REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0283.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: fat replacer; octenyl succinic anhydride; OSA starch; starch properties
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:14:12 CEST)
Along with the rapid development of the trend in the health sector, various studies have been conducted to find alternative healthier foods, one of which is reducing fat consumption. Currently, many researchers focus on one of modified starches that can be utilized as a fat replacer is starch modified with OSA (octenyl succinic anhydride). In the last decade, there have been quite a lot of publications related to OSA starch, further the number is still increasing. This review discusses the synthesis method of OSA starch and its optimization, functional characteristics, and its application to be a fat replacer in many kinds of products daily consumed. Various pre-treatment methods could be applied to create OSA starch which has higher degree of substitution values. The presence of conjugate bonds with the OSA group in starch polymers could produce very amphiphilic starch characteristic so as to have an emulsifying function. Emulsions shaped from OSA starch were utilized as fat replacers in foods with high level of fat content. Partial OSA starch substitution was successfully utilized as a fat replacer for several types of food products with similar sensory attributes or even slightly better than the native product. The resulting product could be defined as a healthier choice because it had relatively lower fat and calorie content. Even so, adjustments through further study are still needed so that the food produced is able to have a higher level of sensory acceptance relative to native food without fat substitution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0254.v1
Online: 15 May 2020 (10:22:59 CEST)
In addition to being a source of freshener, coffee has an enormous possibility to be developed as a source of antioxidants for functional beverages. However, efforts to increase the value added of coffee as a health functional drink are still hindered by the presence of high level of caffeine, which is thought to have adverse effects on health, especially for coffee lovers who are vulnerable to caffeine. This study aims to optimise the steaming duration to produce low caffeine coffee while maintaining the sensory attributes and antioxidant compounds contained in it. Indonesian Arabica (Leksana variety) green coffee beans were steamed with multi-level steaming durations (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) followed by roasting (medium-dark roast degree), grinding, and brewing (espresso method). The results indicate that caffeine content in the coffee was inversely proportional to the steaming duration. The lowest caffeine content was obtained from the treatment of 80 min steaming with a decrease of caffeine level up to 28.73%. However, the longer process of steaming caused a significant decrease in polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The hedonic test shows that the steaming treatment of coffee can increase preferences of panellists. There were two driving attributes that influence the overall liking of coffee, namely: bitterness and aftertaste. Coffee obtained from the treatment of 60 min steaming was most preferred by panellists. The results of APLSR biplot mapping show that there was a big change in almost all attributes in the coffee samples after 40 min steaming.