REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0232.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Air Quality; Urban air quality; air quality measurement systems
Online: 26 April 2022 (09:57:05 CEST)
Urban air quality is increasingly becoming a cause for concern for the health of the human population. The poor air quality is already wreaking havoc in major cities of the world, where serious health issues and reduction of average human life by a factor of years are reported. The air quality in developing countries can become worse as they undergo development. The urban air quality varies non-linearly depending upon the various factors such as land use, industrialization, waste disposal, traffic volume, etc. To address this problem, it is necessary to look at the plethora of available literature from multiple perspectives such as types and sources of pollutants, meteorology, urban mobility, urban planning and development, health care, economics, etc. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art in urban air quality. We first review the fundamental background on air quality and present the emerging landscape of urban air quality. We then explore the available literature from multiple urban air quality measurement projects and provides the insights uncovered in them. We then take a look at the sources that are significantly contributing to polluting the air quality. Finally, we highlight open issues and research challenges in dealing with urban air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1836.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: personal monitoring tools; air pollution monitoring; air quality monitoring; commercial portable low-cost wearable sensor; portable air quality; field evaluation; public health; performance evaluation
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:56:50 CEST)
Low-cost personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure personal exposure to air pollution are potentially promising tools for health research. However, their adoption requires robust validation. This study evaluated the performance of twenty-one Plume Lab Flow2 (PLF) by comparing its air pollutant measurements, particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), 10 μm or less (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), against several high-quality air pollution monitors under field conditions (at indoor, outdoor, and roadside locations). Correlation and regression analysis were used to evaluate measurements obtained by different PLFs against reference instrumentation. For all measured pollutants, the overall correlation coefficient between the PLFs and the reference instruments was often weak (r<0.4). Moderate correlation was observed for one PLF unit at indoor location and two units at roadside location, when measuring PM2.5, but not for PM10 and NO2 concentration. During periods of particularly higher pollution, 11 PLF tools showed stronger regression results (R2 values > 0.5) with one-hour and 9 PLF units with one-minute time interval. Results show that the PLF cannot be used robustly to determine high and low exposure to poor air. Therefore, the use of PLFs in research studies should be approached with caution if data quality is important to the research outputs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: dehumidification; desiccant wheels; air quality; air conditioning systems
Online: 20 June 2023 (07:18:10 CEST)
A review of desiccant dehumidification technologies for improving air-quality has been presented, especially focusing on alternatives for air conditioning systems for minimizing the Sick Building Syndrome. The principles and types of desiccant wheels, as well as the existing selection software for these types of equipment, were reviewed and comparatively evaluated. The study focuses on the Brazilian context, therefore, information about air condition systems and laws of this country were evaluated. Possible applications of desiccant wheels are also analyzed, such as their integration into cooling cycles and the sensible heat wheel. Finally, several commercial desiccant wheel selection software were evaluated, which are useful in many situations. Nevertheless, it was evidenced that the available softwares are not capable of performing an operation analysis for only a specific period. Therefore, it is essential to create computational tools to select desiccant wheels, considering the data from the different Brazilian regions for a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0041.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air quality; air pollution measurements; electrochemical sensors; low-cost sensors; AQI (Air Quality Index); Athens
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:08:39 CEST)
Most people living in Europe's cities are still exposed to levels of air pollution deemed harmful by the World Health Organization. In the modern world, air pollution is the foremost concern because of its impact in human health and economy. This strong connection appears gaining a lot of concern, driven by new installed low-cost electrochemical sensors monitoring systems. Highly accuracy, real-time monitoring, daily and yearly statistics, data access from experts or simple users, low-cost equipment and forecasting needs, enforce the market to develop new air quality monitoring systems using advanced technologies and protocols. In this study, a comparison via low-cost electrochemical sensors and of static, fixed site measurement monitoring station, is taking place in Athens, Greece, along with the data quality and Air Quality Index (AQI) including data accuracy and quality of data concerning adverse health effects due to air pollution. The findings presented in this work, relate to different flexible and affordable alternatives adopted during the evaluation and calibration of low-cost gas sensors for the monitoring. The significance of the positive results is particularly useful, especially considering the founding for interference, environmental conditions affections and air quality information including indexes and health recommendations for a specific location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; air quality standard; spatial pattern; variability; human health protection
Online: 5 October 2018 (14:15:36 CEST)
Shenzhen is China’s top ten clean air city and the cleanest air megacity. Even so, epidemiologic studies have shown ambient air pollution had significant adverse impacts on human health in this less polluted city. In this study, the concentrations of six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, and CO) from 2014 to 2017 were analyzed and compared to thresholds of both national and international air quality standards. The results showed concentrations of all air pollutants were below target values of current national air quality standard, but levels of particulate matter (PM) and O3 were still much higher than the recommended levels by the World Health Organization. Within national air quality standards, the number of over-limit days was rare with few variations between highly polluted and low pollution areas. The air quality improvement was slowing down recently. Our results suggest annual and daily thresholds for PM are too loose for air quality improvement in Shenzhen. Hence, we call for evaluation and establishment of tougher air quality standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0440.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air quality; thermal comfort; air quality index; heat index; wind chill; Bulgaria; Europe
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:18:02 CEST)
Air pollution is responsible for any adverse effects on human beings. Thermal discomfort, on the other hand, is able to overload the human body and eventually provoke health implications due to the heat imbalance. Methods: The aim of the present work is to study the behavior of two bio-climatic indexes and statistical characteristics of the air quality index for Sofia city - the capital of Bulgaria for the period 2008 - 2014. The study is based on WRF-CMAQ model system simula-tions with a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. The air quality is estimated by the air quality index, taking into account the influence of different pollutants and the thermal conditions by two indi-ces, respectively, for hot and cold weather. Results: It was found that half of the heat and cold index categories are present in the simulations. Their distribution has some spatial features. All air quality categories are present in the domain, with dominance only of the O3 and PM10. Conclu-sions: It was found that Sofia is not so hot and air polluted place, but in some situations, people have to have some concerns when intend to be outdoors for a prolonged time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0849.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cognitive function; ambient air quality; air pollution and brain health; older adults; cognitive frailty
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:32 CET)
(1) Background: Environmental and public health research has given considerable attention to the impact of air quality on brain health, with systematic reviews widespread. No literature review has been done for cognitive frailty – a multidimensional syndrome combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment and their apparent co-dependence, linked to increased vulnerability and adverse health outcomes, including dementia. Instead, cognitive decline and frailty is implicitly explored through research on air quality and comorbid cognitive and physical decline in elderly populations. (2) Methods: A scoping review was conducted to explore the need for a systematic review. Combining Arksey and O’Malley  and PRISMA-ScR checklist , a scoping review of SCOPUS using ‘cogniti*’ + ‘resilience’ + ‘air quality’ or ‘cogniti*’ + ‘ageing’ + ‘air quality’ resulted in N=2503 articles, screened and reduced using inclusion and exclusion criteria, to N=16 articles. (3) Results: Air quality appears to be a critical risk factor for cognitive decline, even at air quality levels below WHO targets. Moderate long-term ambient air pollution appears linked to increased risk of cognitive frailty, suggesting earlier and more active interventions to protect older people. There are varied effects on cognition across the life course, with both emotional and functional impacts. Effects may be more detrimental to elderly people with existing conditions, including economic and health inequalities. Generalisation of results is limited due to the absence of a dose-response, variations in methods, controlling for comorbid effects, and variance across studies. (4) Conclusions: The findings support the need for more research and a more extensive summary of the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; Air pollution; Air quality; Health effects; Economic burden
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:59:24 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths to COVID-19 burden deaths. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0114.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air quality; mobile observations; light rail; particulate matter; ozone; health outcomes; urban pollution; wildfires; air quality policy; environmental justice
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:36:21 CET)
Observing air quality from sensors onboard light rail cars in Salt Lake County, Utah began as a pilot study in 2014 and has now evolved into a five-year state-funded program. This metropolitan region suffers from both elevated ozone levels during summer and high PM2.5 events during winter. Pollution episodes result predominantly from local anthropogenic emissions but are also impacted by regional transport of dust, chemical precursors to ozone, and wildfire smoke as well as being exacerbated by the topographical features surrounding the city. Two electric light-rail train cars from the Utah Transit Authority light-rail Transit Express (“TRAX”) system were outfitted with PM2.5 and ozone sensors to measure air quality at high spatial and temporal resolution in this region. Pollutant concentration data underwent quality control procedures to determine whether the train motion affected the readings and how the sensors compared against regulatory sensors. Quality assurance results from data obtained over the past year show that TRAX Observation Project sensors are reliable, which corroborates earlier preliminary validation work. Two case studies from summer 2019 are presented to illustrate the strength of the finely-resolved air quality observations: 1) an elevated ozone event and 2) elevated particulate pollution resulting from 4th of July fireworks. The mobile observations were able to capture spatial gradients as well as pollutant hotspots during both of these episodes. Sensors have been recently added to a third light rail train car, which travels on a north-south oriented rail line along which we were unable to monitor air quality previously. The TRAX Observation Project is currently being used to provide reliable pollutant data for health studies and inform urban planning efforts. Links to real-time data displays and updated information on the quality-controlled data from this study are available at https://atmos.utah.edu/air_quality/trax/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Neural Network; Air Quality; Environment
Online: 19 October 2023 (03:33:09 CEST)
In the pursuit of energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact, adequate ventilation in enclosed spaces is essential. This study presents a hybrid neural network model designed for real-time monitoring and prediction of environmental variables. The system comprises two phases: An IoT hardware-software platform for data acquisition and decision-making, and a hybrid model combining short-term memory and convolutional recurrent structures. The results are promising and hold potential for integration into parallel processing AI architectures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0586.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Indoor, classrooms, residential rooms, air detector, PM, TVOC, EPA
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:24:49 CET)
Air quality has been a major concern throughout the world, Nigeria inclusive. The monitoring of air quality involves indoor and outdoor air quality. In this study, our concern was on indoor air quality. The aim of this study was to assess the air quality of residential homes (17), classrooms (3), hospitals (2), offices (5), Shops (2), and laboratories (5) in Akure, Nigeria in terms of formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compound (TVOC), Particulate matter (PM1.0; PM2.5, and PM10). A Multifunction Air Detector was used for the assessment using the manufacturers’ procedures and the locations were identified using a Mini GPS. The results revealed as follows: HCHO (0.001-0.030 mg/m3), TVOC (0.003-362 mg/m3), PM1.0 (004-014 µg/m3), PM2.5 (006-020 µg/m3), and PM10 (006-022 µg/m3). The results obtained were below the 24 h pollution recommended standards (0.1 mg/m3- HCHO; TVOC; 10-20 μ/m3 PM) of EPA and WHO. Statistically, there were correlations within the pollutants and weather. The Indoor air quality (IAQ) depicted the areas as ‘good,’ and toxicity potential (TP) were below unity. Although the locations looked safe, it is recommended that constant monitoring of the indoors should be ensured and proper ventilation should be provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0515.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; MASP; human health; quarantine
Online: 30 April 2020 (03:11:40 CEST)
Social distancing policies put in place during COVID-19 epidemic in addition to helping to limit the spread of the disease also contributed to improving urban air quality. Here we show a decrease in air pollutant concentration as a consequence of mobility reduction in São Paulo during the containment measure which began on 22nd March 2020. When comparing to foregoing weeks to equivalent periods of 2019, the concentration of most air pollutants sharply decreased in the first days of mobility restriction, to then increase again after government officials downplayed the threat of the disease. This trend is also followed by a decrease in hospital admissions by SARS-influenza. Therefore, despite the great economic and social unrest caused by the pandemic, this unique situation shows that large-scale mobility reduction policy had a significant impact on air quality, benefiting, directly and indirectly, the public health system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AOD; MODIS; Alaska; AERONET; air quality
Online: 8 May 2018 (06:30:56 CEST)
The air quality monitoring network in Alaska is currently limited to ground-based observations in urban areas and national parks leaving a large proportion of the state unmonitored. The use of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate ground-level particulate pollution concentrations has been successfully demonstrated around the world, and could potentially be used in Alaska. In this work, MODIS AOD measurements at 550 nm were validated against AOD derived from AERONET ground-based sunphotometers in Barrow and Bonanza Creek to determine if MODIS AOD from the Terra and Aqua satellites could be used to estimate ground-level particulate pollution concentrations. The MODIS AOD was obtained from MODIS collection 6 using the dark target Land and Ocean algorithms from 2000 to 2014. MODIS data could only be obtained between the months of April and October; therefore, it could only be validated for those months. Individual and combined Terra and Aqua MODIS data were considered. The results showed that MODIS collection 6 products at 10 km resolution for Terra and Aqua combined are not valid over land but are valid over the ocean. On the other hand, the individual Terra and Aqua MODIS collection 6 AOD products at 10 km resolution are valid over land individually but not when combined. Results also suggest the MODIS collection 6 AOD products at 3 km resolution are valid over land and ocean and perform better over land than the 10-km product. These findings indicate that MODIS collection 6 AOD products can be used quantitatively in air quality applications in Alaska during the summer months.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0299.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: air quality monitoring; PM2.5; sustainable development goals; SDG indicator 11.6.2
Online: 20 October 2021 (22:52:38 CEST)
Ukraine is an associate member of the European Union and in the coming years it is expected that all the data and services already used by European Union countries will become available for Ukraine. An important program, which is the basis for building European monitoring services for Smart Cities, is the Copernicus program. The two most important services of this program are Copernicus Land Monitoring Service (CLMS) and Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). CLMS provides important information on Land Use in Europe. In the context of Smart Cities, the most valuable one is the Urban Atlas service, which is related to local CLMS services and provides a detailed digital city plan in vector form, which is segmented into small functional areas classified by the CORIN nomenclature. The Urban Atlas is a geospatial layer with high-resolution, which is built for all European cities with a population of more than 100,000 that combines high-resolution sat-ellite data, city segmentation by blocks and functional areas, important city infrastructure, etc. This product is used as a basis for city planning and obtaining analytics on the most important indicators of city development including air quality monitoring. For Ukraine, such geospatial products are not provided under the Copernicus program. It is important to start work on its development and implementation as early as possible, so that when the first city atlas appears, Ukraine will be ready to work with it together with the European community. This requires preparing the basis for na-tional research and training national stakeholders and users to use this product. To make this happen it’s necessary to have national geospatial product, which can be used as an analogue of the city atlas. In this article authors analyzed the existing methods of air quality assessment and assessment of the SDG indicator 11.6.2 achieving for European cities, based on which the indicator 11.6.2 for Ukraine for 5 years was evaluated for the first time. The obtained results are analyzed and the values of indicator 11.6.2 for Ukraine are compared with European countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: coffee; air flow; forced convection; temperature; quality
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:19:28 CET)
Different coffee drying technologies face complex task in ensuring an acceptable final seed moisture content. Drying technology of agricultural commodities aims to maintain and improve the quality of the agricultural products themselves. In addition to maintaining quality, especially from other bacterial attacks, it can last for a long time before further processing. Coffee commodities are promising for the welfare of coffee farmers. Drying technology plays a major role in determining the quality of coffee. Various drying models are applied including the traditional model that until now is still applied, direct drying under solar radiation. However, this drying process is less hygienic and requires a large area. Thus, one of the drying technologies that can accelerate drying time is to vary the air flow in the drying chamber so that the coffee can be determined to reduce the water content with a certain temperature. In this study, it was found that the moisture content of coffee beans dried using a dryer on air flow with variations of velocity in solar collector 1 (DB1) air velocity of 1.0m/s obtained the final mass = 732.249 gr, solar collector 2 (DB2) with air velocity 1.5 m/s obtained the final mass = 774.70 gr, solar collector 3 (DB3) with air velocity 2.0 m/s obtained the final mass = 855.10 gr, solar collector 4 (DB4) with air velocity 2.5 m/s obtained the final mass = 745.79 gr, and solar collector 5 (DB5) with air velocity 3.0 m/s obtained the final mass = 786.40 gr. Water Content DB1=12.0%, DB2=13.6%, DB3=18.5%, DB4=12.9% and DB5=15.2%. The time required for 25 hours with a maximum radiation of 586.9 w/m2, total heat utilized from solar radiation in 3 days =16.663128 MJ/m2. from the initial weight of 1500gr coffee bean samples and dried in five solar collectors with parallel simultaneously. The evaporated water content DB1=51.18%, DB2=48.35%, DB3=42.96%, DB4=50.28% and DB5=47.57%. Based on this research, it was found that the most optimum quality of coffee was by using solar collector 2 (DB2), namely with air flow of 1.5 m/s with average temperature in the drying box DB2=43.68°C, with the quality content of the coffee, Protein content=12.2%, Carbohydrate=22.8% and Free Fatty Acid (ALB) content=0.05%.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0174.v1
Online: 18 August 2016 (10:36:09 CEST)
The ambient air quality data for particulate matter as well as criteria of gaseous pollutants were assembled during December 2013 to December 2015 from the Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAMS) located at Agrabad, Chittagong. The observation showed that during April- October, 24 hour average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) level but it increased occasionally by more than two and a half times during the whole non-monsoon period (November-March). The highest values found of PM2.5 were 321.1 µg/m3 in January, 2013 and 220.34 µg/m3 in December 2015. Whether, the highest alarming concentration of PM10 was reported as 474 µg/m3 in January 2007. The other gaseous pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO and Hydrocarbons remain well within the permissible limit except dry non-monsoon period. The yearly average increase of Air Quality Index (AQI) value indicates the growth rate of air pollution in Chittagong city. The main responsible pollutant for air pollution is found PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0236.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Kuwait; Covid-19; Air quality Index; GeoHealth; Kernel Density
Online: 18 February 2022 (12:27:48 CET)
Research have been conducted in many countries around the world to assess air quality during COVID-19 pandemic, especially during lockdown period, some of these studies found an increase or decrease in some pollutants. This paper investigates the impact of COVID-19 on seven air pollutants (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3, SO2, H2S, CO) from the period January 2020 to December 2020 in the State of Kuwait. Kuwait is a desert country located in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, and the northeast of the Arabian Gulf (Persian as it is sometimes called). Several analytical methods were conducted, such as spatial analysis (spatial interpolation) to study the distribution of the studied variables. The data was also statistically analysed (time series analysis - Kernel density) to study the temporal changes. The analysis also included applying air quality index to the data. We found that concentrations for the pollutants decreased during the pandemic due to the decrease of anthropogenic sources including such as traffic and petroleum activities, but the concentration for PM2.5 increased, mostly because of the transported dust coming with the northwest winds prevailing in Kuwait from the Arabian deserts and Iraq.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0197.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: air pollutant prediction; multi-task learning; regularization; analytical solution
Online: 28 December 2017 (09:09:20 CET)
In this paper, we tackle air quality forecasting by using machine learning approaches to predict the hourly concentration of air pollutants (e.g., Ozone, PM2.5 and Sulfur Dioxide). Machine learning, as one of the most popular techniques, is able to efficiently train a model on big data by using large-scale optimization algorithms. Although there exists some works applying machine learning to air quality prediction, most of the prior studies are restricted to small scale data and simply train standard regression models (linear or non-linear) to predict the hourly air pollution concentration. In this work, we propose refined models to predict the hourly air pollution concentration based on meteorological data of previous days by formulating the prediction of 24 hours as a multi-task learning problem. It enables us to select a good model with different regularization techniques. We propose a useful regularization by enforcing the prediction models of consecutive hours to be close to each other, and compare with several typical regularizations for multi-task learning including standard Frobenius norm regularization, nuclear norm regularization, ℓ2,1 norm regularization. Our experiments show the proposed formulations and regularization achieve better performance than existing standard regression models and existing regularizations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1212.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Kindergarten; CO2; PM2.5; Mechanical Ventilation; Indoor Air Quality; Numerical model
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:31:15 CEST)
The educational and play-related activities of children are proceeded mainly indoors in a kin-dergarten. The exposure of children to high concentrations of PM2.5 and CO2 indoors have leaded to various harmful effects and negatively impact educational outcomes in a kindergarten. Therefore, this study presents a numerical model of CO2 and PM2.5 concentration based on two classrooms in a kindergarten. Using this numerical model, we present different scenarios of oper-ating mechanical ventilation and air purifiers in kindergartens with the aim of optimizing for reducing the concentrations of CO2 and PM2.5. We found that the amount of ventilation required to maintain good air quality, per child, was approximately 20.4 m3/h. However, we also found that as the amount of ventilation increased, so did the concentration of indoor PM2.5; we found that this issue can be resolved through the use of a high-grade filter (i.e., a MERV 13 grade filter with a collection efficiency of 75%). This study provides a scientific basis for reducing PM2.5concentrations in kindergartens, while keeping CO2 levels low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1091.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Air quality; Multi-pollutant prediction; Graph convolutional neural network; Long short term memory
Online: 17 November 2023 (05:16:35 CET)
Air quality is one of the most concerning problems in major industrialized cities in the world. Prediction of future air quality is highly relevant to public health. In some big cities, multiple air quality measurement stations are deployed at different locations to monitor air pollutants, such as NO2, CO, PM 2.5 and PM 10, over time. At every monitoring time stamp t, we observe one station×feature matrix xt of the pollutant data, which represents a spatio–temporal process. Traditional methods on prediction of air quality typically use data from one station or can only predict a single pollutant (such as PM 2.5) at a time, which ignores the spatial correlation among different stations. Moreover, the air pollution data are typically highly nonstationary, We propose a de-trending graph convolutional LSTM (long short term memory) to continuously predict the whole station×feature matrix in the next 1 to 48 hours, which not only captures the spatial dependency among multiple stations by replacing an inner product with convolution, but also incorporates the de-trending signals (transform a nonstationary process to a stationary one by differencing the data) into our model. Experiments on the air quality data of the city Chengdu and multiple major cities in China demonstrate the feasibility of our method and show promising results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1639.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Air conditioning unit; AC condensate; Drinking water quality; Drinking water scarcity
Online: 26 October 2023 (03:19:40 CEST)
The increasing demand for water resources in urban areas, such as Bangladesh, due to population growth is a significant concern. One potential solution under consideration is the use of air conditioning (AC) condensate water. A study conducted at the European University of Bangladesh (EUB) focused on assessing the quality and quantity of AC condensate water from various systems. The results indicate that the collected water generally adhered to the quality standards established for drinking and household use in Bangladesh. Parameters such as pH (averaging 6.8), turbidity (1.08 NTU), total dissolved solids (TDS) (averaging 219 mg/L), iron content (0 mg/L), alkalinity (averaging 41.67 mg/L), arsenic (0 mg/L), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (averaging 3.67 mg/L), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (averaging 1.33 mg/L), chloride content (averaging 30.77 mg/L), and other factors were evaluated. Moreover, the AC units at EUB, varying in cooling capacity (1 ton, 2 tons, and 4 tons), produced substantial monthly volumes of 96, 177, and 354 liters of condensate water, respectively. This underscores the potential of AC condensate water as a valuable resource for addressing urban water scarcity. As a result, there is a pressing need for local decision-makers and policymakers to establish well-defined guidelines for the effective utilization of AC condensate water to mitigate water scarcity issues in urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0024.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: respiratory health; real-time air-quality monitoring; lung functionality; alert system
Online: 8 August 2023 (07:12:49 CEST)
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that impairs breathing. Management of asthma presents a significant challenge due to its inherent variability; that is, its symptoms can substantially differ among individuals, thereby complicating the prediction and management of exacerbations. Furthermore, individuals with asthma often have unique triggers that precipitate symptoms or attacks. The identification of these triggers can often prove to be a challenging, and at times, an impractical attempt. To address this, our research proposes a practical, personalized alert system, predicated on individual lung function tests conducted under varying environmental conditions classified by air-quality sensors. To validate this concept, we conducted an observational pilot study involving healthy individuals. We recruited twelve healthy participants and monitored their responses across a broad spectrum of environments, characterized by varying air quality, temperature, and humidity conditions. The lung function for each participant, assessed using peak expiratory flow (PEF) values, was recorded in each of these environments. Our results highlighted substantial variability in pulmonary responses to different environments. Utilizing these insights, we proposed a personalized alarm system that provides real-time air-quality monitoring and issues alerts when environmental conditions may potentially become unfavorable. We also explored the feasibility of employing basic machine learning techniques to predict PEF values in the aforementioned environmental conditions. This proposed system has the potential to empower individuals in actively safeguarding their respiratory health and mitigating discomfort caused by environmental conditions, especially in cases of asthma patients. By enabling timely and personalized interventions, the system aims to provide individuals with the necessary tools to minimize exposure to asthma’s possible triggers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0698.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: air quality; low cost sensors; IoT network; WSN; deployment
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:04:12 CEST)
The increase and diversity of low-cost Air Quality (AQ) sensors, as well as their flexibility and low power consumption, offers us the opportunity to integrate them into a broad AQ wireless sensor networks with the aim of enabling real-time monitoring and higher spatial sampling density of pollution in all parts of the cities. Considering that the vast majority of the population lives in these cities and the increase in respiratory/allergic problems in a large part of the population, it is of great interest to offer services and applications to improve their quality of life. In the ECO4RUPA project we focus on this kind of service, proposing an inclusive and intelligent routing ecosystem carried out by using a network of low-cost AQ sensors with the support of 5G communications along with official AQ monitoring stations, assisted with artificial intelligence to improve the AQ monitoring data and by spatial interpolation techniques to enhance its spatial resolution. The goal of this service is to calculate healthy walking and/or cycling routes according to the particular citizen’s profile and needs. We provide and analyse the results of the proposed route planner under different scenarios (different time tables, congestion road traffic and routes) and different user’s profiles, with special interest on citizens with asthma and pregnant women, since both require special needs. In summary, our approach can lead to an approximately average reduction in pollution exposure of 17.82%, while experiencing an approximately average increase in distance travelled of 9.8 %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0257.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: remote sensing; air quality; NOx emissions; S5P/TROPOMI; MAX-DOAS; LOTOS-EUROS
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:42:05 CEST)
In this article, we aim to show the capabilities, benefits, as well as restrictions, of three different air quality-related information sources, namely the Sentinel-5Precursor TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) space-born observations, the Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) ground-based measurements and the LOng Term Ozone Simulation – EURopean Operational Smog (LOTOS-EUROS) chemical transport modelling system simulations. The tropospheric NO2 concentrations between 2018 and 2021 are discussed as air quality indicators for the Greek cities of Thessaloniki and Ioannina. Each dataset was analysed in an autonomous manner and, without disregarding their differences, the common air quality picture that they provide is revealed. All three systems report a clear seasonal pattern, with high NO2 levels during winter-time and lower NO2 levels during summer-time, reflecting the importance of photochemistry in the abatement of this air pollutant. The spatial patterns of the NO2 load also showed, in both space-born observations and model simulations, the undeniable variability of the NO2 load within the urban agglomerations. The diurnal variability was furthermore clearly identified by the ground-based measurements, which also unquestionably revealed a Sunday minimum NO2 load effect, alongside the rest of the sources of air quality information. Within their individual strengths and limitations, the space-born observations, the ground-based measurements and the chemical transport modelling simulations, demonstrate unequivocally their ability to report on the air quality situation in urban locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1186.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Air quality; Southeast Asia; PM2.5; Public health; Particulate matter
Online: 28 April 2023 (13:02:43 CEST)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0346.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: low-cost air quality sensors; air quality assessment; sensing technologies (STs); fabrication; measurement; configurations; sensor assemblies; gas sensors calibration systems (GSCS); evaluation; mach
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:35:57 CEST)
Air quality and environmental fairness have always been an area of prime interest across the globe. The significance low-cost air quality sensing and practices spikes during the time of pan-demic and epidemics when the air becomes a threat to living beings especially human beings. The gradual innovation and enrichment in low-cost air quality sensing sensors, nodes or devices, and systems are exponentially increasing for the last three decades. This work reviews the major contributions in a) low-cost scalable air quality assessment; b) low-cost air quality sensors, sensing approaches and technologies; c) low-cost state-of-the-art gas sensors fabrication methods (MEMS and CMOS); d) low-cost gas sensors measurement configurations and assemblies; and e) low-cost air quality sensors calibration and testing systems. A systematic review of past work with a goal to assist end-users, public health facilities, state agencies, researchers, scientists and air quality protection agencies has been rendered in this work. Starting from sensors electrodes to IoT based mobile smart nodes; all have been introduced in this article.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0503.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: particulate matter; statistics; air modeling
Online: 28 February 2023 (04:20:28 CET)
This document serves as supplemental information to Shapero et al. (2023), which is itself a comment on Nowell et al. (2022). Environmental Health Perspective’s publishing standards for article comments have strict word counts and do not allow the addition of new primary data analyses; therefore, this document provides an additional level of detail and supporting analyses that serve as an important backup to and expansion of Shapero et al. (2023) and that also respond to some comments within the author’s reply to our comments (Holmes and Nowell, 2023). Nowell et al. (2022) evaluated potential PM2.5 community impacts from sugarcane harvesting. However, their analysis is flawed by erroneous assumptions and misapplied technical approaches, as discussed in Shapero et al. (2023) and as detailed in this supplemental information document. Additionally, the authors ended their analysis with 2018 data, but later data shows no marginal increase in PM2.5 during sugarcane harvest following 2019 even using the authors’ approach (Holmes and Nowell, 2023). Therefore, the authors’ evaluations have no relevance to current conditions. Nonetheless, even their evaluation and conclusions regarding PM2.5 concentrations purportedly attributable to sugarcane harvesting prior to 2019 are unsupported and technically unsound as detailed below.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0604.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; indoor air quality; COVID-19; aerosols; Spain
Online: 24 June 2021 (12:02:57 CEST)
After the arrival of a new airborne virus to the world, science is aiming to develop solutions to withstand the spread and contagion of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The most severe among the adopted measures is to remain in home isolation for a significant number of hours per day, in order to avoid the spreading of the infection in an uncontrolled way through public spaces. Recent literature showed that the major route of transmission is via aerosols produced especially in poorly ventilated inner spaces. With regard to contagion rates, accumulated incidence or number of hospitalizations due to COVID-19, Spain has reached very high levels, therefore this article develops a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the requirements established in Spain with respect to the European framework in reference to ventilation parameters indoors. For this, a case study has been analyzed, representing a common residence in current Spanish residential developments. Results show that the criteria established in the applicable regulations are not sufficient to ensure health as well as to avoid contagion by aerosols indoors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1715.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Indoor air quality; Particulate matter (PM2.5); IAQ Assessment; Health and wellbeing
Online: 26 July 2023 (09:35:57 CEST)
This paper describes the indoor air pollution in urban (Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi and Karachi) Pakistani regions while considering the outdoor air and the health and wellbeing of the occupants present indoors. It also aims to assess previous methodological approaches Such as Air Conditioning Systems, used by developed countries to improve air quality to demonstrate the improvements that can be made in air quality in Pakistani urban areas. This research also investigates the causes, concentration and effects of poor air quality in Pakistani urban areas such as particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon oxides (COx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). The average concentration of these pollutants in Pakistan’s indoor air is, particulate matter (PM): [100 – 250 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 200 – 600 µg/m3 for PM10] 1 – 20 ppm for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx): [50 – 100 µg/m3 for NO2, 20 – 40 µg/m3 for NO], 20 – 50 µg/m3 for sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs): 0.1 – 0.5 ppm for formaldehyde, 5 – 10 µg/m3 for benzene and 20 – 30 µg/m3 for toluene. It should be noted that these concentrations can differ depending on the origin of pollution, location, and time of day. The literature review is made up of a combination of descriptive research methods that are used to inform the research background of ambient and indoor air quality, thus the literature review provides a theoretical and methodological background about the air pollution and its improvement in different parts of the world. According to the World Air Quality Index, Pakistan is the third most polluted country in terms of average PM2.5 concentration which is 14.2 times the WHO annual air quality guideline value. As a result, it is suggested that a PM2.5 concentration reduction program be implemented in urban Pakistani regions' indoor air.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HVAC; Aspergillus spp.; hydrogen peroxide; air disinfection
Online: 4 December 2018 (10:56:33 CET)
International literature data report that the increase of infectious risk may be due to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems contaminated by airborne pathogens. Moreover, the presence of complex rotating dehumidification wheels (RDWs) may complicate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the HVAC systems. We evaluated the efficacy of a disinfection strategy applied to the RDW of two hospitals HVAC systems. Hospitals have 4 RDW systems related to the surgical areas (SA1 and SA2) and to the intensive and sub-intensive cares (IC and sIC). Microbiological air and surfaces analysis were performed in HVAC systems, before and after the disinfection treatment. Hydrogen peroxide (12%) with silver ions (10 mg/L) was aerosolized in all the air sampling points, located close to the RDW device. After the air disinfection procedure, reductions of total microbial counts at 22°C and fungi were achieved in SA2 and IC HVAC systems. An Aspergillus fumigatus contamination (6 CFU/500L), detected in one air sample collected in the IC HVAC system, was eradicated after the disinfection. Surface samples proved a good microbiological quality. Results suggest the need of a disinfection procedure aimed to improve the microbiological quality of the complex HVAC systems, mostly in surgical and intensive care areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0335.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: air quality; extreme weather; MA-MSD method; investor sentiment; behavioral finance
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:13:36 CET)
We investigate the impact of air quality and weather on the equity returns of the Shenzhen Exchange. To capture the air quality and weather effects, we use dummy variables created by employing a moving average and moving standard deviation. The important results are as follows. First, in the whole sample period (2005–2019), we find that high air pollution and extremely high temperature have significant and negative influence on the equity returns. In the sub-period I (2005–2012), the 11-day model and 31-day model show that high air pollution have significant and negative impacts on the Shenzhen stock returns. Second, the results of the quantile regression show that high air pollution have significant and negative effects during bullish market phase, and extremely high temperature have significant and negative effects during bearish market phase. This implies that the air quality and weather effects are asymmetric. Third, the weather effect of the abnormal temperature on the stock returns is greater in severe bearish market. Whereas the effect of the air pollution on the stock returns is greater in the bullish market. Fourth, the least squares method underestimates the air quality and weather effects compared to the quantile regression method, suggesting that the quantile regression method is more suitable in analyzing these effects in a very volatile emerging market such as the Shenzhen stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus; Pandemic; Machine Learning; Public Health; Human Mobility; Air Quality; Review
Online: 15 March 2021 (14:50:24 CET)
The ongoing COVID-19 global pandemic is affecting every facet of human lives (e.g., public health, education, economy, transportation, and the environment). This novel pandemic and citywide implemented lockdown measures are affecting virus transmission, people’s travel patterns, and air quality. Many studies have been conducted to predict the COVID-19 diffusion, assess the impacts of the pandemic on human mobility and air quality, and assess the impacts of lockdown measures on viral spread with a range of Machine Learning (ML) techniques. This review study aims to analyze results from past research to understand the interactions among the COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown measures, human mobility, and air quality. The critical review of prior studies indicates that urban form, people's socioeconomic and physical conditions, social cohesion, and social distancing measures significantly affect human mobility and COVID-19 transmission. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many people are inclined to use private transportation for necessary travel purposes to mitigate coronavirus-related health problems. This review study also noticed that COVID-19 related lockdown measures significantly improve air quality by reducing the concentration of air pollutants, which in turn improves the COVID-19 situation by reducing respiratory-related sickness and deaths of the people. It is argued that ML is a powerful, effective, and robust analytic paradigm to handle complex and wicked problems such as a global pandemic. This study also discusses policy implications, which will be helpful for policymakers to take prompt actions to moderate the severity of the pandemic and improve urban environments by adopting data-driven analytic methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0171.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Air quality; Extreme weather; MA-MSD method; Investor sentiment; Behavioural finance
Online: 7 August 2020 (04:08:44 CEST)
We investigate the impact of air quality and weather on the stock market returns of the Shenzhen Exchange. To capture the air quality and weather effects, we apply dummy variables generated by applying a moving average and moving standard deviation. Our study provides several interesting results. First, in the whole sample period (2005–2019), we find that high air pollution and extremely high temperature have significant and negative effects on the Shenzhen stock returns. In the sub-period I (2005–2012), the 11-day model and 31-day model show that high air pollution have significant and negative effects on the Shenzhen stock returns. Second, the results of the quantile regression show that high air pollution have significant and negative effects during bullish market phase, and extremely high temperature have significant and negative effects during bearish market phase. This implies that the air quality and weather effects are asymmetric. Third, the more the Shenzhen stock returns drop, the greater the effect of the abnormal temperature is. Whereas, the more the Shenzhen stock returns increase, the greater the effect of the abnormal air quality is. Fourth, the least squares method underestimates the air quality and weather effects compared to the quantile regression method, suggesting that the quantile regression method is more suitable in analysing these effects in a very volatile emerging market such as the Shenzhen stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0072.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Ozone; climate change; air quality modeling; artificial neural networks; statistical downscaling; Tehran
Online: 6 September 2022 (02:36:46 CEST)
We developed an artificial neural network as an air quality model and estimated the scope of the impact of climate change on future (until 2064) summertime trends of hourly Ozone (O3) concentrations at an urban air quality station in Tehran, Iran. Our developed scenarios assume that present-time emissions conditions of O3 precursors will remain constant in the future. Therefore, only the impact of climate change on future O3 concentrations is investigated in this study. GCM projections indicate more favorable climate conditions for O3 formation over the study area in the future: the surface temperature increases over all months of the year, solar radiation increases, and precipitation decreases in future summers, and summertime daily maximum temperature increases about 1.2 ∘C to 3 ∘C until 2064. In the scenario based on present-time O3 conditions in 2012 summer without any axceedances, the summertime exceedance days of 8-hr O3 standard are projected to increase in the future by about 4.2 days in the short term and about 12.3 days in the mid-term. Similarly, in the scenario based on present-time O3 conditions in 2010 summer with 58 days of exceedance from 8-hr O3 standard, exceedances are projected to increase about 4.5 days in the short term and about 14.1 days in the mid-term. Moreover, the number of Unhealthy and Very Unhealthy days in 8-hr AQI is also projected to increase based on pollution scenarios of both summers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: air quality; carbon dioxide (CO2); thermal comfort; office buildings; mixed-mode buildings.
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:55:27 CEST)
Since people spend most of their time in indoor environments, the objective of this work was to study indoor air quality perception and its effects on users’ thermal comfort. Based on previous data from a building with a central air-conditioning system and two mixed-mode buildings located in the humid subtropical climate of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, statistical analyses were performed. Each user subjective answer obtained through a questionnaire was combined with the corresponding environmental conditions – measured using microclimate stations, a portable thermo-anemometer and a CO2 analyser. Results showed that improvement in air quality was associated with the reduction of air temperature and humidity ratio. Also, there was a significant influence of thermal, air movement and humidity sensation and acceptability of air quality perception. Users felt more satisfied or neutral with air quality for being in thermal comfort, and not because of the CO2 level – which means that air quality perception is influenced by factors other than CO2. This study recommends the implementation of an air exchange device in split air-conditioners with air recirculation used in mixed-mode buildings in Brazil. It is important to provide suitable indoor ventilation to reduce pollutants concentration, ensure good air quality and prevent respiratory diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Covid-19 lockdown; air quality; Greater Metropolitan Region of Sydney; WRF-CMAQ
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:53:58 CET)
In early 2020 from April to early June, the metropolitan area of Sydney as well as the rest of New South Wales (NSW, Australia) experienced a period of lockdown to prevent the spread of Covid-19 virus in the community. The effect of reducing anthropogenic activities including transportation had an impact on the urban environment in term of air quality which is shown to have improved for a number of pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxides (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), based on monitoring data on ground and from satellite. Besides primary pollutants CO and NOx emitted from mobile sources, PM2.5 (primary and secondary) and secondary ozone (O3) during the lockdown period will also be analysed using both air quality data and modelling method. The results show that NO2, CO and PM2.5 levels decreased during the lockdown, but O3 instead increased. The change in the concentration levels however are small considering the large reduction in traffic volume of ~30%. By estimate the decrease in traffic volume in Sydney region, the corresponding decrease in emission input to the WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System) air quality model is then used to estimate the effect of lockdown on the air quality especially CO, NO2, O3 and PM2.5 in the Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) of Sydney. COVID-19 lockdown period is an ideal case to study the effect of motor vehicle and mobile source contribution to air pollutants such as those listed above in the GMR.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Land Cover; LIDAR; Sociodemographics; Built Environment; Urban Form; Air Quality; Social Justice; Environmental Justice; Policy; Localized Action.
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:15:01 CEST)
Multiple social and environmental justice concerns are linked to urban form such as the distribution of socioeconomic class populations, healthcare spending, air pollution exposure, and human mobility. This study used 1m resolved LIDAR data to characterize land use in Salt Lake County, Utah and associate it with sociodemographic and air quality data at the census block group and zip code levels. We found that increasing tree cover was associated with higher per capita income and lower minority populations while increasing built cover was linked to lower per capita income and higher minority populations. Air quality showed less strong correlations, however, decreased non irrigated cover, increased built cover, and higher amounts of households living under poverty was related to higher long-term PM2.5 exposure. Several policy efforts have been undertaken to improve air quality and reduce negative health outcomes in Utah which are being informed by regulatory and research grade air quality sensors.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0314.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: air pollution; COVID-19; semen quality; environmental marker; health marker; oxidative stress
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:48:39 CEST)
High levels of air pollution can contribute to high rate of the COVID-19 outbreaks. Air pollutants induce oxidative stress, inflammatory process, immune imbalance and coagulation at systemic level, making the organism susceptible to complications caused by various pathogens, including viruses, resulting in a possible important damage co-factor. Sperm cells are highly sensitive to the pro-oxidant effects of environmental pollutants, and may represent an important alarm bell indicating that the burden of environmental pressure in a certain area is causing damage to humans. A comparison of the maps of COVID-19 case fatality rates, male infertility rates and air pollution may suggest a way to understand the dynamics of the virus impact. Semen quality may be considered as an early and sensitive environmental marker, and also a potential susceptibility indicator to viral insults (including SARS-CoV-2 ) in heavily polluted areas. Therefore, assessing the burden of environmental exposure of a given population and its potential susceptibility to insults through early biological stress indicators may be helpful for predicting the risk of the adverse effects by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fine particulate matter (PM2.5); aerosol optical depth; community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) model; data fusion; exposure assessment
Online: 16 February 2017 (08:58:09 CET)
Estimating ground surface PM2.5 with fine spatiotemporal resolution is a critical technique for exposure assessments in epidemiological studies of its health risks. Previous studies have utilized monitoring, satellite remote sensing or air quality modeling data to evaluate the spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations, but such studies rarely combined these data simultaneously. We develop a three-stage model to fuse PM2.5 monitoring data, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) simulations together and apply it to estimate daily PM2.5 at a spatial resolution of 0.1˚ over China. Performance of the three-stage model is evaluated using a cross-validation (CV) method step by step. CV results show that the finally fused estimator of PM2.5 is in good agreement with the observational data (RMSE = 23.00 μg/m^3 and R2 = 0.72) and outperforms either AOD-retrieved PM2.5 (R2 = 0.62) or CMAQ simulations (R2 = 0.51). According to step-specific CVs, in data fusion, AOD-retrieved PM2.5 plays a key role to reduce mean bias, whereas CMAQ provides all-spacetime-covered predictions, which avoids sampling bias caused by non-random incompleteness in satellite-derived AOD. Our fused products are more capable than either CMAQ simulations or AOD-based estimates in characterizing the polluting procedure during haze episodes and thus can support both chronic and acute exposure assessments of ambient PM2.5. Based on the products, averaged concentration of annual exposure to PM2.5 was 55.75 μg/m3, while averaged count of polluted days (PM2.5 > 75 μg/m3) was 81, across China during 2014. Fused estimates will be publicly available for future health-related studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0362.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: apartment building; aerodynamic coefficient; wind speed; air change rate; concentration of carbon dioxide; experimental measurement
Online: 15 March 2021 (08:11:30 CET)
Air change rate is an important parameter for quantification of ventilation heat losses and also affects the indoor climate of buildings. Indoor air quality is significantly associated with ventilation. If air change isn't sufficient, trapped allergens, pollutants and irritants can degrade the indoor air quality and affect the well-being of a building's occupants. Many studies on ventilation and health have concluded that lower air change rates can have a negative effect on people’s health and low ventilation may result in an increase in allergic diseases. Quantification of air change rate is complicated, since it is affected by a number of parameters, of which the one of the most variable is the air-wind flow. This study aims to determination and comparison of values of the air change rate in two methods - by quantifying of aerodynamic coefficient Cp = Cpe - Cpi – so called aerodynamic quantification of the building and the methodology based on experimental measurements of carbon dioxide in the selected reference room in apartment building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0321.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: AirBeam2; indoor air; fine particulate matter; seasonal variations; sensor; COVID-19
Online: 5 July 2023 (12:32:38 CEST)
Air pollution is a leading cause of death in the United States, and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including increased vulnerability to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The AirBeam2 was used to measure particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller (PM2.5), to investigate differences between indoor and ambient levels at seven private homes in New York during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Measurements taken in 2020 winter, spring and fall and in fall 2022 showed that 90% of the time, indoor PM2.5 levels exceeded outdoor levels both during and after the COVID-19 lockdown, p = 0.03, and exceeded safety levels. Higher indoor PM2.5 levels attributed to little or no ventilation from cooking and smoke in the kitchen and basements, were significantly greater in fall than in winter. Higher ambient PM2.5 levels were attributed to vehicular traffic at a street-facing sampling site. PM2.5 sources identified in this study may help in devising control strategies to improve indoor air quality (IAQ), and consequently alleviate respiratory health effects. These findings may be used as a basis for in-house modifications including natural ventilation and use of air purifiers to reduce exposures, mitigate future risks, and prevent potential harm to vulnerable residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0362.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: ambient air pollutants; community health; environmental health literacy; knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP); multivariate analysis
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:52:57 CEST)
Despite air pollution being a leading cause of health issues in developing nations, public awareness and understanding of local air quality remains notably low. The present study assesses the perception, attitude, and environmental knowledge of local air pollution among adult urban residents (n=870) in a city with leading air pollution rates among cities of emerging economies: Astana, Kazakhstan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate the causal relationship between perceived air quality, environmental literacy, and willingness to pay (WTP) for environmental protection. Findings indicate over 40% of residents neither consider the city being highly polluted nor recognize the association between air quality and adverse health outcomes, correlated with a generally low level of environmental literacy. The age, education, and health status of the participants significantly affected (p<.001) their level of environmental knowledge and awareness. The SEM analysis indicates that knowledge is the major determinant in improving public awareness and perception of local air pollution (path value=0.626). Moreover, a close association between WTP and environmental attitude was also evident (path value=0.533). The findings of the present study may provide valuable insights for healthcare professionals, environmental researchers, and governmental institutions for implementing more effective public interventions to protect local air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0130.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; calibration; air quality; low-cost sensors; exposure assessment
Online: 7 September 2021 (14:24:56 CEST)
Although commercially-available low-cost air quality sensors have low accuracy, the sensor system are being used to collect the data for the regulation of PM2.5 emission caused by industrial activities or to estimate the personal exposure for PM2.5. In this work, to solve the accuracy problem of low-cost PM sensor, we developed a new PM2.5 calibration model by combining the deep neural network (DNN) optimized in calibration problem and a LSTM optimized in time-dependent characteristics. First, two datasets were generated to test the accuracy performance and generalization performance of the PM2.5 calibration machine learning (ML) model. The PM2.5 concentrations, temperature and humidity by low-cost sensor and gravimetric-based PM2.5 measuring instrument were sampled for a sufficiently long time. The proposed model was compared with benchmark (multiple linear regression model) and low-cost sensor results. For root mean square error (RMSE) for PM2.5 concentrations, the proposed model reduced 41-60% of error compared to the raw data of low-cost sensor, and reduced 30-51% of error compared to the benchmark model. R2 of ML model, MLR and raw data were 93, 80 and 59 %. Also, the developed model still showed consistent calibration performance when calibrated with new sensors in different locations. Low-cost sensors combined with ML model not only can improve the calibration performance of benchmark, but also can be applied to the sensor monitoring systems for various epidemiologic investigations and regulatory decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0243.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wildfires; summer 2019-2010; WRF-Chem; pollutant transport; air quality effect; health impact
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:03:10 CET)
The 2019-2020 summer wildfire event on the east coast of Australia was a series of major wildfires occurring from November 2019 to end of January 2020 across the states of Queensland, New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and South Australia. The wildfires were unprecedent in scope and the extensive extend of the wildfires has caused smoke pollutants transported not only to New Zealand but across the Pacific Ocean to South America. At the height of the wildfires, smoke plumes were injected into the stratosphere at height up to 25km and hence transported across the globe. Based on meteorological and air quality simulation using WRF-Chem model, air quality monitoring data collected during the bushfire period and remote sensing data from MODIS and CALIPSO satellites, the extend of the wildfires and the pollutant transport, and their impacts on air quality and health on exposed population in NSW can be analysed. The results showed that WRF-Chem model using Fire Emission Inventory from NCAR (FINN) predicts the dispersion and transport of pollutants and the predicted concentration of PM2.5 and other pollutants from wildfires reasonably well when compared with ground-based and satellite data. The impact on health endpoints such as mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases hospitalisation across the modelling domain is then estimated. The estimated health impact is comparable with previous study based only on observation data, but the results in this study provide much more detailed spatially and temporally with regards to the health impact from the 2019-2020 wildfire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0613.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: PM2.5 monitor; Ambient Air pollution; Measurement sensor; Low-cost; Feasibility; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 25 September 2020 (12:04:05 CEST)
Urban cities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are faced with ambient air pollution. This is an important public health problem with models and limited monitoring data indicating high concentrations of pollutants such as fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Going through most global air quality index maps, however, information about ambient pollution from SSA is scarce. We evaluated the feasibility and practicality of longitudinal measurements of ambient PM2.5 using low-cost air quality sensors (Purple Air-II-SD) across thirteen locations in seven countries in SSA. Devices were used to gather data over a 30-day period with the aim of assessing the efficiency of its data recovery rate and identifying challenges experienced by users in each location. The median data recovery rate was 94% (range: 72% to 100%). The mean 24-hour concentration measured across all sites was 38 µg/m3 with the highest PM2.5 period average concentration of 91 µg/m3 measured in Kampala, Uganda and lowest concentrations of 15 µg/m3 measured in Faraja, The Gambia. Kampala-Uganda and Nnewi-Nigeria recorded the longest periods with concentrations>250µg/m3. Power outages, SD memory card issues, internet connectivity problems and device safety concerns were important challenges experienced when using Purple Air-II-SD sensors. Despite some operational challenges, this study demonstrated that it is reasonably practicable and feasible to establish a network of low-cost devices to provide data on local PM2.5 concentrations in SSA countries. Such data are crucially needed to raise public-, societal and policymaker awareness about air pollution across SSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0675.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: MARPOL Annex VI, emissions from ocean going vessels, remote emission monitoring, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ECA, air quality measurements.
Online: 21 April 2023 (07:08:58 CEST)
Air pollution is a leading cause of death worldwide, and has a profound impact on the planet's climate and ecosystems. A substantial portion of air pollution is attributable to Ocean Going Vessels (OGVs). In light of this, international regulations have been put in place to mitigate air pollutant emissions from OGVs. While studies have indicated that these regulations can create significant health, environmental, and economic benefits, there remains a research gap regarding their specific impact on enhancing air quality. The aim of this study is to investigate how the implemented regulations have affected air quality in the Southern North Sea. The study found that the international regulations on ship emissions have successfully led to a decline in SO2 emissions from OGVs in the Southern North Sea, which resulted in a reduction of ambient SO2 concentrations inland, leading to positive effects on public health and the environment. However, it was projected that their proportion is tend to increase in the following years. Moreover, the study revealed that Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems (EGCS) present significant concerns. They were significantly more frequently found to be non-compliant, and more alarmingly, they emit notably higher average levels of SO2. It also turned out that international regulations in the southern North Sea have less effect on the reduction of NOx emissions from OGVs than expected. The NOx emissions from OGVs will even account for an alarming 40% of the total domestic NOx emissions for the Belgian Region by 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0642.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Dust storm; Central and Eastern Australia; WRF-Chem model; Air Quality; Health Impact
Online: 25 November 2020 (13:46:05 CET)
Dust storms originating from Central Australia and western New South Wales frequently cause high particles concentration at many sites across New South Wales, both inland and along the coast. This study focussed on a dust storm event in February 2019 which affect air quality across the state as detected at many ambient monitoring stations in the Department of Planning, Industry and Environment (DPIE) air quality monitoring network. The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast Model – Chemistry) model is used to study the formation, dispersion and transport of dust across the state of New South Wales (NSW, Australia). Wildfires also happened in northern NSW at the same time of the dust storm in February 2019, and their emissions are taken into account in WRF-Chem model by using Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) as emission input. The model performance is evaluated and is shown to predict fairly accurate the PM2.5 and PM10 concentration as compared to observation. The predicted PM2.5 concentration over New South Wales during 5 days from 11 to 15 February 2019 is then used to estimate the impact of the February 2019 dust storm event on three health endpoints namely mortality, respiratory and cardiac diseases hospitalisation rates. The results show that even though as the daily average of PM2.5 over some parts of the state, especially in western and north western NSW near the centre of the dust storm and wild fires, are very high (over 900 µg/m3), the population exposure is low due to the sparse population. The top five Statistical Area Level 4 regions with the most impact in term of mortality, respiratory diseases hospitalisation and cardiac disease hospitalisation are Far West and Orana, Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, New England and North West, Sydney – Inner South West and either Central Coast (mortality) or Sydney – Parramatta (respiratory diseases hospitalisation) or Sydney – Inner West (cardiac diseases hospitalisation). Generally, the health impact is similar in order of magnitude to that caused by biomass burnings events from wildfires or from hazardous reduction burnings (HRBs) near populous centres such as in Sydney in May 2016. One notable difference is the higher respiratory diseases hospitalisation for this dust event (161) compared to fire event (24).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0717.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: bell pepper; forced-air precooling; fruit color; harvest time; modified atmosphere packaging; postharvest storage
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:47:36 CEST)
Optimum postharvest storage conditions increase the shelf life and postharvest quality of horticultural crops. The effects of forced-air precooling (FAP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life, physicochemical quality, and health-promoting properties of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Nagano) harvested at 90% and 50% coloring stages in May and July respectively, stored at 11℃, 95% relative humidity were assessed. Fruits were treated with FAP + 30 μm polyethylene liner (FOLO), FAP (FOLX), 30 μm polyethylene liner (FXLO), and control (FXLX). The quality attributes, viz. weight loss, firmness, color, SSC, soluble sugars, TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS were evaluated. FOLO maintained sensory quality (weight loss, firmness, and color), physicochemical (soluble solids content and soluble sugars), and health-promoting properties compared to other treatments during storage. The investigated parameters differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treatments except soluble sugars. The 50% coloring fruits had a huge variation between treatments than 90% coloring. The results revealed more TPC and antioxidant capacity in 50% than in 90% coloring fruits. The study highlights the need to consider the ideal fruit coloring stage at harvest under the effect of FAP and MAP treatments in preserving bell pepper's postharvest quality and shelf life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mobile air conditioning; thermally driven; adsorption; automotive refrigeration; automobile air-conditioning; air-conditioning; car air-conditioning
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:37:13 CEST)
The automotive industry is continuously seeking innovative solutions to improve the energy efficiency and sustainability of vehicles. Among the various energy-consuming systems in automobiles, air conditioning plays a crucial role. However, conventional vapour compression-based air conditioning systems are known for their high energy consumption and environmental impact. In recent years, adsorption technology has gained significant attention as a promising alternative due to its potential for higher energy efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of advancements in adsorption air conditioning technology specifically designed for automotive applications. The paper examines the recent research and development efforts in enhancing the performance and practicality of these systems, encompassing areas such as advanced materials selection, and system integration strategies. Furthermore, this review highlights the benefits and challenges associated with implementing adsorption air conditioning systems in vehicles. The environmental impact and potential for waste heat recovery are also discussed. Additionally, emerging trends, such as hybridization with conventional vapour compression systems, are explored to further optimize the energy efficiency and sustainability of automotive air conditioning. By critically evaluating the existing literature and research advancements, this review provides insights into the state-of-the-art thermally driven technologies for automotive applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0667.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; air quality; nitrogen oxides; ozone; aerosol; source apportionment; aerosol profiles; models; Alps; Italy
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:37:17 CEST)
The effect of COVID-19 confinement regulations on air quality in the northwestern Alps is here assessed based on measurements at five valley sites in different environmental contexts. Surface concentrations of nitrogen oxides, ozone, particle matter, together with size, chemical, and optical (light absorption) aerosol properties, complemented by observations along the vertical column are considered. The 2020 concentration anomalies relative to previous years’ average are compared with the output of a machine learning algorithm accounting for weather effects and a chemical transport model, their difference being within 10–20 %. Even in the relatively pristine environment of the Alps, the «lockdown effect» is well discernible, both in the early confinement phase and in late 2020, especially in NOx concentrations (NO decreasing by >80 % and NO2 by >50 %). While ozone shows little variation, secondary aerosols increase due to enhanced transport from the neighbouring Po basin and coarse particles decrease due to missing resuspension by traffic and, in the city, to the shutdown of a steel mill. The NO2 vertical column density decreases by >20 %, whereas the aerosol profile is mainly influenced by large-scale dynamics, except a shallow layer about 500 m thick possibly sensitive to curtailed surface emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: aqueous electrolyte; corrosion; iron-air; metal-air batteries; silicon-air; stationary energy storage
Online: 10 June 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
Abstract: Metal-air batteries provide a most promising battery technology given their outstanding potential energy densities, which are desirable for both stationary and mobile applications in a ‘beyond lithium-ion’ battery market. Silicon- and iron-air batteries underwent less research and development compared to lithium- and zinc-air batteries. Nevertheless, in the recent past, the two also-ran battery systems made considerable progress and attracted rising research interest due to the excellent resource-efficiency of silicon and iron. Silicon and iron are among the top five of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust, which ensures almost infinite material supply of the anode materials, even for large scale applications. Furthermore, primary silicon-air batteries are set to provide one of the highest energy densities among all batteries, while iron-air batteries are frequently considered as a highly rechargeable system with decent performance characteristics. Considering fundamental aspects for the anode materials, i.e., the metal electrodes, in this review, we will first outline the challenges, which explicitly apply to silicon- and iron-air batteries and prevented them from a broad implementation so far. Afterwards, we provide an extensive literature survey regarding state-of-the-art experimental approaches, which are set to resolve the aforementioned challenges and might enable the introduction of silicon- and iron-air batteries into the battery market in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air flow medical sensor; emergency air flow sensor; low-cost air flow sensor; COVID-19
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:14:23 CET)
Mechanical ventilation systems, which are used for breathing support when a person is not able to do it by their own, requires a device for measuring the air flow to the patient in order to monitoring and a assure the magnitude establish by a medical staff. Flow sensors are the conventional devices used for the air flow measuring; however, there were not available in Peru, because of the international demand during COVID-19 pandemic. In this sense, a novel air flow sensor based on orifice plate and an intelligent transducer stage were developed as an integrated design. Advanced methodologies in simulations and experiments using specially designed equipment for this application were carried out. The obtained data was used for a mathematical characterization and dimensions validation of the integrated design. The device was tested in its real working conditions, it was implemented in a breathing circuit connected to a low-cost mechanical ventilation system based on cams. Results indicate that the designed air flow sensor/transducer is a low-cost complete medical device for mechanical ventilators able to provide satisfactorily all the ventilation parameters air flow, pressure and volume over time by measuring the air flow and calculating the others. Furthermore, this device provides directly a filtered equivalent electrical signal for a display or a computer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air-entraining admixture, air-content, cement, mortar, concrete, porosity.
Online: 5 September 2019 (10:31:12 CEST)
Research results of the relationships between air-volume in air-entrained cement paste, mortar and concrete, all designed according to PN-EN 480-1 guidelines are presented in the paper. The cement paste, mortar and concrete, with w/c=0,5 ratio, were prepared using innovative air-entraining cement CEM II/B-V. The air-entraining cement CEM II/B-V was produced using two methods: mixed together with natural or synthetic aerated admixture. The air volume test of the volumetric method was carried out in case of fresh cement paste, mortar and concrete mix. Fresh concretes were evaluated in terms of stability of air entrainment and consistency for 5, 20 and 40 min. The porosity structure parameters, like summarized air-content, specific surface of air voids, air-voids spacing factor and micropores content of hardened concrete, were estimated using computed tomography with a resolution of 2-5 μm. The aim of the research was to determine the dependence between air-content of cement paste, mortar and concrete on the measurement of air-entrainment of cement paste or mortar with the same w/c ratio and type of cement, all designed according to PN-EN 480-1 guidelines. Test results proved that there is a good correlation between the measured air-content of the cement paste, mortar and concrete. Therefore, it is possible to predict the aeration of concrete on the air-entrainment of the mortar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Air transportation; air traffic control; airspace capacity; cell transmission model
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:54:49 CEST)
Air traffic congestion is caused by the unbalance between increasing traffic demand and saturating capacity. Flight delay not only causes huge economical lost, but also has very negative environmental impact in the whole air transportation system. In order to identify the impact of extended TMA on airport capacity, an airspace capacity assessment method based on augmented cell transmission model was proposed. Firstly, the airspace structure was modeled with points, segments, layers, and cells. Secondly, mixed integer linear programming model was built up with maximum throughput or capacity as the objective function. Finally, genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal result, and the results were validated by comparing with the fast-time simulation results generated by total airspace and airport modeler (TAAM) software. It is found that the proposed method could achieve a relatively accurate result in a much affordable and fast way. The numerical results could be very helpful for air traffic controllers to analyze the dynamic traffic flow entering and exiting TMA, so as to make decisions via reasonable analysis and do planning in advance by referring to the airport capacity.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air filtration; air purifier; COVID-19; haze; HEPA filter; particulate matter
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:43:51 CEST)
Purpose: This study aimed to focus on the design and development of low-cost DIY air purifiers, using a ventilating fan, air pump, water pump, and an ultrasonic generator, with regard to filtration efficacy and also cost-effectiveness that can be used during the COVID-19 pandemic and haze pollution. Methods: Six types of household air purifiers, incorporating a HEPA filter, a HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber, an air pump, an air pump & ultrasonic wave, a water pump, and a water pump & ultrasonic wave, were fabricated. The amount of particulate matter (PM) and CO2 levels were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, then, repeated 3 times. After 10 min of the 3rd experiment of each study, the last measurement of air pollution would be recorded. Results: At 60 min, the HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber showed the best performance regarding reduction of PM and CO2 levels. The highest PM reduction rate had occurred at 30 min using an air pump procedure (99.330 to 100%). The CO2 levels of all experiments had fluctuated at different times. After 10 min of a closed machine, HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber revealed the highest rate of PM elevation, while PM levels of all water-based purifier systems were decreased. A water pump and air pump were the cheapest air cleaners, when taking into account maintenance expenses and electricity charges. Conclusion: An air pump is the optimum method for reducing particulate matter at minimum cost but without the benefit of reduced humidity, while the HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber is the best system to decrease PM levels, but this requires an enclosed structure at the inlet to prevent dust coming back into the room. As filtration efficiency is increased by the use of filters & electrostatic fiber mechanisms, the more expensive the system becomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0636.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: livestock manure; waste management; air pollution; air quality; biocoal; odor emission
Online: 24 December 2020 (15:14:59 CET)
The rural communities are affected by gaseous emissions from intensive livestock production. Practical mitigation technologies are needed to minimize emissions from stored manure and improve air quality inside barns. In our previous research, the one-time surficial application of biochar to swine manure significantly reduced emissions of NH3 and phenol. We observed that the mitigation effect decreased with time during the 30-day trials. In this research, we hypothe-sized that bi-weekly reapplication of biochar could improve the mitigation effect on a wider range of odorous compounds using larger scale and longer trials. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of biochar dose and reapplication on mitigation of targeted gases (NH3, odor-ous VOCs, odor, GHGs) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale setup over 8-weeks. The bi-weekly reapplication of the lower biochar dose (2 kg/m2) showed much higher significant percent reductions of emissions for NH3 (33% without & 53% with reapplication) and skatole (42% without & 80% with reapplication), respectively. In addition, the reapplication resulted in the emergence of statistical significance to the mitigation effect for all other targeted VOCs. Spe-cifically, for indole, the % reduction improved from 38% (p=0.47, without reapplication) to 78% (p=0.018, with reapplication). For phenol, the % reduction improved from 28% (p=0.71, without reapplication) to 89% (p=0.005, with reapplication). For p-cresol, the % reduction improved from 31% (p=0.86, without reapplication) to 74% (p=0.028, with reapplication). For 4-ethyl phenol, the percent emissions reduction improved from 66% (p=0.44, without reapplication) to 87% (p=0.007, with reapplication). The one-time 2 kg/m2 and 4 kg/m2 treatments showed similar effectiveness in mitigating all targeted gases, and no statistical difference was found between the dosages. The one-time treatments showed significant % reductions of 33% & 42% and 25% & 48% for NH3 and skatole, respectively. The practical significance is that the higher (one-time) biochar dose may not necessarily result in improved performance over the 8-week manure storage, but the bi-weekly reapplication showed significant improvement in mitigating NH3 and odorous VOCs. The lower dosages and the frequency of reapplication on the larger-scale should be explored to optimize biochar treatment and bring it closer to on-farm trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0467.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV; Environmental factors; Air pollution; Smoking; Air temperature
Online: 29 May 2020 (13:02:07 CEST)
The physical environment plays an important role in the transmission of respiratory infections like Covid-19. To find relevant articles on environmental factors influencing respiratory infection outbreaks, we searched Pub med Central on the following topics: 1. Environmental pollution causing coronavirus fatality- 73 results, relevant 1 article, 2. Environmental factors affecting Covid-19, 149 results from which there were 6 relevant articles, 3. Impact of air pollution on Covid-19 fatality, 10 results, relevant 3 articles, 4. Environmental factors affecting respiratory viruses- 10646 results were obtained, 2 relevant articles. We searched Google scholar on environmental factors affecting Covid-19 transmission and found 7 relevant papers. We excluded the duplicates in each of the key words search. Date of search was on 20th April 2020. All articles included in results were scrutinized and relevance of articles was based on their content that discussed meteorological and physical environment factors in the spread and severity of Covid-19. We have discussed factors like air pollution, smoking, air temperature, humidity and air velocity as contributing factors. If meteorological factors are conducive to spread in a particular area, we need protective measures way before a respiratory infection outbreak occurs. Covid-19 is a lesson learnt the hard way, and we must enable people to practice hygienic practices with limited resources but high level of protection that it provides. Air pollution control can prevent priming of respiratory system which shall further protect from pulmonary infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1470.v1
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:55:49 CEST)
Abstract: This article explores the intricate relationship between environmental degradation, specifically air pollution, and economic growth in the Sultanate of Oman spanning the period from 1990 to 2022. We employ cointegration and vector error correction models to uncover both short- and long-term dynamics in the association between air pollution and economic growth. Fur-thermore, Granger causality analysis is utilized to investigate the causal links between these crucial variables. This data encompasses factors related to environmental quality and various control variables. The empirical results unveil a sustained long-term cointegration connection between the variables. Additionally, our findings highlight a statistically significant positive impact of economic growth and energy consumption on CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the short-term analysis reveals an annual adjustment of approximately 14.1% in N2O emissions dis-equilibrium. The Granger causality study indicates unidirectional causal relationships involving N2O emissions, economic growth, and CO2 emissions. The implications of these findings for Oman's policy landscape are substantial. To effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it is imperative for Oman to establish robust climate change policies. Additionally, the government can play a pivotal role in encouraging and endorsing the use of renewable energy sources, such as green hydrogen, as a promising alternative to traditional oil and gas resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0156.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Diwali; Air Pollution; Haze
Online: 9 April 2020 (14:40:11 CEST)
As the haze engulfed the Delhi NCR after Diwali there is a panic in public about its causes and consequences. Here are some facts and figures to know the truth behind the scene. Temperature fell down from 24’C on October 31 to 21’C on November 2 as recorded at UPPCB station at sector-125, Noida which is adjacent to Delhi a very strategic location and can be considered as reference point for Delhi-NCR. The details of the study conducted is given below.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: qlity of the environment; spatial location conditions; air pollution research; the problem of city ventilation; spending of EU funds to improve the quality of the environment
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:34:01 CET)
The article discusses determinants of living environment in Central and Eastern Europe. As an example, the city of Radzionkow was chosen, with 16 thousand inhabitants, located in the Silesia agglomeration in southern Poland, in the area where hard coal has been mined for almost two hundred years, which largely serves as a source of heating for houses and flats. 360 buildings in 6 groups of 60 buildings were examined in the selected city, which allowed to distinguish 3 different areas in terms of the quality of the living environment depending on the technical condition of buildings, the method of heating and location. To a large extent, determinants are the existing spatial and geophysical conditions of a given location. Many research and reports on the living environment do not take into account the factors mentioned, focusing only on the statistical data of pollution, excluding spatial factors. In the research presented, the author, taking into account location variables, shows differences in the measurements of air pollution in relation to the designated location zones depending on the morphological structure of the building, the degree of its modernization and the types of heating used in buildings.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: miniaturized monitors; Arduino; air quality; air pollution; exposure assessment; low-cost monitor
Online: 3 September 2023 (13:52:18 CEST)
This publication aims to disseminate a step-by-step process that walks through the conceptualization and building of a low-cost (~ $150 monitoring device for airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5), based on miniaturized sensors and components. Details on the implementation of the hardware and software are provided which facilitate the data acquisition, capture and analysis. The central components and their setup discussed in what follows include: the sensor device (called “P.ALP” – Ph.D. Air quality Low-cost Project), Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) and R code (open-access software). A monitoring device for PM2.5, using low-cost sensors and technologies was successfully conceptualized, designed, and implemented. The P.ALP monitoring system was designed and developed to be a basic device, which can be further customized and implemented using the wide range of low-cost sensors available on the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: CO2 concentration; living walls; fresh air energy consumption; Energyplus; indoor air quality
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:13:19 CEST)
Elevated indoor CO2 levels might have adverse effects on human health. However, the introduction of outdoor air to lower indoor CO2 concentrations results in significant HVAC energy consumption. Aligning with office hours and the natural light cycle, the utilization of photosynthesis in living walls offers an energy-efficient and sustainable solution for the mitigation of high CO2 levels in office spaces. This study experimentally investigates the impacts of the carbon fixation pathways, light intensity, and substrate moisture content on the CO2 removal rate of living walls at the room scale. Furthermore, the fresh air energy-saving effects of living walls under different scenarios are accurately simulated in EnergyPlus. The results demonstrate that choosing C3 plants over CAM plants in living walls yields higher CO2 removal efficiency. In a 30-m2 office room accommodating 2-3 occupants, living walls can reduce the demand for fresh air by 12.3%-27.8% and decrease fresh air energy consumption by 11.2%-28.2%. The city with the highest energy savings has energy savings that are 4.5 times greater than those of the city with the lowest energy savings. The findings of this research promote the application and development of living walls, thus providing a viable solution for improving indoor air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; positive pressure; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; moisture damage
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:06:04 CET)
This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants´ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5-7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants´ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased, and occupants´ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0035.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Cold air outbreaks; Air–sea interaction; Polar climate; Wind speed; polar lows
Online: 2 May 2017 (17:45:56 CEST)
Marine cold air outbreaks (MCAOs) are large-scale events in which cold air masses are advected over open ocean. It is well-known that these events are linked to the formation of polar lows and other mesoscale phenomena associated with high wind speeds, and that they therefore in some cases represent a hazard to maritime activities. However, it is still unknown whether MCAOs are generally conducive to higher wind speeds than normal. Here this is investigated by comparing ocean near-surface wind speeds during MCAOs in atmospheric reanalysis products with different horizontal grid spacings, along with two case studies using a convection-permitting numerical weather prediction model. The study regions are the Labrador Sea and the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian (GIN) Seas, where MCAOs have been shown to be important for air–sea interaction and deep water formation. One of the main findings is that wind speeds during the strongest MCAO events are higher than normal and higher than wind speeds during less severe events. Limited evidence from the case studies suggests that reanalyses with grid spacings of more than 50 km underestimate winds driven by the large ocean–atmosphere energy fluxes during MCAOs. The peak times of MCAO usually occur when baroclinic waves pass over the regions. Therefore, the strong wind episodes during MCAOs generally last for just a few days. However, MCAOs can persist for 50 days or more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Air Corridors; Unmanned Air Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications; Geofence, Capacity; Collision-Avoidance
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:09:48 CEST)
Air corridors are an integral part of the advanced air mobility infrastructure. They are the virtual highways in the sky for transportation of people and cargo in the controlled airspace at an altitude of around 1000 ft. to 2000 ft. above the ground level. This paper presents fundamental insights into the design of air corridors with high operational efficiency as well as zero collisions. It begins with the definitions of air cube, skylane or track, intersection, vertiport, gate, and air corridor. Then, a multi-layered air corridor model is proposed. Traffic at intersections is analyzed in detail with examples of vehicles turning in different directions. The concept of capacity of an air corridor is introduced along with the nature of distribution of locations of vehicles in the air corridor and collision probability inside the corridor are discussed. Finally, the results of simulations of traffic flows are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal performance; ventilated bioclimatic wall; air space thickness; air flow rate; Hot Box
Online: 2 February 2021 (09:17:28 CET)
The building sector is the largest consumer of energy and there are still major scientific challenges in this field. The façade, being the interface between the exterior and interior space, plays a key role in the energy efficiency of a building. In this context, this paper focuses on a ventilated bioclimatic wall for NZEB zero energy buildings. The objective of this study is to investigate an experimental set-up based on a Hot Box allowing characterizing the thermal performances of the ventilated wall. A specific ventilated prototype and an original thermal metrology has been developed. This paper presents the ventilated prototype, the experimental set-up and experimental results on the thermal performances of the ventilated wall. The influence of the air space thickness and the air flow rate on the thermal performances of the ventilated wall is studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; odor; volatile organic compounds
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:58:47 CET)
Livestock production systems generate nuisance odor and gaseous emissions affecting local communities and regional air quality. Also, there are concerns about the occupational health and safety of farm workers. Proven mitigation technologies that are consistent with the socio-economic challenges of animal farming are needed. We have been scaling up the photocatalytic treatment of emissions from lab-scale, aiming at farm-scale readiness. In this paper, we present the design, testing, and commissioning of a mobile laboratory for on-farm research and demonstration of performance in real farm conditions. The mobile lab is capable of treating up to 1.2 m3·s-1 of air with TiO2-based photocatalysis and adjustable UV-A dose based on LED lamps. We summarize the main technical requirements, constraints, approach, and performance metrics for the mobile laboratory, such as the effectiveness (measured as the percent reduction) and cost of photocatalytic treatment of air. The commissioning of all systems with standard gases resulted in ~9% and 34% reduction of NH3 and butan-1-ol, respectively. We demonstrated that as the percent reduction of standard gases increased with increased light intensity and treatment time. These results show that the mobile laboratory was ready for on-farm deployment and evaluating the effectiveness of UV treatment.
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:33:14 CEST)
Human factors are the things that go wrong in the interactions between a team of people and a system of technology. This is part of a broader transdisciplinary field called engineering psychology, which as the name suggests, draws from both engineering and psychology. Many, if not most, catastrophic accidents involve a socio-technical interaction, i.e. are not solely due to technology failure. Hence, there is a need to consider human factors in the development or deployment of any technical system. This article is about the human factors involved in an aviation accident in New Zealand between a Yak and a cherry picker. The types of human error are identified, and the barrier bowtie method is used to represent them. The analysis gives different insights into the accident compared to the formal accident report, and better represents the human error characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; odor; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; UV
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:08:29 CET)
It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study's objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3 – sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a mobile lab equipped with UV-A and UV-C lights and TiO2-based photocatalyst. Treated gas airflow (0.25 to 0.76 m3/s) simulates output from a small ventilation fan in a barn. Through controlling the light intensity and airflow, UV dose was tested for techno-economic analyses. The treatment effectiveness depended on the UV dose and wavelength. Under UV-A (367 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reduction of targeted gases was up to i) 63% of odor, ii) 51%, 51%, 53%, 67%, and 32% of acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, and indole, respectively, iii) 14% of nitrous oxide (N2O), iv) 100% of O3, and 26% generation of CO2. Under UV-C (185+254 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reductions of target gases were up to i) 54% and 47% for p-cresol and indole, respectively, ii) 25% of N2O, iii) 71% of CH4, and 46% & 139% generation of CO2 & O3, respectively. The results proved that the UV technology was sufficiently effective in treating odorous gases, and the mobile lab was ready for farm-scale trials. The UV technology can be considered for the scaled-up treatment of emissions and air quality improvement inside livestock barns.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: trajectory data analytics; air traffic flows; anomaly detection; air traffic management; machine learning; autoencoders
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:23:31 CET)
A large amount of data is produced every day by stakeholders of the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in particular airline operators, airports, and air navigation service provider (ANSP). Most data is kept private for many reasons, including commercial and security concerns. More than data, shared information is precious, as it leverages intelligent decision-making support tools designed to smooth daily operations. We present a framework to detect, identify and characterise anomalies in past aircraft trajectory data. It is based on an open source of ADS-B based aircraft trajectories, and extracted information can benefit a wide range of stakeholders: Air Traffic Control (ATC) training centres could play more realistic simulations; ANSP may improve capacity indicators; academics improve safety models and risk estimations; and commercial stakeholders, like airlines and airports, may use such information to improve short-term predictions and optimise their operations. The technique is based on autoencoding artificial neural networks applied on flows of trajectories, which provide a useful reading grid associating cluster analysis with quantified level of abnormality. In particular, we find that the highest anomaly scores correspond to poor weather conditions, whereas anomalies with a lower score relate to ATC tactical actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0362.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: solid-phase microextraction; air sampling; air analysis; volatile organic compounds; COMSOL; time-weighted average
Online: 19 September 2018 (04:08:14 CEST)
Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is advantageous over other sampling techniques, but is often characterized by insufficient accuracies, particularly at longer sampling times. Experimental investigation of this issue and disclosing the origin of the problem is problematic and often not practically feasible due to high uncertainties. This research is aimed at developing the model of TWA extraction process and optimization of TWA air sampling by SPME using finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics). It was established that sampling by porous SPME coatings with high affinity to analytes is affected by slow diffusion of analytes inside the coating, an increase of analytes concentrations in the air near the fiber tip due to equilibration, and eventual lower sampling rate. The increase of a fiber retraction depth (Z) resulted in better recoveries. Sampling of studied VOCs using 23-ga Car/PDMS assembly at maximum possible Z (40 mm) was proven to provide more accurate results. Alternative sampling configuration based on 78.5 x 0.75 mm i.d. SPME liner was proven to provide similar accuracy at improved detection limits. Its modification with the decreased internal diameter from the sampling side should provide even better recoveries. The developed model offers new insight into optimization of air and gas sampling using SPME.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: theoretical design, aero submarine, aerial submersible vehicle, direct dive, water-air transition, air-water transition.
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:57:46 CEST)
Aero submarines (aerosubs) are vehicles that can both fly both in air and travel under water. The concept of dual aerial and aquatic vehicles emerged in 1939 when Russian engineer Boris Ushakov proposed the “flying submarine”, and this was followed by further developments including RFS1 , convair project in 1964 , etc. however, to date, limited attempt has been diverted towards the advanced development of such aircraft. This is heavily influenced by challenges associated with the design and operation of the same. Based on the review of literature the authors aim to introduce a theoretical design for an aerosub (QFS-20) with a view to address the design and operation issues including power, entry to and exit from water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: air transport management; transportation; bibliometric analysis
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:37:28 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article’s main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article, it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Stone quarrying; air; water; pollution; mitigation
Online: 9 December 2021 (15:41:33 CET)
The unquenchable demand for rock materials has attracted many companies within the building and construction sector to invest in stone quarrying. However, this has brought about the environmental impacts with health threats to people. There is a paucity of information about the magnitude of pollution on air and water and how it varies with quarry sites. This study therefore investigated the physical impacts of quarrying on air and water and explored the in-situ mitigations to undesirable effects due to stone quarrying. Four active quarry sites were identified. Field measurements of dust (particulate matter) was conducted within the four quarry sites and in the nearby community. Water samples were collected from quarry pits and nearby shallow wells for laboratory analysis of water quality. Statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in pollution across the four studied sites. Results revealed that, amidst use of wet crushing and water sprinkling on bare surfaces, dust emission was higher than the recommended permissible standards levels with a significant variation across the quarry sites with ANOVA (P-value=0.003) for PM2.5 and (P-value=0.04366) for PM10. Water pollution was mainly contributed by the non-permissive levels of nitrates, chromium, and pH. Polluted air and water are associated with sparking off health threats to the users in the community. In conclusion, quarry companies should strengthen the already existing mitigation of dust suppression. The study recommends additional measures such as treating quarry pit water before discharging to the open environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Air temperature; MODIS; machine learning; interpolation
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:48:32 CEST)
Several methods have been tried to estimate air temperature using satellite imagery. In this paper, the results of two machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machine and Random Forest, are compared with Multivariate Linear Regression, TVX and Ordinary kriging. Several geographic, remote sensing and time variables are used as predictors. The validation is carried out using four different statistics on a daily basis allowing the use of ANOVA to compare the results. The main conclusion is that Random Forest with residual kriging produces the best results (R$^2$=0.612 $\pm$ 0.019, NSE=0.578 $\pm$ 0.025, RMSE=1.068 $\pm$ 0.027, PBIAS=-0.172 $\pm$ 0.046), whereas TVX produces the least accurate results. The environmental conditions in the study area are not really suited to TVX, moreover this method only takes into account satellite data. On the other hand, regression methods (Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Multivariate Linear Regression) use several parameters that are easily calculated from a Digital Elevation Model, adding very little difficulty to the use of satellite data alone. The most important variables in the Random Forest Model were satellite temperature, potential irradiation and cdayt, a cosine transformation of the julian day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: low-cost monitoring; environment, air-pollution
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:00:20 CEST)
The present work aimed to validate a low-cost passive monitoring procedure. For its validation, the monitoring of atmospheric organic pollutants - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was carried out in a capital of the central-western region of Brazil. The sensors were fixed on poles intended for electrification during the dry season. After 15 days, samples were extracted by solvent extraction and analysed by High-Resolution Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (HRGC-FID). For the validation of the procedure, PAHs monitored and standardised by the American Environmental Agency (EPA), a benchmark for environmental monitoring of air quality by several countries, were analysed. The results demonstrated that the low-cost passive monitoring method was effective in the quantification of PAH in the environment-air, capable of being used by countries that do not have many resources for monitoring air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Airport; Local Air Quality; Local Scale
Online: 11 April 2017 (17:32:40 CEST)
Local air quality is a major concern for the population regularly exposed to high levels of air pollution. The airport, mainly due to its aircraft engines activities during taxiing and take off, is often submitted to heterogeneous but important concentrations of NOx and PM. The study suggests an innovative approach to determine the air traffic impact on air quality at the scale of the airport, its runways and terminals, in order to be able to locate the persistent high concentrations spots. The pollutants concentrations at 10 m resolution and 1 s time step are calculated in order to identify the most affected areas of an airport platform. A real day of air traffic on a regional airport is simulated, using real data as aircraft trajectories (from radar streams). In order to estimate the aircraft emissions, the Air Transport Systems Evaluation Infrastructure (IESTA) is used. Regarding local air quality, IESTA relies on the non-hydrostatic meso-scale atmospheric model Meso-NH using grid-nesting capabilities with 3 domains, for this study. The detailed cartography of the airport distinguishes between grassland, parking and terminals, allowing to compute exchanges of heat, water and momentum between the different types of surfaces and the atmosphere as well as the interactions with the building using a drag force. The dynamic parameters like wind, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and pollutants concentration are computed at 10 m resolution over the 2 × 4 km airport domain. The pollutants are considered in this preliminary study as passive tracers, without chemical reactions. This preliminary study aims at proving the feasibility of high scale modelling over an airport with state of the art physical models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Odour Legislation; Air Quality; Air Pollution; Odor; Smell; Odour Units; Dispersion Modelling; Agriculture; Environmental Regulations; Policy
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:58:20 CET)
When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarize odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (USA and Canada), South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan, China). Many countries have incorporated odour controls into their legislation. However, odour-related assessment criteria tend to be highly variable between countries, individual states, provinces and even counties and towns. Legislation ranges from (1) no specific mention in environmental legislation that regulates pollutants which are known to have an odour impact to (2) extensive details about odour source testing, odour dispersion modeling, ambient odour monitoring, (3) setback distances, (4) process operations, and (5) odour control technologies and procedures. Agricultural operations are one specific source of odour emissions in rural and suburban areas and a model example of such complexities. Management of agricultural odour emissions is important because of the dense consolidation of animal feeding operations and the advance of housing development into rural areas. Overall, there is a need for continued survey, review, development, and adjustment of odour legislation that considers sustainable development, environmental stewardship, and socio-economic realities, all of which are amenable to a just, site-specific, and sector-specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air quality; fine particulate matter; primary schools; building ventilation; environmental inequality; research grade sensors; indoor air quality
Online: 13 January 2022 (10:28:35 CET)
Every day around 93% of children under the age of 15 (1.8 billion children) breathe outdoor air that is so polluted it puts their health and development at serious risk. Due to the pandemic, however, ventilation of buildings using outdoor air has become an important safety technique to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With the mounting ev-idence suggesting that air pollution is impactful to human health and educational out-comes, this contradictory guidance may be problematic in schools with higher air pol-lution levels, but keeping kids COVID-19 free and in school to receive their education is now more pressing than ever. To understand if all schools in an urban area are ex-posed to similar outdoor air quality and if school infrastructure protects children equally indoors, we installed research grade sensors to observe PM2.5 concentrations in indoor and outdoor settings to understand how unequal exposure to indoor and out-door air pollution impacts indoor air quality among high- and low-income schools in Salt Lake City, Utah. Based on this approach, we found that during atmospheric inver-sions and dust events, there was a lag ranging between 35 to 73 minutes for the out-door PM2.5 concentrations to follow a similar temporal pattern as the indoor PM2.5. This lag has policy and health implications and may help to explain the rising concerns re-garding reduced educational outcomes related to air pollution in urban areas. These data and resulting analysis show that poor air quality may impact school settings, and the potential implications with respect to environmental inequality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: air shaft; air well; solar chimney; field measurement; natural ventilation; tropical climate; terrace house; passive cooling design
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:46:23 CEST)
The provision requirement of 10% openings of the total floor area stated in the Uniform Building by Law 1984 Malaysia has been practiced by designers for building plan submission approval. However, the effectiveness of thermal performance in landed residential buildings, despite the imposition by the by-law, has never been empirically measured and proven. Although terraced houses in Malaysia have dominated 40.9% of the total property transaction in 2019, such mass production with typical designs hardly provides its occupants with thermal comfort due to the static outdoor air condition and lack of external windows, where the conventional ventilation technique does not work well, even for houses with an air well system. Consequently, the occupants need to rely on mechanical cooling, which is a high energy-consuming component contributing to outdoor heat dissipation and therefore urban heat island effect. Thus, encouraging more effective natural ventilation to eliminate excessive heat from the indoor environment is critical. Since most of the research focuses on simulation modelling lacking sufficient empirical validation, this paper drawing on field measurement investigates natural ventilation performance in terraced housing with an air well system. More importantly, the key concern as to what extent the current air well system serving as a ventilator is effective to provide better thermal performance in the single storey terraced house is to be addressed. By adopting an existing single storey air welled terrace house, the existing indoor environmental conditions and thermal performance were monitored and measured using scientific equipment, namely HOBO U12 air temperature and air humidity, the HOBO U12 anemometer and the Delta Ohm HD32.3 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature meter for a six-month duration. The findings show that the air temperature of the air well ranged from 27.48°C to 30.92°C, while the mean relative humidity were from 72.67% to 79.25%. The mean air temperature for a test room (single sided ventilation room) ranged from 28.04°C to 30.92°C with a relative humidity of 70.16% to 76%. These empirical findings are of importance, offering novel policy insights and suggestions to potentially revising the existing building code standard and by laws; since the minimum provision of 10% openings has been revealed to be less effective to provide a desired thermal performance and comfort, mandatory compliance with, and the necessity for, the bylaw requirement should be revisited and further studied.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1381.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: TiO2; Air purification; Sustainable cities; Photocatalytic buildings
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:35:26 CEST)
TiO2-based building materials have air purification, auto-cleaning and sterilization functions, and these innovative green building materials have great potential for energy-saving and emission reduction applications in the future. However, there are still great challenges in improving photocatalytic efficiency and stability from laboratory to practical applications. In recent years, researchers have done a lot of work to improve the efficiency and stability of TiO2-based building materials. This paper briefly discussed the air purification principle by photocatalytic building, and the preparation techniques of TiO2-based building materials and the strategies to improve the efficiency of TiO2. Moreover, this paper has outlined the key factors that affect the photocatalytic building performance in practical applications, and analyzed the limitations and future development trends. Finally, we proposed some suggestions for further research on photocatalytic buildings and its application in practice, aiming to provide an efficient reference for developing highly efficient and stable photocatalytic building materials. The aim of this paper is to provide effective guidance for the application of TiO2-based photo-catalysts in the field of green buildings, helping to develop more efficient and stable low-carbon buildings for the development of sustainable cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; population density; air pollution; PM2.5
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:54:43 CEST)
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about potential environmental factors that could influence the spread and severity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Atmospheric pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), has been suggested as a contributing factor to viral infections and respiratory complications. This two-year observational study aimed to investigate the relation between air pollution and the spread of COVID-19, focusing on PM2.5. Unlike previous studies limited to specific cities or countries, inevitable to use temporal data. Our research analyzed data from various states across the United States, considering both spatial and temporal correlation. The analysis considered the number and geographic distribution of COVID-19 cases along with daily PM2.5 exposure levels, accounting for monthly average PM2.5 exposure, from March 2020 to December 2021. The observed conflicting results of the temporal and spatial correlation present challenges for researchers in understanding the true nature of the relationship between PM2.5 air pollution and COVID-19 cases. The correlation between various factors, such as population density, PM2.5, temperature, and wind speed, and COVID-19 refers to an association or statistical relationship, not causation. Moreover, the intricate interplay of these variables makes it difficult to establish a clear cause-and-effect relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1869.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: biotechnological filter; moss; air pollution; smart city
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
The research considers creating a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters in the Smart City concept. The extent of absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated using the example of the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded by sensors located in the biggest Kazakhstani cities from 06/21/2020 to 06/04/2023 were selected as the basis for calculating the efficiency. In total, there are two hundred twenty sensors in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, the task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. As a result, it is shown that ten filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, 100 filters 5.72%, and 500 filters 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University, considering the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the ISO 37120:2018 standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1691.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Air Pollution; Polar Regions; Grasshopper Effects; Environment
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:57:36 CEST)
Air pollution is a man-made environmental-related problem and has importance globally among all environmental issues. It is described as an atmospheric situation in which several components appear at high attention above their ambient level and generate a quantifiable effect on vegetation, animals, and people. Air pollution and its control are a universal problem and have become an issue of great trouble for us in current years. However, monitoring and measurement of the concentration of air pollutants are most difficult in assessment to monitoring other components in the environment. Air pollutants are transported to polar regions by different mechanisms such as long-range atmospheric transport or grasshopper effects and via anthropogenic activities. After reaching the polar regions, they settle down and remain as such for a long-time due to their persistent nature. They can distress the environment and wildlife of the polar regions. Generally, dangerous chemicals may cause a risk of well-being effects, whereas lethal pollutants focus on one physiological reaction. We reviewed the available information on air pollution (occurrence, sources, and harmful effects) in the polar regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1430.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Covid-19; mortality; PM2.5; air pollution; Europe
Online: 20 June 2023 (10:45:53 CEST)
Rationale: The possible effect of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5 of diameter 10 and 2.5 µm respectively) levels on Covid-19 mortality is now well established. However, time-evolution of Covid-19 mortality according to PM2.5 levels has been scarcely investigated. Aim: To understand this relationship at the European level for the period 2020 (beginning) - 2022 (end). Methods: 16 representative locations in Europe (81 million people) with heterogeneous levels of PM2.5 (µg.m-3), from low to high. PM2.5 levels were assessed by various methods, and Covid-19 mortality was reported by Johns Hopkins University. Results: The trend of Covid-19 mortality vs. PM2.5 levels varied among locations. Overall, the estimated mean value was of a 40±20% mortality increase per 1 µg.m-3 PM2.5 increase. The stronger the positive gradient of the PM peak, the stronger the positive gradient of the Covid-19 mortality. Exposure to several PM peaks during about a 2-month period was the main contributor to Covid-19 mortality increases. Conclusion: Our data confirm a temporal relation between PM2.5 exposure and Covid-19 mortality, considering a 2-month integration-time for pollution events. Number-concentrations of PM should be used in the future rather than the PM2.5 mass-concentrations (µg.m-3) with the consideration of PM composition to better explain this finding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Community; Health Risk; Awareness; Knowledge; Air Pollution
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:15:46 CEST)
Exposure to air pollution have detrimental effects on the elderly, women, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people living in poverty and children. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of community awareness and knowledge on the health risks associated with exposure to air pollution. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, using self-administered questionnaires. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 376 respondents. Systematic sampling method was applied to select the households. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze data. Of 376 respondents, 221 were males and 154 females. 113 were aged between 23-47years and 353 were aware that if they don’t protect themselves against polluted air, they may get sick, with age and educational status associated with their awareness (p < 0.05). About 361 knew what air pollution is and 188 think the air they breathe in Annadale is moderate. A total number of 278 said they feel sick/uncomfortable when the quality of air is bad. About 293 knew that people are exposed to air pollution by breathing contaminated air and 237 identified sewage smell as the main cause of air pollution. Respondents who identified internet and television as the main source of information were 199 and 177 respectively. Those who were not aware of actions implemented to reduce air pollution were 180. Based on the results of the study, respondents are aware of the dangers of exposure to polluted air, and it is necessary that air pollution risk communication strategies be implemented to empower residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0870.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: atmospheric chemistry; air quality; climate-chemistry model
Online: 11 May 2023 (14:31:06 CEST)
The representation of aerosols in climate-chemistry models is important for air quality and climate change research, but it can require significant computational resources. To overcome this, simpler modules such as modal aerosol modules with three lognormal modes (MAM3) can be used. In this study, the coupling of the Carbon Bond Mechanism, version Z (CBMZ), and MAM3 chemistry modules in WRF-CAM5 was improved by adding biomass-burning emissions to both gas- and particle-phase chemistry and incorporating a conversion mechanism between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secondary organic carbons (SOCs). The study conducted six simulations over the western U.S. and northeastern Pacific region and compared the model’s performance with observational benchmarks such as reanalysis, ground-based, and satellite data. The results showed that the model with enhanced chemistry capabilities had a 31% and 58% reduction in root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) surface concentrations, respectively. The earlier release of the WRF-CAM5 version had two deficiencies that were addressed in this study. This research highlights the importance of accurate aerosol representation in climate-chemistry models for improving accuracy and reducing errors in simulations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0766.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Hot air-frying; Food; Technology; Oil intake
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:27:36 CEST)
Hot air frying is a new method of frying food, where the use of a small amount of oil is optional but recommended. The objective of this review was to know the state of the art of hot air frying technology, focusing on trends, and thus obtain new ideas for future work in this area of food. In conclusion, the availability of advanced devices will increase the demand for hot air fryers as demonstrated by the trend generating a great economic and social impact. This new technology not only provides health benefits, but also has environmental advantages. In addition, work focusing on food (i.e. tortilla chips, plantain chips, eggs and meats) is recommended, since there are not enough studies on the subject. Currently, research is being conducted on home fryers, so the use of fryers and their impact at the industrial level is a developing area that will require further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0176.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: aerosol; AERONET; lidar; air pollution; sun-photometer
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:33:32 CEST)
The climate change impacts on some regions of the planet faster and stronger. These areas are known as the hot spots for climate change and Cyprus (Nicosia) in the Mediterranean is one of these spots. This paper aims to analyze the significant changes of atmospheric aerosol characteristics in 2019 and during the extreme event of 25 April 2019. We study the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, refractive index (imaginary and real parts), size, and vertical distribution of aerosol particles during the event of a high atmospheric aerosol contamination over Nicosia in details. For this purpose, we used the ground-based lidar, observations of the sun-photometer AERONET Nicosia station, satellite products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and back trajectories of air movements calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). On 23–25 April, according to lidar and sun-photometer observations, strong aerosol pollution over Nicosia was detected. On April 25, 2019, the AOT value exceeds 1.0 at λ = 440 nm. Analysis of the optical and microphysical characteristics supported that the pollution consists of mainly Saharan dust and partly urban aerosols. This assumption was confirmed by HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS images where air masses containing dust particles came from North Africa and from the Eastern part of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air pollution; environmental hazards; Volatile Organic Compounds
Online: 8 January 2021 (16:59:01 CET)
Air pollution is a serious global issue, responsible for approximately one in every nine deaths each year, ranking it among the greatest environmental hazards to human health. It is of particular concern in urban areas, where elevated pollutant concentrations and potential sufferers converge. Over one half of the world’s population presently lives in urban areas, and the urban population ratio is expected to reach 68% by 2050. Common air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). While elevated rates of air pollution pose serious health risks for humans, outdoor plants can help reduce the harmful effects of air pollution by filtering and purifying the air around us.In this project Common Ivy, Aster and Miniature Andromeda plants were evaluated for air pollutant mitigation. In this study we developed a vegetation barrier model with the plant located in the middle of the greenhouse box, and air pollutant was sprayed on one side of the plant. Dispersion patterns of sprayed pollutants were tested with and without vegetation barrier. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), and Particulate Matter (PM2.5/PM10) were taken before spraying, then at 0 and 30 minutes after spraying, using both monitors.The results show mitigation rates (in 177 ft3 of air after 30 min): for TVOC the minimum reduction is 5 mg/m3; for HCHO, 1 mg/m3; for CO2, 2000 ppm; for PM2.5, 2000 ug/m3; and for PM10 it was 1000 ug/m3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0154.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air Pollution; PM2.5; SJV; Winter; Stability; Meteorology
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:51:36 CET)
The mass composition of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns (PM2.5) in San Joaquin Valley (SJV) is dominated by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which is a secondary pollutant. The goal of this research was the investigation of the relationship between emissions, meteorology and PM2.5 concentrations in Fresno for the winter season. It was found that the location of sites near emission sources such as freeways compared with residential sites strongly affected measured PM2.5 concentrations. It was found that although long-term trends showed declines in both emissions and PM2.5 concentrations there was substantial variability between the years in the PM2.5/emissions relationship. Much of the yearly variation in the relationship between emissions and PM2.5 concentrations can be attributed to yearly variations in weather, such as atmospheric stability, precipitation frequency and average wind speed. There are moderate correlations between PM2.5 concentrations and temperature differences between nearby surface stations at varying elevations which explains some of the daily and seasonal variation in PM2.5. Occurrence of precipitation was related to low PM¬2.5 although the higher wind speeds and lower atmospheric stability associated with precipitation likely explain some of the low PM2.5 as well as washout of PM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0153.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Cosmic-rays; Citizien Science; Extensive air showers
Online: 8 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
The Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is a project dedicated to global studies of extremely extended cosmic-ray phenomena, the cosmic-ray ensembles (CRE), beyond the capabilities of existing detectors and observatories. Up to date cosmic-ray research has been focused on detecting single air showers, while the search for ensembles of cosmic-rays, which may overspread a significant fraction of the Earth, is a scientific terra incognita. Instead of developing and commissioning a completely new global detector infrastructure, CREDO proposes approaching the global cosmic-ray analysis objectives with all types of available detectors, from professional to pocket size, merged into a worldwide network. With such a network it is possible to search for evidences of correlated cosmic-ray ensembles. One of the observables that can be investigated in CREDO is a number of spatially isolated events collected in a small time window which could shed light on fundamental physics issues. The CREDO mission and strategy requires active engagement of a large number of participants, also non-experts, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g. smartphones). In this note the status and perspectives of the project is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0600.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emission inventory; livestock; greenhouse gases; air pollutant
Online: 30 September 2018 (06:04:22 CEST)
Livestock farming is a major source of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions. In this study, we estimate methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emission from livestock sector in the Red River Delta region from 2000 to 2015 and projection to 2030 using IPCC 2006 methodologies with the integration of local emission factors and provincial statistic livestock database. Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions in 2030 are estimated at 132 kt, 8.3 kt and 34.2 kt, respectively. Total global warming potential is 9.7 MtCO2eq in 2030, accounts for 33% greenhouse gas emissions from livestock in Vietnam. Pig farming is responsible for half of both greenhouse gases and ammonia emissions in the studied region. Other major livestock for greenhouse gas emission is cattle and for ammonia emission is poultry. Hanoi contributes for the largest emissions in the region in 2015 but will be caught up and surpassed by other provinces in 2030.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0471.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PM, air pollution, maternal exposure, airways disease
Online: 5 September 2018 (10:31:23 CEST)
Air pollution has become a growing invisible killer in recent years and is major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. India stands 10th among the highly polluted countries with an average PM10 level of 134μg/m3 per year. It is also reported that 99% of India's population comes across air pollution level that exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline (AQG), PM2.5 permissible levels of 10 μg/m3. Maternal exposure to air pollution has a serious health outcome to the offspring because it can affect embryonic phases of development during the gestation period. Fetus is more prone to air pollution effect during embryonic developmental phases due to oxidative stress as antioxidant mechanisms are lacking at that stage. Any injury during this vulnerable period (embryonic phase) will have long-term impact on offspring health both in early and later in life. Epidemiological studies have revealed that maternal exposure to air pollution increases the risk of developing airways disease in offspring due to impaired lung development in utero. In this review, we discuss cellular mechanisms involved in maternal exposure to air pollution and how it can impact development of airways disease in offspring. Better understanding of these mechanisms in context of maternal exposure to air pollution can offer newer avenue to prevent development of airways disease in offspring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: air-polishing; titanium; erythritol; chlorhexidine; biofilm; implants;
Online: 23 July 2018 (12:41:42 CEST)
Abstract: Air-polishing with low abrasiveness powders is fats arising as a valid and mini-invasive instrument for the management of biofilm colonizing dental implants. The reported advantage is the efficient removal of plaque with respect of the titanium integrity. In the present study, we evaluated the in-situ plaque-removal and continual the post-treatment anti-bacterial efficacy of an innovative erythritol/chlorhexidine air-polishing powder and compared it with sodium bicarbonate. Two peri-implantitis-linked biofilm formers strains Staphylococcus aureus and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were selected and used to infect titanium disks before and after the air-polishing treatment. Cells number and viability were assayed by colonies forming units (CFUs) count and metabolic-colorimetric (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) (XTT) assay. Air-polishing performed with either sodium bicarbonate or erythritol/chlorhexidine was effective in reducing bacteria biofilm viability and number onto pre-infected specimens, while erythritol/ chlorhexidine showed a higher post-treatment biofilm re-growth inhibition. Surface analysis via mechanical profilometry failed to show an increase in titanium roughness, regardless of the powder selected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.2000.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: microbiome; bacteria; DNA extraction; poultry; swine; air sampling
Online: 30 November 2023 (15:40:03 CET)
DNA extraction for downstream molecular diagnostic applications can be an expensive, time-consuming process. We devised a method to quickly extract genomic DNA from environmental samples based on sodium hydroxide lysis of cells with or without capture by magnetic beads, for subsequent PCR or quantitative PCR. The final DNA extraction method using NaOH is extremely low-cost and can be completed in 10 minutes at room temperature. NaOH extraction was effective for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in samples from air, soil, sewage, food, laboratory surfaces, and chicken cloacal swabs. The NaOH extraction method was comparable to commercial kits for extraction of DNA from pig fecal samples for 16S amplicon sequencing analyses. We demonstrate that an impinger and portable pump can efficiently capture bacteria in poultry facilities for rapid DNA extraction for quantification of total bacteria and for detection of specific species using qPCR. The air sampling and NaOH extraction procedures are well-suited for routine, high throughput screening, and for metagenomic analyses for specific pathogens, even in resource-limited situations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1682.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Air Filter; Electrospinning; Polymeric Solutions; Polymeric Membrane; Fibers
Online: 27 November 2023 (11:34:42 CET)
The air is a fundamental element for the life on Earth. Rapid urbanization and industrialization release large amounts of pollutants (harmful gases, microorganisms, and particulate matter, among others) into the atmosphere, leading to health hazards. Air filtration is still the most used and promising technique for protecting air against pollutants. The quality and efficiency of filtering process are dependent of material used for the filter and other filter’s properties. Several methods can be used for manufacturing filters, one of them uses fibrous membranes obtained through electrospinning from polymeric solutions. Electrospinning is a technique that combines the application of an electrostatic field to a moving fluid which results in the fibers formation. Electrospun membranes are constituted by fibers that the sizes spread on submicro and or nanometric scales. This review focuses on fiber membranes obtained by electrospinning for filtration of particulate matter. It is addressed the effect of solution, processing and ambient parameters on the morphology and dimensional characteristics of fiber membranes. The basic principles of air filtration and test and characterization of filter performance are presented. The research progress on electrospun nanofibers as air filters in recent years is summarized and examined. Finally, conclusion and future perspectives in electrospun fibers for air filtration are provided and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: HVAC; thermal comfort; green buildings; outdoor air conditioning
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:26:08 CET)
This research investigates the compatibility of conventional air conditioning with the principles of green building, highlighting the need for systems that enhance indoor comfort while aligning with environmental sustainability. Conventional cooling systems, though proficient in regulating indoor temperatures, encounter several issues when incorporated into green buildings. These include energy waste, high running costs, and a misalignment with eco-friendly practices, which may also lead to detrimental environmental effects and potentially reduce occupant comfort, particularly in retrofit situations. Given the emphasis on sustainability and energy conservation in green buildings, there is a pressing demand for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) solutions that support these goals. This study emphasizes the critical need to reconsider traditional HVAC strategies in the face of green building advances. It advocates for the adoption of innovative HVAC technologies designed for eco-efficiency and enhanced comfort. These technologies should integrate seamlessly with sustainable construction, use greener refrigerants, and uphold environmental integrity, driving progress towards a sustainable and occupant-friendly built environment.