ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0241.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Tyr-FISH; integration genetic; cytogenetic and pseudochromosome maps; transcript based markers; genome assembly; bioinformatics; Allium cepa
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:54:02 CEST)
The ability to directly look into genome sequences has opened great opportunities in plant breeding. Yet, the assembly of full-length chromosomes remains one of the most difficult problems in modern genomics. Genetic maps are commonly used in de novo genome assembly and are constructed on the basis of a statistical analysis of the number of recombination rather than physical distance in base pairs. This may affect the accuracy of the ordering and orientation of scaffolds within the chromosome, especially in the region of recombination suppression. Here we report the use of Tyr-FISH for validation of genetic and pseudochromosome maps. For probe design we developed a pipeline that is based on selection of a unique sequence with minimal potential fluorescent background arising from non-specific in situ hybridization. In total of 24 unique genes were located on physical chromosomes 2 and 6. The order of markers has been corrected by integration genetic and cytogenetic maps. Tyr-FISH mapping showed that the order of 23.1% (chromosome 2) and 27.3% (chromosome 6) of the tested genes differed between physical chromosomes and pseudochromosomes. Also the position of the mlh1 gene, which was not on the genetic map, was defined on physical chromosome 2. The results suggest the possibility of Tyr-FISH mapping of any gene that may not be neither on the genetic map nor in the assembly. Hence, Tyr-FISH provides valuable information for the improvement of the genome assembly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0607.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Tyr-FISH; plant chromosome preparation; recombinant and cytogenetic maps; transcript-based markers; genome assembly; Allium cepa
Online: 22 April 2021 (12:19:32 CEST)
In situ imaging of molecular markers on a physical chromosome is an indispensable tool for refin-ing of genetic maps and validation genome assembly at the chromosomal level. Despite tremen-dous progress in genome sequencing the plant genome assembly at chromosome level still remain a challenge. Recently developed optical and Hi-C mapping aim to assist in genome assembly. For high-confidence in the genome assembly at chromosome level more independent approaches will be required. The present study aimed to refined an ultrasensitive Tyr-FISH technique and to de-velop a reliable and easy method for in situ mapping of a short unique DNA sequences on plant chromosomes. We have carefully analyzed the critical steps of the Tyr-FISH technique to find out the reasons for the failures of using the method. It has been shown that successful visualization of marker/gene depends significantly on method of chromosome slide preparation, probe design and labelling, high stringency washing. Appropriate adjustment of these steps allowed us to detect a short DNA sequence of 1.7Kb with a frequency of 51.6%. Based on our results, we developed a reliable and simple protocol for dual-color Tyr-FISH visualization of short unique DNA sequences on plant chromosomes. New protocol allows more accurate determination of the physical distance between markers and can be applied for faster integration of genetic and cytogenetic maps.