and smart cities. By underscoring the significance of the four dimensions of Context Awareness, Data Availability, Personalization, and Privacy in HAR, this paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners striving to advance Smart Living services and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0580.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen; liquefaction; optimization; ambient temperature
Online: 31 August 2021 (16:00:17 CEST)
Hydrogen used as an energy carrier can provide an important route to the decarbonization of energy supplies. However, realizing this opportunity requires a significant increase in both production and transportation capacity. Part of the increase in transportation capacity could be provided by the shipping of liquid hydrogen, but this introduces an energy-intensive liquefaction step into the supply-chain. The energy required for liquefaction can be reduced by developing improved process designs, but since all low-temperature processes are affected by the available heat-sink temperature, local ambient conditions will also affect the energy penalty. This work studies how the energy consumption associated with liquefaction varies with heat-sink temperature through the optimization of design parameters for a typical next-generation hydrogen liquefaction process. The results show that energy consumption increases by around 20%, across the cooling temperature range 5 to 50 °C. Considering just the range 20 to 30 °C there is a 5% increase, illustrating the significant impact ambient temperature can have on energy consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0105.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Review; Human action recognition; Smart living; Multimodality; Real-time processing; Interoperability; Resource-constrained processing; Sensing technology; Machine learning; Deep learning; Signal processing; Smart home; Smart environment; Smart city; Smart Community; Ambient Assisted Living
Online: 3 May 2023 (06:54:40 CEST)
Smart living, a concept that has gained increasing attention in recent years, revolves around integrating advanced technologies in homes and cities to enhance the quality of life for citizens. Sensing and human action recognition are crucial aspects of this concept. Smart living applications span various domains, such as energy consumption, healthcare, transportation, and education, which greatly benefit from effective human action recognition. This field, originating from computer vision, seeks to recognize human actions and activities using not only visual data but also many other sensor modalities. This paper comprehensively reviews the literature on human action recognition in smart living environments, synthesizing the main contributions, challenges, and future research directions. This review selects five key domains: Sensing Technology, Multimodality, Real-time Processing, Interoperability, and Resource-Constrained Processing, as they encompass the critical aspects required for successfully deploying human action recognition in smart living. These domains highlight the essential role that sensing and human action recognition play in successfully developing and implementing smart living solutions. This paper serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners seeking to explore further and advance the field of human action recognition in smart living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Data privacy; Ambient intelligence; COVID-19
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:17:07 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic plagues the whole world, bringing numerous challenges which need to be addressed. One of them is the privacy of patient data. There are several problems related to data privacy in IoT environments, the use of applications, devices, and functionalities in hospital processes. Therefore, we have compared works from the literature and developed a taxonomy consisting of the requirements necessary to control patient privacy data in a hospital setting in the current pandemic. Based on the studies, an application was modeled and implemented. According to the tests and comparisons drawn between the variables, the application yielded satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: CO2; liquefaction; ccs; optimization; ambient temperature
Online: 10 October 2019 (04:36:07 CEST)
In CCS projects, the transportation of CO2 by ship can be an attractive alternative to transportation using a pipeline, particularly when the distance between source and disposal location is large. However, the energy consumption of the liquefaction process can be significant, making the selection of an energy-efficient design an important factor in the minimization of operating costs. Since the liquefaction process operates at low temperature, its energy consumption will vary with ambient temperature, which could be a factor that influences the trade-off point between pipelines and shipping in different geographic locations. A consistent set of data showing the relationship between energy consumption and cooling temperature is therefore potentially useful to CCS system modelling. This study compares the performance of a wide range of CO2 liquefaction schemes. It applies a methodical approach to the optimization of process operating parameters and studies performance across a range of operating temperatures. A set of data for the minimum energy consumption cases is presented. The main findings are that open-cycle CO2 processes often offer minimum energy consumption; NH3 based schemes often offer better performance at higher ambient temperatures; and that for the cooling temperature range 15 to 50 °C, the energy consumption for the best performing liquefaction process rises by around 40%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0493.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: cartography; seismic waves; subsurface; ambient noise survey
Online: 25 January 2021 (12:41:22 CET)
The cartographic cum site-effectuated view of Shillong region of northeast India is presented here. Starting from the existing tectonics, the prevalent geological settings of the study area is comprehensively delineated. The seismic prone area is further overviewed in the context of site effects with accompaniment of available borehole information. The resonance frequency estimates form ambient noise survey along with receiver functions are outlined which implicates a heterogeneous subsurface. This further helps in segregating the region into two compelling profiles, thereby enabling us to get a deeper insight in the probable subsurface as well as heterogeneity. Eventually, the influence of topography over strata was also highlighted and interpreted as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0188.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Graph; topology; ambient isotopy; periodic net; tessellate; decussate
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:21:00 CEST)
We address the problem of finding a unique graph embedding that best describes a graph's "topology". This issue is of particular interest in the chemistry of materials. Graphs that admit a tiling in 3-dimensional Euclidean space are termed tessellate, those that do not decussate. We give examples of decussate and tessellate graphs that are finite and 3-periodic. We conjecture that a graph has at most one tessellate embedding. We give reasons for considering this the default "topology" of periodic graphs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: ambient air pollution; epidemiology; narrative review; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:52:02 CET)
An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts of urban ambient air pollution (AAP) in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of disease attributable to AAP in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is growing, yet estimates of its impact in the region are likely underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, the paucity of epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of studies in the SSA region also represents an important global health disparity and environmental justice issue because thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America rather than in some of the most polluted regions of the world, such as SSA. In this review, we synthesize all of the ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in SSA to date. We highlight the gaps in AAP epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of SSA and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing AAP in the SSA region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1222.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Ambient air; PM2.5; Gravimetric method; WHO guideline; Health risk assessment
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:41:28 CET)
This study determined the temporal variation of PM2.5 in ambient air in Thohoyandou and further assessed the associated health risks. The levels of PM2.5 were quantified for a period of 1 year (April 2017-April 2018) using the gravimetric method. There was no significant difference (P-value = 0.18) in concentrations of both PM2.5 samples collected during weekdays (11.29 µg.m-3) and weekends (9.86 µg.m-3). However, higher concentrations of PM2.5 were measured in spring and the lowest was measured in summer. The cancer risk obtained for PM2.5 (2.21 × 10−5, 3 × 10-4, and 5 × 10-4 for infants, children, and adults respectively) in the outdoor air of Thohoyandou has exceeded the limit values by the USEPA and WHO, implying a significant risk for the whole population. For non-carcinogenic risks, the HQ values were 2.60, 4.81, and 2.60 for infants, children, and adults respectively. The HQ value >1 indicates a non-carcinogenic risk to the residents in Thohoyandou and a higher risk to children. Moreover, PM2.5 in Thohoyandou is responsible for 0.15% and 0.13% of deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease and lung cancer respectively for adults above 30 years. PM2.5 is causing adverse health effects in Thohoyandou as deduced from the health risk assessment. Therefore, it is recommended that further epidemiological studies be conducted in Thohoyandou to estimate the burden of disease due to exposure to particulate matter and suitable controlling policies be arranged to reduce particulate matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: ambient air pollution; case-crossover; cluster; concentration; counts; strata; urban
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:16:48 CET)
This study examines the relation between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits due to certain infectious diseases in Toronto, Canada. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database was used to draw the corresponding health cases. Daily data on ED visits, ambient air pollution concentration levels, and weather conditions during the period from April 2004 to December 2015 (4,292 days in total) were linked together and used in statistical models. Six air pollutants (fine particulate matter PM2.5, CO, NO2, SO2, ozone O3 as a daily average, and ozone O3-8 hour ozone, as a maximum eight hour average) were investigated. In addition, the Air Quality Health Index (combining NO2, O3, and PM2.5) was also considered. The time-stratified case-crossover technique was applied in the study design. Conditional Poisson models were created using the daily counts of ED visit data. The considered factors, air pollutants and weather, were lagged by the same number of days, from 0 to 14. In the period of the study 339,644 ED visits were identified; 177,619 for females and 162,025 for males. For each air pollutant 270 models were realized (15 lags x 18 strata). Ambient air pollution concentrations lagged by 2, 3, and 5 days have the highest impact on ED visits, with 34, 32, and 35 positive associations, respectively. For all patients and an increase in a one interquartile range (IQR=1.2 ppb) of sulphur dioxide, the following values of the relative risks (RR) were estimated: RR=1.005 (95% confidence interval: 0.998, 1.013), 1.008 (1.001, 1.016), 1.009 (1.001, 1.016), 1.011 (1.004, 1.019), 1.007 (0.987, 1.028), and 1.009 (1.002, 1.016) for lags from 0 to 5, respectively. The results suggest that exposures for certain air pollutants (mainly CO, O3, and SO2) in urban environment affect the number of ED visits related to infectious diseases.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; ambient temperature; risk level; mortality
Online: 6 July 2020 (10:25:09 CEST)
COVID-19 is a pandemic with no cure. There is an urgent need for low-cost interventions. Macroclimate work through affecting microclimate. In many situations, man-made microclimate, such as air conditioning, may override the effect of natural macroclimate in determining SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Ambient temperature (AT) has been roughly associated to SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To translate into a feasible practice in controlling COVID-19 pandemic, in-depth and implementable knowledge of AT role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission should be unveiled. This study aimed to determine if there is a ‘safe’ temperature that is comfortable to human beings while significantly inhibitory for SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Data on monthly new deaths or new cases per million population (MDPM or MCPM) and monthly cumulated days with more cases than the previous day (DI) from March 2 to June 30, 2020 were collected from all 118 countries with population over five million. Monthly average AT negatively correlated with the transmission parameters. A significant decrease in transmission was observed when AT reached above 20 ºC. Monthly average (not average high) AT of countries with MDPM <2, MCPM<10, or DI<=7 was found to be between 24.54 and 26.89 ºC (25.18 ºC on average) with average standard error of 4.81. Thus, average AT <20, 20-25, >25 ºC were considered as high, medium, and low risk AT. Furthermore, MDPM in countries with AT <20 ºC were 80.93, 50.23, 13.52, and 5.05 times of those in countries with AT >25 ºC in March, April, May, and June, respectively. MDPM low-risk rates (<2) in countries with AT >25 ºC were 100, 83.33, 52.73, and 52.46%, respectively. In countries with AT <20 ºC, the trends were opposite. Setting indoor temperature to 25 ºC could decrease the need of social distancing for containing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Ventilation and sanitizing the air with ultraviolet light in nonbusiness hours may be additionally effective. Cooling indoor temperature too low may be a reason of COVID-19 outbreak in some high AT countries. Authorities and the general population can evaluate COVID-19 risk level and manipulate microclimate to reduce the risk anywhere anytime based on local day average AT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0035.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hydrogen-deuterium exchange; mass spectrometry; isobaric ions; ambient ionization; metabolic profiling
Online: 4 October 2021 (09:21:39 CEST)
Isobaric ions having the same mass-to-charge ratio cannot be separately identified by mass spectrometry (MS) alone, but this limitation can be overcome using hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) in microdroplets. Because isobaric ions may contain a varied number of exchangeable sites and different types of functional groups, each one produces a unique MS spectral pattern after droplet spray HDX without the need for MS/MS experiments or introduction of ion mobility measurements. As an example of the power of this approach, isobaric ions in urinary metabolic profiles are identified and used to distinguish between healthy individuals and those having bladder cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Internet of Things; Context; Prediction; Context Histories; Alzheimer’s Disease
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:47:01 CEST)
The new Internet of Things (IoT) applications are enabling the development of projects that help monitoring people with different diseases in their daily lives. Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects neurological functions and needs support to maintain maximum independence and security of patients during this stage of life, as the cure and reversal of symptoms have not yet been discovered. The IoT-based monitoring system provides the caregivers’ support in monitoring people with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This paper presents an ontology-based computational model which receives physiological data from external IoT applications, allowing to identify of potentially dangerous behaviors for patients with AD. The main scientific contribution of this work is the specification of a model focusing on Alzheimer’s disease using the analysis of Context Histories and Context Prediction, which considering the state of the art, it is the only one that uses analysis of Context Histories to perform predictions. The research also proposes a simulator to generate activities of the daily life of patients allowing the creation of datasets. These datasets were used to evaluate the contributions of the model and were generated according to the standardization of the ontology. The simulator generated 1025 scenarios applied to guide the predictions, which achieved average accurary of 97.44%. The experiments also allowed the learning of 20 relevant lessons on technological, medical and methodological aspects of DCARE that are recorded in this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0169.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Guerrilla marketing; Viral marketing; Ambient marketing; Stealth marketing; Street marketing; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 9 March 2023 (08:57:12 CET)
In recent years, given the enormous competition for new products and services, many companies have begun to behave more creatively in an aim to be the best in the market. “Guerrilla marketing” refers to an advertising technique that uses unconventional and cost-effective approaches, employing a variety of strategies that reduce costs. Since the emergence of this concept in the second half of the last century, substantial research has looked into its application and usefulness. This study presents a systematic survey of the field of marketing and advertising: by analyzing the main scientific publications on guerrilla marketing through content analysis in the Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO databases. One hundred and sixty-four articles were analyzed in depth and divided into two separate lists: one with publications corresponding to Hutter and Hoffmann’s first classification, and another corresponding to the new variables that emerged from the in-depth study that was carried out. As a consequence, a new taxonomy is proposed for the field, based on the identification of some novel variables characterizing the different existing approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0447.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: change-point analysis; weak spots; spectral analysis; ambient noise RMS; georadar attribute
Online: 16 November 2022 (02:35:38 CET)
Identifying ambient noise-based (ANb) signatures of streams can help in the estimation of their erosive potential (EP) that promotes reverie landslides and soil losses in the fluvial valleys. This is particularly imperative on flooding or rainy days, leading to stronger erosion-prone conditions (colluvium and boulders) of the valley beds inferred from georadar attribute analysis. Developing such research direction can benefit the local communities, as is the case with the Cerrado region of Brazil, where these phenomena have high destructive potential with social, economic, and climatic implications. For the present study, a seasonal stream in the Federal District of Brazil was investigated by ANb monitoring supported by Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) for site characterization. The ANb monitoring was conducted (at a safe distance) with a seismometer over several durations of dry and rainy conditions. The power spectral density (PSDs) was computed as a function of several variables, including weather conditions (rainfall, wind speed, and pressure), time-frequency spectrograms, and ambient noise displacement root mean square (RMS). This analysis also considered the single station horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), where rain, wind, pressure, river flow and anthropogenic signatures were evident (at selective frequency ranges). Multi-peaks that emerged on the HVSR curve were further analyzed to identify amplitude and frequency changes, and the three peaks shift on average to a lower position during the rainy period. The GPR amplitude and waveform variation features were attributed to the stratigraphy (i.e., the boundary between valid and invalid regions and coherence value) of the floodplain and regions susceptible to erosion (erosion-prone lithological spots). This approach provides the basis for non-destructive monitoring tools enabling the detection of 'seismic signatures' and weak spots of the fluvial channels for improving environmental management.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electrical generator; steam-power; air/ground-source heat pump; ambient temperature; parthenogenerator
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:00:59 CEST)
We describe a novel machine that uses the greater-than-100% efficiency of air/ground-source heat pumps to recursively generate electricity via steam-powered generators, taking thermal energy from the ambient environment to convert into electrical power. The invention of a machines that generate clean power at low costs will be fundamental to the future of electricity. We estimate efficiency and calculate minimum efficiencies for unknown parts to consider the applicability of this machine to the real world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0346.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: ambient light; reliability; take-over request; mental workload; electroencephalography (EEG); transition of control
Online: 18 August 2022 (11:02:56 CEST)
Drivers of L3 automated vehicles (AVs) are not required to continuously monitor the AV system. However, they must be prepared to take over when requested. Therefore, it is necessary to design an in-vehicle environment that allows drivers to adapt their levels of preparedness to the likelihood of control transition. This study evaluates ambient in-vehicle lighting that continuously communicates the current level of AV reliability, specifically on how it could influence drivers' take-over performance and mental workload (MW). We conducted an experiment in a driving simulator with 42 participants who experienced 10 take-over requests (TORs). The experimental group experienced a four-stage ambient light display that communicated the current level of AV reliability, which was not provided to the control group. The experimental group demonstrated better take-over performance, based on lower vehicle jerks. Notably, perceived MW did not differ between the groups, and the EEG indices of MW (frontal theta power, parietal alpha power, Task-Load Index) did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest that communicating the current level of reliability using ambient light might help drivers be better prepared for TORs and perform better without increasing their MW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Citizen Science; Fresh Water Watch; Indicator 6.3.2; Ambient water quality
Online: 2 November 2020 (18:38:13 CET)
Citizen science has the potential to support the delivery of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through its integration into national monitoring schemes. In this study, we explore the opportunities and biases of citizen science (CS) data when used either as a primary or secondary source for SDG 6.3.2 reporting. We use data from waterbodies that have both CS and regulatory monitoring in England and Zambia to explore their biases and complementarity. A comparative analysis of regulatory and CS data provided key information on appropriate sampling frequency, site selection and measurement parameters, necessary for more robust SDG reporting. The results show elevated agreement for pass/fail ratios and indicator scores for English waterbodies (80%) and demonstrate CS data can improve granularity and spatial coverage for SDG indicator scoring, even when extensive statutory monitoring programmes are present. In Zambia, management authorities are actively using citizen science projects to increase spatial and temporal coverage for SDG reporting. Our results indicate that design considerations for SDG focused citizen science can address local needs as well as provide a more representative indicator of the state of a nation’s freshwater ecosystems for international reporting requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0613.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: PM2.5 monitor; Ambient Air pollution; Measurement sensor; Low-cost; Feasibility; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 25 September 2020 (12:04:05 CEST)
Urban cities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are faced with ambient air pollution. This is an important public health problem with models and limited monitoring data indicating high concentrations of pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Going through most global air quality index maps, however, information about ambient pollution from SSA is scarce. We evaluated the feasibility and practicality of longitudinal measurements of ambient PM2.5 using low-cost air quality sensors (Purple Air-II-SD) across thirteen locations in seven countries in SSA. Devices were used to gather data over a 30-day period with the aim of assessing the efficiency of its data recovery rate and identifying challenges experienced by users in each location. The median data recovery rate was 94% (range: 72% to 100%). The mean 24-hour concentration measured across all sites was 38 µg/m3 with the highest PM2.5 period average concentration of 91 µg/m3 measured in Kampala, Uganda and lowest concentrations of 15 µg/m3 measured in Faraja, The Gambia. Kampala-Uganda and Nnewi-Nigeria recorded the longest periods with concentrations>250µg/m3. Power outages, SD memory card issues, internet connectivity problems and device safety concerns were important challenges experienced when using Purple Air-II-SD sensors. Despite some operational challenges, this study demonstrated that it is reasonably practicable and feasible to establish a network of low-cost devices to provide data on local PM2.5 concentrations in SSA countries. Such data are crucially needed to raise public-, societal and policymaker awareness about air pollution across SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient intelligence; ACL; bluetooth; delay, empirical model; intelligent environment; latency; multi-hop; scatternet
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:32:44 CEST)
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in so different areas as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues on embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0849.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cognitive function; ambient air quality; air pollution and brain health; older adults; cognitive frailty
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:32 CET)
(1) Background: Environmental and public health research has given considerable attention to the impact of air quality on brain health, with systematic reviews widespread. No literature review has been done for cognitive frailty – a multidimensional syndrome combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment and their apparent co-dependence, linked to increased vulnerability and adverse health outcomes, including dementia. Instead, cognitive decline and frailty is implicitly explored through research on air quality and comorbid cognitive and physical decline in elderly populations. (2) Methods: A scoping review was conducted to explore the need for a systematic review. Combining Arksey and O’Malley  and PRISMA-ScR checklist , a scoping review of SCOPUS using ‘cogniti*’ + ‘resilience’ + ‘air quality’ or ‘cogniti*’ + ‘ageing’ + ‘air quality’ resulted in N=2503 articles, screened and reduced using inclusion and exclusion criteria, to N=16 articles. (3) Results: Air quality appears to be a critical risk factor for cognitive decline, even at air quality levels below WHO targets. Moderate long-term ambient air pollution appears linked to increased risk of cognitive frailty, suggesting earlier and more active interventions to protect older people. There are varied effects on cognition across the life course, with both emotional and functional impacts. Effects may be more detrimental to elderly people with existing conditions, including economic and health inequalities. Generalisation of results is limited due to the absence of a dose-response, variations in methods, controlling for comorbid effects, and variance across studies. (4) Conclusions: The findings support the need for more research and a more extensive summary of the literature.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography; human immunodeficiency virus; matrix protein; inositol hexaphosphate; ambient temperature
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:56:24 CET)
The Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) domain is involved in the highly regulated assembly process of the virus particles that occur at the host cell’s plasma membrane. High-resolution structures of the MA domain determined using cryo X-ray crystallography have provided initial insights into the possible steps in the viral assembly process. However, these structural studies have relied on large and frozen crystals in order to reduce radiation damage caused by the intense X-rays. Here, we report the first XFEL study of the HIV-1 MA domain’s interaction with inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a phospholipid headgroup mimic. We also describe the purification, characterization and microcrystallization of two MA crystal forms obtained in the presence of IP6. In addition, we describe the capabilities of serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to elucidate the diffraction data of MA-IP6 complex microcrystals in liquid suspension at ambient temperature. Two different microcrystal forms of MA-IP6 complex both diffracted to beyond 3.5 Å resolution, demonstrating the feasibility of using SFX to study the complexes of MA domain of HIV-1 Gag polyprotein with IP6 at near-physiological temperatures. Further optimization of the experimental and data analysis procedures will lead to better understanding of the MA domain of HIV-1 Gag and IP6 interaction at high resolution and provide basis for optimization of the lead compounds for efficient inhibition of the Gag protein recruitment to the plasma membrane prior to virion formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: crystallization of thin films; ambient crystallization; room temperature crystallization; magnet induce crystallization; sparking discharge
Online: 7 June 2018 (11:32:14 CEST)
Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction spectroscopy was employed to characterize crystallinity of Iron, Nickel, Copper and Tungsten, prepared by sparking discharge process in presence of 0.4 T magnetic field at ambient temperature 25 °C. Iron thin film preserved crystallinity even after one year of ageing. Nickel exhibit higher crystallinity when sparked in nitrogen gas flow from the one sparked in oxygen. Tungsten was successfully crystalized after just 40 minutes of sparking inside of magnetic field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; eHealth; Technology Acceptance, Smart Health, User Diversity, Serious Games for Healthcare
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:39:31 CEST)
Based on the demographic shift and the related challenges resulting from the growing number of elderly and persons with chronic diseases, the idea of smart home that supports its inhabitants in the daily life, gains importance. The purpose of this paper was to examine in a prototypic Ambient Assisted Living environment if users after interaction with different health-supporting applications intend to use such in the future. Two experimental studies exemplary show possible applications of home-integrated technology that can support, assist and accompany the target group in different contexts, and examine to what extent participants are willing to future use such sophisticated technology at home. The results show that people in general, but especially the old and chronically ill ones are quite fascinated of health-supporting ambient technology and the majority intends to use such ambient assistance in the future (study I). Moreover, serious games for healthcare are shown as a hedonic use of technology in smart homes that have a great potential to retain or improve the physical health, mobility and the overall well-being of the inhabitants (study II). The article provides two examples of ambient technology to leverage the demographic change and presents important user factors for facilitating high user acceptance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0362.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: ambient air pollutants; community health; environmental health literacy; knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP); multivariate analysis
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:52:57 CEST)
Despite air pollution being a leading cause of health issues in developing nations, public awareness and understanding of local air quality remains notably low. The present study assesses the perception, attitude, and environmental knowledge of local air pollution among adult urban residents (n=870) in a city with leading air pollution rates among cities of emerging economies: Astana, Kazakhstan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate the causal relationship between perceived air quality, environmental literacy, and willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental protection. Findings indicate over 40% of residents neither consider the city being highly polluted nor recognize the association between air quality and adverse health outcomes, correlated with a generally low level of environmental literacy. The age, education, and health status of the participants significantly affected (p<.001) their level of environmental knowledge and awareness. The SEM analysis indicates that knowledge is the major determinant in improving public awareness and perception of local air pollution (path value=0.626). Moreover, a close association between WTP and environmental attitude was also evident (path value=0.533). The findings of the present study may provide valuable insights for healthcare professionals, environmental researchers, and governmental institutions for implementing more effective public interventions to protect local air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0246.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Raspberry Pi; Edge Computing; Ambient Health Monitoring; Privacy-preserving; Bluetooth; Geolocation Tracking; Patient Alarm; Illuminance
Online: 16 March 2022 (05:28:32 CET)
The non-contact patient monitoring paradigm moves patient care into their homes and enables long-term patient studies. The challenge, however, is to make the system non-intrusive, privacy-preserving, and low-cost. To this end, we describe an open-source edge computing and ambient data capture system, developed using low-cost and readily available hardware. We describe five applications of our ambient data capture system. Namely: (a) Estimating occupancy and human activity phenotyping; (b) Medical equipment alarm classification; (c) Geolocation of humans in a built environment; (d) Ambient light logging; and (e) Ambient temperature and humidity logging. We obtained an accuracy of 94% for estimating occupancy from video. We stress-tested the alarm note classification in the absence and presence of speech and obtained micro averaged F1 scores of 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. The geolocation tracking provided a room-level accuracy of 98.7%. The root mean square error in the temperature sensor validation task was 0.3°C and for the humidity sensor, it was 1% Relative Humidity. The low-cost edge computing system presented here demonstrated the ability to capture and analyze a wide range of activities in a privacy-preserving manner in clinical and home environments and is able to provide key insights into the healthcare practices and patient behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient human energy, piezoelectric energy harvester, RC circuit model, self-powered device, wireless PPG sensor
Online: 24 July 2019 (11:50:43 CEST)
A new circuit model of the self-powered device for heart rate measurement is presented in this paper. This device consists of piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), power management circuit (PMC) with energy storage, microcontroller, Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor, and Wi-Fi module. The PEH is placed under the insole to harvest the pressure energy from human foot-step to generate ac power. In our model, a PEH is represented by sine voltage source, where its parameters were taken from experiments with 20 volunteers. The PMC is simplified by a switch with gain δ placed in series with the main circuit. The model of the main circuit is RC elements in parallel, where C is the capacitance of the storage device, and R is the equivalent parallel resistance of the microcontroller, PPG sensor, and Wi-Fi modules, respectively. The value of R depends on the power and current absorbed by those modules during sleep, deep sleep, sense, and transmit modes which collected from the datasheet. Finally, the proposed circuit model of the self-powered device was built and simulated in SPICE. The simulation results were compared with the laboratory experiment using commercial devices. Based on the results, the proposed model had small gaps compared to the real self-powered devices in terms of average current, voltage, power and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0053.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Google Trend; Particulate Matter; National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Information System; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Big Data
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:29:51 CEST)
Depending on the characteristics of the industrial area, toxicity evaluation of human body, risk assessment and health impact assessment may directly cause cancer due to air pollution. Environmental data collection is from August 2018 to January 31, 2019, and the average, minimum, and maximum values of air pollution data respectively. According to the global data on global trends using the Big Data, high blood pressure is confirmed at 33rd place in the world, and myocardial infarction among the environmental diseases is confirmed to be lower than Korea. Disease that occurred in Jeolla province industrial complex considering the characteristics of our country was identified as representative. Air pollutants are considered to be the causes of allergic diseases in Korea. PM10 was found to be higher than the control area (28.8804348 (㎍ / ㎥), 31.7065217 (㎍ / ㎥) and 32.8532609 (㎍ / ㎥). The mean concentrations of PM2.5 in the middle and high exposure areas were lower than those of the control areas, but the highest in the intermediate exposure areas was 16.5978261 (㎍ / ㎥), 16.1086957 (㎍ / ㎥) and 17.1847826 (㎍ / ㎥) respectively. The relationship between the major variables of environmental exposure in Yeosu was confirmed to be correlated with high blood pressure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, cerebrovascular, diabetes, thyroid disease, sinus infection, anemia and pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0550.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Heat; Heatwave; Cardiovascular diseases; Respiratory diseases; Hospital admissions; Climate change; ambient temperature; Public health; time series; summer months
Online: 23 September 2020 (10:32:12 CEST)
There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of ambient heat exposure on morbidity in Northern Europe. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships of daily summer-time temperature and heatwaves with cardiorespiratory hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Methods: Time-series models adjusted for potential confounders such as air pollution were used to investigate the associations of daily temperature and heatwaves with cause-specific cardiorespiratory hospital admissions, during summer months of 2001-2017. Daily number of hospitalizations was obtained from the national hospital discharge register, weather information from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Results: Increased daily temperature was associated with decreased risk of total respiratory hospital admissions and asthma. Heatwave days were associated with 20.5% (95% CI: 6.9, 35.9) increased risk of pneumonia admissions and during long or intense heatwaves also with total respiratory admissions in the oldest age group (≥ 75 years). There were also suggestive positive associations between heatwave days and admissions due to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular diseases. In contrast, risk of arrhythmia admissions was decreased 20.8% (95% CI: 8.0, 31.8) during heatwaves. Conclusions: Heatwaves, rather than single hot days, are a health threat affecting the morbidity even in a Northern climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0103.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: superconductivity; bismuth at ambient pressure; Bi–I; bismuth at high pressure; Bi–V; constraining forces; nonadiabatic Heisenberg model
Online: 16 November 2017 (04:58:52 CET)
As shown in former papers, the nonadiabatic Heisenberg model presents a novel mechanism of Cooper pair formation generated by the strongly correlated atomic-like motion of the electrons in narrow, roughly half-filled "superconducting bands". These are energy bands represented by optimally localized spin-dependent Wannier functions adapted to the symmetry of the material under consideration. The formation of Cooper pairs is not the result of an attractive electron-electron interaction but can be described in terms of quantum mechanical constraining forces constraining the electrons to form Cooper pairs. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that only this nonadiabatic mechanism operating in superconducting bands may produce eigenstates in which the electrons form Cooper pairs. These constraining forces stabilize the Cooper pairs in any superconductor, whether conventional or unconventional. Here we report evidence that also the experimentally found superconducting state in bismuth at ambient as well as at high pressure is connected with a narrow, roughly half-filled superconducting band in the respective band structure. This observation corroborates once more the significance of constraining forces in the theory of superconductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0747.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: alkali activated; fly ash; blast furnace slag; silica fume; metakaolin; ambient curing; strength development; flexural strength; freeze-thaw resistance
Online: 30 December 2020 (09:03:09 CET)
Concrete is the most commonly used construction material due to its various advantages, such as versatility, familiarity, strength and durability and it will continue to be in demand far into the future. However, with today’s sensitivity to the environmental protection, this material is facing unprecedented challenges due to its high greenhouse gas emission mainly during cement production. This paper investigates one of the promising cement replacement materials, alkali activated cement (AAC) concrete. Being produced mainly from byproduct materials and having a comparable structural performance to conventional concrete, AAC concrete has a potential to transform the construction industry. Mechanical properties such as compressive and flexural strength and the relationship between them are studied. Different source materials such as fly ash (FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF) and Metakaolin (MK) are used. The effect of the source materials and the activator solutions on the concrete performance is studied. Furthermore, the freeze-thaw resistance of the concrete is studied. The results of the study showed that the behavior of AAC depends highly on the source material combinations as well as type used. The effect of the alkaline solution is also dependent on the source material used. Mixes with higher GGBS content in general showed the highest strength while mixes with MK showed the highest flexural strength. The results from the freeze-thaw test showed that proper design of AAC concrete with a lower water content is critical to achieve a good resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0724.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: long short-term memory network; ambient vibration measurements; earthquake response; multi-degree-of-freedom models; structural response phase and magnitude images.
Online: 12 September 2023 (17:00:19 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have gained prominence in addressing regression problems, offering versatile architectural designs that cater to various applications. In the field of earthquake engineering, seismic response prediction is a critical area of study. Simplified models such as single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems have traditionally provided valuable insights into structural behavior, known for their computational efficiency facilitating faster simulations. However, these models have notable limitations in capturing the nuanced nonlinear behavior of structures and the spatial variability of ground motions. This study focuses on leveraging ambient vibration (AV) measurements of buildings, combined with earthquake (EQ) time-history data, to create a predictive model using a neural network (NN) in image format. The primary objective is to predict a specific building's earthquake response accurately. The training dataset consists of 1,197 MDOF 2D shear models, generating a total of 32,319 training samples. To evaluate the performance of the proposed model, termed MLPER (Machine Learning based Prediction of building structures' Earthquake Response), several metrics are employed. These include mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and mean deviation angle (MDA) for comparisons in the time domain. Additionally, we assess magnitude-squared coherence values and phase differences (Δφ) for comparisons in the frequency domain. This study underscores the potential of MLPER as a reliable tool for predicting building earthquake response, addressing the limitations of simplified models. By integrating AV measurements and EQ time-history data into a neural network framework, MLPER offers a promising avenue for enhancing our understanding of structural behavior during seismic events, ultimately contributing to improved earthquake resilience in building design and engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0263.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: ambient ionization; mass spectrometry; high-throughput sampling; imaging; modular robot; open hardware; lab automation; peer production; open software; low-temperature plasma
Online: 23 July 2019 (15:20:38 CEST)
Abstract: Mass spectrometry research laboratories reported multiple probes for ambient ionization in the last years. Combining them with a mechanical moving stage enables automated sampling and imaging applications. We developed a robotic platform, which is based on RepRap 3D-printer components, and therefore easy to reproduce and to adopt for custom prototypes. The minimal step width of the Open LabBot is 12.5 μm, and the sampling dimensions (x, y, z) are 18 × 15 × 20 cm. Adjustable rails in an aluminium frame construction facilitate the mounting of additional parts such as sensors, probes, or optical components. The Open LabBot uses industry-standard G-code for its control. The simple syntax facilitates the programming of the movement. We developed two programs: 1) LABI-Imaging, for direct control via a USB connection and the synchronization with MS data acquisition. 2) RmsiGUI, which integrates all steps of mass spectrometry imaging: The creation of G-code for robot control, the assembly of imzML files from raw data and the analysis of imzML files. We proved the functionality of the system by the automated sampling and classification of essential oils with a PlasmaChip probe. Further, we performed an ambient ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AIMSI) experiment of a lime slice with laser desorption low-temperature plasma (LD-LTP) ionization, demonstrating the integration of the complete workflow in RmsiGUI. The design of the Open LabBot and the software are released under open licenses to promote their use and adoption in the instrument developers’ community.