BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; complete genome; Cosmopolitan genotype; Senegal; 2018; Regional diversification
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:56:19 CET)
To assess the genetic diversity of circulating dengue virus 2 in Senegal in 2018 we performed molecular characterization by complete genome sequencing and performing phylogenetic analysis. Sequenced strains belong to Cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 we observed intra-genotype variability leading to a divergence in two clades with differential geographic distribution. We report two variants namely; the “Northern variant” harbouring three nonsynonymous mutations (V1183M, R1405K, P2266T) located respectively on NS2A, NS2B and NS4A and the “Western variant” with two nonsynonymous mutations (V1185E, V3214E) located respectively in the NS2A gene and the NS5 gene. Findings calls for in depth in vitro and functional study to elucidate the impact of observed mutations on viral fitness, spread, epidemiology and disease outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Hepatitis E Virus; seroprevalence; risk factors; mining gold villages; Southeastern Senegal
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:43:05 CEST)
Rapid proliferation of traditional gold mining sites in Kédougou a Southeast region in Senegal, led to mass population migration from the neighboring West African countries and rapid expansion of small mining villages with poor hygiene and sanitation conditions. An outbreak of hepatitis E was reported in 2014 with several cases of febrile jaundice among traditional mine workers. In this study, we analyzed both HEV IgM and IgG seroprevalence and the associated risk factors of infection by testing any suspected case and contacts collected from February 2012 to November 2014. RNA-negative sera from suspected cases and contacts were tested for anti-HEV IgM and anti-HEV IgG. A total of 799 sera were collected from 290 suspected cases, 470 contacts and 39 individuals with missing information. The median age of the cohort study was 19 years (1-88 years) with a male/female sex-ratio of 1.9. We found an overall prevalence of 43.68% (332/760) of anti-HEV IgM and 38.15% (290/760) of anti-HEV IgG sera. Our data provide new insights into the HEV epidemiology and point to the crucial need to estimate the disease’s burden in Kédougou and assess the viral mechanisms driving the disease’s severity in pregnant women.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue; Dengue virus; cosmopolitan genotype; Senegal; Mauritania; Molecular characterization; Full genome sequencing
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:06:07 CET)
Globally 390 millions of people are at risk of dengue infection; over the past 50 years the virus incidence increased thirty-fold. In Senegal, an unprecedented occurrence of outbreaks and sporadic cases was noticed since 2017. In October 2018 an outbreak of DENV-2 was reported in Rosso area in the north of Senegal at the border with Mauritania. Out of the 187 blood specimen samples collected, 27 were positives by qRT-PCR and 8 were serologically positive for DENV IgM. Serotyping using qRT-PCR reveals that isolates were positive for DENV-2. A subset of DENV-2 positives samples was selected and subjected to full genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. Analysis of 06 nearly completed genome sequences (n= 6) revealed that isolates belong to the cosmopolitan genotype and are closely related to the Mauritanian strains detected between 2017 and 2018 and those detected in many West African countries such as Burkina Faso or Cote d’Ivoire. Our results suggest a transboundary circulation of the DENV-2 cosmopolitan genotype between Senegal and Mauritania and call for a need of coordinated surveillance of arboviruses between these two countries. Interestingly, high level of homology between West African isolates highlights endemicity and call for a set-up of sub-regional viral genomic surveillance which will lead to a better understanding of viral dynamic, transmission and spread across Africa.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0127.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Febrile patient; Kolda; Circulation; Sylvatic Dengue virus 2; 2021; One health
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:24:46 CEST)
A human case of dengue virus 2 was detected from a febrile patient living in the Sare yoba, Kolda region (Southern Senegal). Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of the NS5 gene reveals that the virus belongs to the DENV2 Sylvatic genotype and is closely related to a strain (JF260983/ 98.98% identity) detected in Spain from a tourist who travelled to Guinee Bissau (bordering Kolda region) in 2009. This highlights a potential recent underreported circulation of sylvatic Dengue in the southern part of Senegal and calls for re-enforced integrated surveillance among humans, non-human primates and arboreal mosquitoes throughout a one-health approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0233.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: DENV; Serotypes; Senegal; Spatio-temporal distribution; Genotypes
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:08:42 CEST)
Dengue virus is becoming a major public health threat worldwide principally in Africa. From 2016 to 2020, 23 outbreaks were reported in Africa principally in West Africa. In Senegal outbreak are reported yearly since 2017 ; data about the circulating serotypes and their spatial and temporal distribution are limited to 2017 – 2018 period. Herein we describes up to date molecular surveillance of circulating DENV serotypes in Senegal between 2019 to 2023 and their temporal and spatial distribution around the country. For this purpose collected suspected DENV infections samples were subjected to dengue detection and serotyping using RT-qPCR methods. Positive samples subjected to temporal and spatial mapping. Subset of DENV+ samples were then sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Results show a co-circulation of three DENV serotypes with a overall predominance of DENV-3 followed by DENV-1 with scarce cases of DENV-2 from 02_2019 to 02_2022. Interestingly data shows extinct of both serotype 1 and serotype 2 and the only circulation of DENV-3 from March 2022 to July 2023. At the genotype level analysis shows that sequenced strains belong to same genotype as previously described DENV-1 belong to genotype V, DENV-2 to cosmopolitan genotype and DENV-3 to Genotype III. Interestingly newly obtained DENV 1-3 sequences cluster in different clades within genotypes. This co-circulation of strains belonging to different clades could have effect on virus epidemiology and transmission dynamic. Overall our results highlight DENV serotypes replacement by DENV-3 accompanied by wider geographic distribution in Senegalese regions. All unmentioned results highlight the importance of virus genomic surveillance and call for further fitness studies using both in vitro and in vivo model as well as in depth phylogeographic study to uncover the virus dispersal patterns across the country.