ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0176.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: aerosol; AERONET; lidar; air pollution; sun-photometer
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:33:32 CEST)
The climate change impacts on some regions of the planet faster and stronger. These areas are known as the hot spots for climate change and Cyprus (Nicosia) in the Mediterranean is one of these spots. This paper aims to analyze the significant changes of atmospheric aerosol characteristics in 2019 and during the extreme event of 25 April 2019. We study the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, refractive index (imaginary and real parts), size, and vertical distribution of aerosol particles during the event of a high atmospheric aerosol contamination over Nicosia in details. For this purpose, we used the ground-based lidar, observations of the sun-photometer AERONET Nicosia station, satellite products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and back trajectories of air movements calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). On 23–25 April, according to lidar and sun-photometer observations, strong aerosol pollution over Nicosia was detected. On April 25, 2019, the AOT value exceeds 1.0 at λ = 440 nm. Analysis of the optical and microphysical characteristics supported that the pollution consists of mainly Saharan dust and partly urban aerosols. This assumption was confirmed by HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS images where air masses containing dust particles came from North Africa and from the Eastern part of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pollution dispersion; PM10; air quality; Land Use Regression; Symos’97
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:18:22 CEST)
Abstract: The air pollution dispersion modelling via spatial analyses (Land Use Regression – LUR) is an alternative approach to the air quality assessment to the standard air pollution dispersion modelling techniques. Its advantages are mainly much simpler mathematical apparatus, quicker and simpler calculations and a possibility to incorporate other factors affecting pollutant’s concentration. The goal of the study was to model the PM10 particles dispersion modelling via spatial analyses v in Czech-Polish border area of Upper Silesian industrial agglomeration and compare results with results of the standard Gaussian dispersion model SYMOS’97. Results show that standard Gaussian model with the same data as the LUR model gives better results (determination coefficient 71% for Gaussian model to 48% for LUR model). When factors of the land cover and were included into the LUR model, the LUR model results were significantly improved (65% determination coefficient) to the level comparable with Gaussian model. The hybrid approach combining the Gaussian model with the LUR gives superior quality of results (65% determination coefficient).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: rainwater; air pollution emissions; health; environmental law, environmental policy instruments
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:39:26 CEST)
Environmental legislation is moving towards global standards for ease of application and to impose sanctions and penalties when necessary, without compromising human health and biota. International environmental measures for control and monitoring of atmospheric air only monitor emissions of SOx, NOx, O3, and Pb. In general, most research work in air pollution done using the analysis of elements in rainwater show analysis of trace metals such as Na, Mg, Zn, and Mn. In this work, trace metals in the rainwater at the city of Goiânia, capital of the State of Goiás, were analyzed. Goiânia is a large city set in a predominantly agricultural province located in central Brazil. Presence of trace metals in rainwater was detected, indicating atmospheric air pollution levels higher than occupational limits set by WHO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0198.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Air Quality; Fixed Effects; Instrumental Variables; Panel Data; Teleworking; Traffic
Online: 29 May 2017 (11:11:54 CEST)
Traffic congestion is one of the foremost problems confronted by the urban and suburban tenants of today. Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades air quality. Urban planners and policy makers have consequently been always investigating choices to alleviate traffic congestion and to enhance air quality. Teleworking is one option that has received significant consideration and has been studied in the recent past. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between teleworking, air quality and traffic in Switzerland. The analysis relies on panel individual and household level data over the period 2002-2013. We examine five main air pollutants; the sulphur dioxide (SO2), the ground-level ozone (O3) the nitrogen dioxide (NO2), the carbon monoxide (CO) and the particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10). Based on the fixed effects estimates, teleworking reduces traffic volume by 1.9 per cent. Furthermore, the reduction observed on air pollution is higher for NO2, CO and PM10 ranging between 3.3-3.7 per cent, followed by O3 at 2.3 per cent and SO2 at 2.1 per cent. According to instrumental variable (IV) approach and the two stage least squares (2SLS) method, the effect is higher ranging between 2.6-4.1 per cent. The respective reduction on traffic becomes 2.7 per cent. Overall, the main concluding remark of the study is that teleworking can be a promising tool for urban planning and development, focusing at the traffic volume reduction, and the air quality improvement. Additional policy implications of teleworking and its beneficial effects for the society are further discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1691.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Air Pollution; Polar Regions; Grasshopper Effects; Environment
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:57:36 CEST)
Air pollution is a man-made environmental-related problem and has importance globally among all environmental issues. It is described as an atmospheric situation in which several components appear at high attention above their ambient level and generate a quantifiable effect on vegetation, animals, and people. Air pollution and its control are a universal problem and have become an issue of great trouble for us in current years. However, monitoring and measurement of the concentration of air pollutants are most difficult in assessment to monitoring other components in the environment. Air pollutants are transported to polar regions by different mechanisms such as long-range atmospheric transport or grasshopper effects and via anthropogenic activities. After reaching the polar regions, they settle down and remain as such for a long-time due to their persistent nature. They can distress the environment and wildlife of the polar regions. Generally, dangerous chemicals may cause a risk of well-being effects, whereas lethal pollutants focus on one physiological reaction. We reviewed the available information on air pollution (occurrence, sources, and harmful effects) in the polar regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0320.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19; air pollution; PM2.5; NOx; MERRA-2; OMNO2
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:51:22 CET)
: During the period of COVID-19, the Chinese government implemented a series of actions to prevent the spread of the virus. It is noticed that these preventive actions have generated positive effects on air pollution in Wuhan and Beijing. And, due to the differences in city functions, geographic locations, meteorological conditions, and preventive action details between the two cities, noticeable difference is observed on how they reduced air pollution. This unfortunate incident has become a social sample for studying the industrial and livelihood activities impact on air pollution, otherwise would be highly impossible. This paper starts from observing data from NASA's real-time fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and NO2, and comparing the air pollution in this special time domain with previous years. It is discovered that both PM2.5 and NO2 have been reduced in Wuhan, while only NO2 has significant reduction in Beijing, during the COVID-19 responses. This suggests that the human activity suppression by the COVID-19 control yields different effects on different pollutants and in different cities. Possible reasons for such effects are analysed by considering the public health control levels as well as the pollutant migration, industrial activities, and the weather conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1470.v1
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:55:49 CEST)
Abstract: This article explores the intricate relationship between environmental degradation, specifically air pollution, and economic growth in the Sultanate of Oman spanning the period from 1990 to 2022. We employ cointegration and vector error correction models to uncover both short- and long-term dynamics in the association between air pollution and economic growth. Fur-thermore, Granger causality analysis is utilized to investigate the causal links between these crucial variables. This data encompasses factors related to environmental quality and various control variables. The empirical results unveil a sustained long-term cointegration connection between the variables. Additionally, our findings highlight a statistically significant positive impact of economic growth and energy consumption on CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the short-term analysis reveals an annual adjustment of approximately 14.1% in N2O emissions dis-equilibrium. The Granger causality study indicates unidirectional causal relationships involving N2O emissions, economic growth, and CO2 emissions. The implications of these findings for Oman's policy landscape are substantial. To effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it is imperative for Oman to establish robust climate change policies. Additionally, the government can play a pivotal role in encouraging and endorsing the use of renewable energy sources, such as green hydrogen, as a promising alternative to traditional oil and gas resources.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air filtration; air purifier; COVID-19; haze; HEPA filter; particulate matter
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:43:51 CEST)
Purpose: This study aimed to focus on the design and development of low-cost DIY air purifiers, using a ventilating fan, air pump, water pump, and an ultrasonic generator, with regard to filtration efficacy and also cost-effectiveness that can be used during the COVID-19 pandemic and haze pollution. Methods: Six types of household air purifiers, incorporating a HEPA filter, a HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber, an air pump, an air pump & ultrasonic wave, a water pump, and a water pump & ultrasonic wave, were fabricated. The amount of particulate matter (PM) and CO2 levels were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, then, repeated 3 times. After 10 min of the 3rd experiment of each study, the last measurement of air pollution would be recorded. Results: At 60 min, the HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber showed the best performance regarding reduction of PM and CO2 levels. The highest PM reduction rate had occurred at 30 min using an air pump procedure (99.330 to 100%). The CO2 levels of all experiments had fluctuated at different times. After 10 min of a closed machine, HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber revealed the highest rate of PM elevation, while PM levels of all water-based purifier systems were decreased. A water pump and air pump were the cheapest air cleaners, when taking into account maintenance expenses and electricity charges. Conclusion: An air pump is the optimum method for reducing particulate matter at minimum cost but without the benefit of reduced humidity, while the HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber is the best system to decrease PM levels, but this requires an enclosed structure at the inlet to prevent dust coming back into the room. As filtration efficiency is increased by the use of filters & electrostatic fiber mechanisms, the more expensive the system becomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0041.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air quality; air pollution measurements; electrochemical sensors; low-cost sensors; AQI (Air Quality Index); Athens
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:08:39 CEST)
Most people living in Europe's cities are still exposed to levels of air pollution deemed harmful by the World Health Organization. In the modern world, air pollution is the foremost concern because of its impact in human health and economy. This strong connection appears gaining a lot of concern, driven by new installed low-cost electrochemical sensors monitoring systems. Highly accuracy, real-time monitoring, daily and yearly statistics, data access from experts or simple users, low-cost equipment and forecasting needs, enforce the market to develop new air quality monitoring systems using advanced technologies and protocols. In this study, a comparison via low-cost electrochemical sensors and of static, fixed site measurement monitoring station, is taking place in Athens, Greece, along with the data quality and Air Quality Index (AQI) including data accuracy and quality of data concerning adverse health effects due to air pollution. The findings presented in this work, relate to different flexible and affordable alternatives adopted during the evaluation and calibration of low-cost gas sensors for the monitoring. The significance of the positive results is particularly useful, especially considering the founding for interference, environmental conditions affections and air quality information including indexes and health recommendations for a specific location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air pollution; environmental hazards; Volatile Organic Compounds
Online: 8 January 2021 (16:59:01 CET)
Air pollution is a serious global issue, responsible for approximately one in every nine deaths each year, ranking it among the greatest environmental hazards to human health. It is of particular concern in urban areas, where elevated pollutant concentrations and potential sufferers converge. Over one half of the world’s population presently lives in urban areas, and the urban population ratio is expected to reach 68% by 2050. Common air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). While elevated rates of air pollution pose serious health risks for humans, outdoor plants can help reduce the harmful effects of air pollution by filtering and purifying the air around us.In this project Common Ivy, Aster and Miniature Andromeda plants were evaluated for air pollutant mitigation. In this study we developed a vegetation barrier model with the plant located in the middle of the greenhouse box, and air pollutant was sprayed on one side of the plant. Dispersion patterns of sprayed pollutants were tested with and without vegetation barrier. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), and Particulate Matter (PM2.5/PM10) were taken before spraying, then at 0 and 30 minutes after spraying, using both monitors.The results show mitigation rates (in 177 ft3 of air after 30 min): for TVOC the minimum reduction is 5 mg/m3; for HCHO, 1 mg/m3; for CO2, 2000 ppm; for PM2.5, 2000 ug/m3; and for PM10 it was 1000 ug/m3.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0471.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: PM, air pollution, maternal exposure, airways disease
Online: 5 September 2018 (10:31:23 CEST)
Air pollution has become a growing invisible killer in recent years and is major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. India stands 10th among the highly polluted countries with an average PM10 level of 134μg/m3 per year. It is also reported that 99% of India's population comes across air pollution level that exceed the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline (AQG), PM2.5 permissible levels of 10 μg/m3. Maternal exposure to air pollution has a serious health outcome to the offspring because it can affect embryonic phases of development during the gestation period. Fetus is more prone to air pollution effect during embryonic developmental phases due to oxidative stress as antioxidant mechanisms are lacking at that stage. Any injury during this vulnerable period (embryonic phase) will have long-term impact on offspring health both in early and later in life. Epidemiological studies have revealed that maternal exposure to air pollution increases the risk of developing airways disease in offspring due to impaired lung development in utero. In this review, we discuss cellular mechanisms involved in maternal exposure to air pollution and how it can impact development of airways disease in offspring. Better understanding of these mechanisms in context of maternal exposure to air pollution can offer newer avenue to prevent development of airways disease in offspring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: lung cancer; cigarette smoking; air pollution; epidemiology; etiology
Online: 6 June 2022 (03:51:38 CEST)
Cigarette smoking and air pollution (particulate matter) are recognized as two major etiological factors for lung cancer. Of all the risk factors, cigarette smoking is significantly associated with lung carcinogenesis. The main mechanism lies in the metabolically activated carcinogens (majorly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrosamines), which could covalently bind with DNA molecules and lead to irreversible mutations in pivotal cancer genes, such as TP53 and KRAS. Another major etiological factor for lung cancer is air pollution, which is with complex compositions and ubiquitous in daily life, especially in developing countries as China and India. The latest literatures on lung cancer epidemiology and etiology have been briefly summarized and reviewed in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Stone quarrying; air; water; pollution; mitigation
Online: 9 December 2021 (15:41:33 CET)
The unquenchable demand for rock materials has attracted many companies within the building and construction sector to invest in stone quarrying. However, this has brought about the environmental impacts with health threats to people. There is a paucity of information about the magnitude of pollution on air and water and how it varies with quarry sites. This study therefore investigated the physical impacts of quarrying on air and water and explored the in-situ mitigations to undesirable effects due to stone quarrying. Four active quarry sites were identified. Field measurements of dust (particulate matter) was conducted within the four quarry sites and in the nearby community. Water samples were collected from quarry pits and nearby shallow wells for laboratory analysis of water quality. Statistical Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test for differences in pollution across the four studied sites. Results revealed that, amidst use of wet crushing and water sprinkling on bare surfaces, dust emission was higher than the recommended permissible standards levels with a significant variation across the quarry sites with ANOVA (P-value=0.003) for PM2.5 and (P-value=0.04366) for PM10. Water pollution was mainly contributed by the non-permissive levels of nitrates, chromium, and pH. Polluted air and water are associated with sparking off health threats to the users in the community. In conclusion, quarry companies should strengthen the already existing mitigation of dust suppression. The study recommends additional measures such as treating quarry pit water before discharging to the open environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0702.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: air pollution; disease burden; YLLs; YLDs; health inequalities; productivity loss
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:04:40 CEST)
The aim of the research presented here is to assess the magnitude of the burden of health limitations resulting from air pollution on the world's economies. This burden was determined by the estimated number of premature years of life lost (YLLs) or health lost (YLDs) due to air pollution-related diseases in the working-age population. Attention was drawn to the problem of existing inequalities in the global burden of national economies with different income levels. The hypothesis of a persistently high level of inequality was verified on the basis of an analysis of the convergence process in a group of 204 countries over the period 1990-2019. The results obtained indicate a strong variation in the level of health constraints caused by air pollution. The analysis of the catch-up process of the least advantaged countries (highest level of health constraints due to air pollution) did not show a positive convergence effect in the study group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0425.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; Restriction policies; Air pollution; Environmental science; Sustainability.
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
The goal of this study is to develop a global analysis, based on data from 2015 to 2022, that clarifies the impact of containment policies (e.g., lockdown and quarantine) for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) on the air pollution between countries of different continents. In this context, average changes of CO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations based on measurements at ground level in January, February, and March for 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 are compared with average values of 2015-2018 period between 300 cities of 19 countries in 5 continents. Results show that the maximum reduction in pollutant concentrations during this period is given by: CO (-4,367.5%) in France, NO2 (-150.5%) in China and Australia, SO2 (-154.1%) in Israel, O3 (-94.1%) in China, PM2.5 (-41.4%) in Germany and PM10 (-157.4%) in Turkey. Findings reveal that the effects of containment policies on air quality vary significantly between countries depending on different geographical characteristics of regions. This study has main environmental policy implications because it clarifies the critical role of severe control measure to reduce air pollution and support sustainable environment and development.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0174.v1
Online: 18 August 2016 (10:36:09 CEST)
The ambient air quality data for particulate matter as well as criteria of gaseous pollutants were assembled during December 2013 to December 2015 from the Continuous Air Quality Monitoring Station (CAMS) located at Agrabad, Chittagong. The observation showed that during April- October, 24 hour average concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 were within the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) level but it increased occasionally by more than two and a half times during the whole non-monsoon period (November-March). The highest values found of PM2.5 were 321.1 µg/m3 in January, 2013 and 220.34 µg/m3 in December 2015. Whether, the highest alarming concentration of PM10 was reported as 474 µg/m3 in January 2007. The other gaseous pollutants such as SO2, NO2, O3, CO and Hydrocarbons remain well within the permissible limit except dry non-monsoon period. The yearly average increase of Air Quality Index (AQI) value indicates the growth rate of air pollution in Chittagong city. The main responsible pollutant for air pollution is found PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Type 2; diabetes mellitus PM2.5; air pollution; inflammation
Online: 11 January 2018 (01:45:36 CET)
Rapid urbanization, increasing population and increased industrialization to cater to demands of the growing population has imposed upon us a huge environmental cost. The significantly deteriorated air quality across the globe is associated with a direct and indirect impact on public health. While associated disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, heart failures are well documented, less is known about the biological basis of the process. We hypothesize that the worsening air quality may likely impact common systemic inflammatory processes, thus driving communicable and non-communicable diseases alike.Receptor mediated entry of particulate matter (PM2.5) results in activation of signaling cascades which culminate in production of inflammatory chemokine and cytokine responses, traversing through the blood mediating impacting not only on other organs but also dysbiosis of microflora. For the purpose of the review we choose tuberculosis (TB) as a model for communicable infectious disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as a marker for non-communicable disorder. The increasing prevalence of these co-morbidities and the burdening of public health systems justifies this example. However the hypothesis may be applicable to other inflammation driven disorders also.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: ambient air pollution; case-crossover; cluster; concentration; counts; strata; urban
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:16:48 CET)
This study examines the relation between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits due to certain infectious diseases in Toronto, Canada. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database was used to draw the corresponding health cases. Daily data on ED visits, ambient air pollution concentration levels, and weather conditions during the period from April 2004 to December 2015 (4,292 days in total) were linked together and used in statistical models. Six air pollutants (fine particulate matter PM2.5, CO, NO2, SO2, ozone O3 as a daily average, and ozone O3-8 hour ozone, as a maximum eight hour average) were investigated. In addition, the Air Quality Health Index (combining NO2, O3, and PM2.5) was also considered. The time-stratified case-crossover technique was applied in the study design. Conditional Poisson models were created using the daily counts of ED visit data. The considered factors, air pollutants and weather, were lagged by the same number of days, from 0 to 14. In the period of the study 339,644 ED visits were identified; 177,619 for females and 162,025 for males. For each air pollutant 270 models were realized (15 lags x 18 strata). Ambient air pollution concentrations lagged by 2, 3, and 5 days have the highest impact on ED visits, with 34, 32, and 35 positive associations, respectively. For all patients and an increase in a one interquartile range (IQR=1.2 ppb) of sulphur dioxide, the following values of the relative risks (RR) were estimated: RR=1.005 (95% confidence interval: 0.998, 1.013), 1.008 (1.001, 1.016), 1.009 (1.001, 1.016), 1.011 (1.004, 1.019), 1.007 (0.987, 1.028), and 1.009 (1.002, 1.016) for lags from 0 to 5, respectively. The results suggest that exposures for certain air pollutants (mainly CO, O3, and SO2) in urban environment affect the number of ED visits related to infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; population density; air pollution; PM2.5
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:54:43 CEST)
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised concerns about potential environmental factors that could influence the spread and severity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Atmospheric pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), has been suggested as a contributing factor to viral infections and respiratory complications. This two-year observational study aimed to investigate the relation between air pollution and the spread of COVID-19, focusing on PM2.5. Unlike previous studies limited to specific cities or countries, inevitable to use temporal data. Our research analyzed data from various states across the United States, considering both spatial and temporal correlation. The analysis considered the number and geographic distribution of COVID-19 cases along with daily PM2.5 exposure levels, accounting for monthly average PM2.5 exposure, from March 2020 to December 2021. The observed conflicting results of the temporal and spatial correlation present challenges for researchers in understanding the true nature of the relationship between PM2.5 air pollution and COVID-19 cases. The correlation between various factors, such as population density, PM2.5, temperature, and wind speed, and COVID-19 refers to an association or statistical relationship, not causation. Moreover, the intricate interplay of these variables makes it difficult to establish a clear cause-and-effect relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fine particulate matter (PM2.5); aerosol optical depth; community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) model; data fusion; exposure assessment
Online: 16 February 2017 (08:58:09 CET)
Estimating ground surface PM2.5 with fine spatiotemporal resolution is a critical technique for exposure assessments in epidemiological studies of its health risks. Previous studies have utilized monitoring, satellite remote sensing or air quality modeling data to evaluate the spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations, but such studies rarely combined these data simultaneously. We develop a three-stage model to fuse PM2.5 monitoring data, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) simulations together and apply it to estimate daily PM2.5 at a spatial resolution of 0.1˚ over China. Performance of the three-stage model is evaluated using a cross-validation (CV) method step by step. CV results show that the finally fused estimator of PM2.5 is in good agreement with the observational data (RMSE = 23.00 μg/m^3 and R2 = 0.72) and outperforms either AOD-retrieved PM2.5 (R2 = 0.62) or CMAQ simulations (R2 = 0.51). According to step-specific CVs, in data fusion, AOD-retrieved PM2.5 plays a key role to reduce mean bias, whereas CMAQ provides all-spacetime-covered predictions, which avoids sampling bias caused by non-random incompleteness in satellite-derived AOD. Our fused products are more capable than either CMAQ simulations or AOD-based estimates in characterizing the polluting procedure during haze episodes and thus can support both chronic and acute exposure assessments of ambient PM2.5. Based on the products, averaged concentration of annual exposure to PM2.5 was 55.75 μg/m3, while averaged count of polluted days (PM2.5 > 75 μg/m3) was 81, across China during 2014. Fused estimates will be publicly available for future health-related studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0588.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air Pollution; STURLA; Urban Structure; Mobile Monitoring; Spatial Prediction
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:41:17 CEST)
Understanding the relationships between land cover/urban structure patterns and air pollutants is key to sustainable urban planning and development. In this study, we employ a mobile monitoring method to collect PM2.5 and BC data in the city of Philadelphia, PA during the summer of 2019 and apply the Structure of Urban Landscapes (STURLA) methodology to examine relationships between urban structure and atmospheric pollution. We find that, while PM2.5 and BC vary by STURLA class, many of the differences in pollutant concentrations between classes are not significant. However, we also find that the proportions in which STURLA components are present throughout the urban landscape can be used to predict urban air pollution. Among frequently sampled STURLA classes, gpl hosted the highest PM2.5 concentrations on average (16.60 ± 4.29 µg/m3), while tgbwp hosted the highest BC concentrations (2.31 ± 1.94 µg/m3). Furthermore, STURLA combined with machine learning modeling was able to correlate PM2.5 (R2= 0.68, RMSE 2.82 µg/m3) and BC (R2 = 0.64, RMSE 0.75 µg/m3) concentrations with the urban landscape and spatially interpolate concentrations where sampling did not take place. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the STURLA methodology in modeling relationships between air pollution and land cover/urban structure patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0069.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory diseases; air pollution
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:48:46 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COPD exacerbation; air pollution; hospital admission; sex differences
Online: 1 October 2021 (10:02:16 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multifactorial lung inflammatory disease affecting 174 million people worldwide, with a recently reported increased incidence in female patients. Patients with COPD are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of environmental exposures, especially from air particulate and gaseous pollutants. Exposure to air pollution severely influences COPD outcomes, resulting in acute exacerbations, hospitalizations, and death. In the current study, we conducted a review of the literature addressing air pollution induced acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) in order to determine whether air pollution affects COPD patients in a sex-specific manner. We found that while the majority of studies enrolled both male and female patients, only a few reported results disaggregated by sex. Most studies had a higher enrollment of male patients, only four compared AECOPD outcomes between sexes, and only one study identified sex differences in AECOPD, with females displaying higher rates. Overall, our analysis of the literature confirmed that air pollution exposure is a trigger for AECOPD hospitalizations and revealed a significant gap in our knowledge of sex-specific effects of air pollutants on COPD outcomes, highlighting the need for more studies considering sex as a biological variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Air pollution; Health risk; Driving; Automobile; Bus; Motorcycle
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:35:44 CEST)
Introduction: Ambient air pollution is major global health problem and commercial drivers are particularly exposed to it. No systematic assessment of the health risks associated with occupational exposure to ambient air pollution in this population has been carried out. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using a protocol-driven strategy. Papers published from inception to 20th April 2018 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, African journals online, Cochrane library, ISRCTN and WHO ICTRP databases were screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers. Original articles with at least an available abstract in English or French were included. Results: The initial search retrieved 1454 published articles of which 20 articles were included. 3 Studies reported a significant difference in white blood cells (106/L) among commercial motorcyclists compared to rural inhabitants (5.041±1.209 vs 5.900±1.213,p=0.001), an increased risk of lung cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.5-1.8) in bus drivers and an increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in bus drivers from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SMR 2.17, 95%CI 1.19-3.87) compared to white collar workers. Other studies also found that drivers had more oxidative DNA damage and chromosome breaks. 4 papers failed to demonstrate that the drivers were more exposed to air pollution than the controls. 3 other studies also reported no significant difference in lung function parameters and respiratory symptoms. The genetic polymorphisms of detoxifying enzymes were not also homogeneously distributed compared to the controls. Conclusion: There is some evidence that occupational exposure to ambient air pollution among commercial drivers is associated with adverse health outcomes but the existing literature is limited with few studies of small sample size, methodological weaknesses and contradictory findings. Further research is recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome; microparticulate air pollution; inflammation; insulin resistance; metabolic; microbiome; environment; lifestyle
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:12:52 CEST)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is increasingly being viewed as an evolutionary mismatch disorder that manifests in women after exposure to a range of lifestyle and environmental factors. Although there is ongoing debate regarding the pathogenesis, international guidelines recommend lifestyle treatment, with diet and exercise, as the first line of management in all women with PCOS. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that environmental factors such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS due to their known hormonal and metabolic effects. As a result, international professional bodies have recommended that all pregnant women be advised of the risks of EDC and that education programs be developed to inform health professionals. Microparticulate air pollution (MAP) is also a significant environmental exposure that has been associated with a variety of chronic diseases, including PCOS. We performed a systematic review of studies examining the relationship between MAP and PCOS using the PRISMA methodology. The review identified 214 records from PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases, and 4 studies that met the inclusion criteria for qualitative assessment. Preliminary data suggest that MAP may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS via a number of mechanisms. This review highlights the need for greater awareness and further research on the effects of MAP in women with PCOS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Environmental pollution; air purification; negative ion generators; particulate matter.
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:02:23 CEST)
Today, air quality is one of the global concerns that governments are facing. One of the main air pollutants is the particulate matter (PM) that affects human health. This article presents the modeling of a purification system by means of negative air ions (NAIs) for air pollutant removal, using computational intelligence methods. The system uses a high voltage booster output to ionize air molecules from stainless steel electrodes; its particle-capturing efficiency reaches up to 97%. With two devices (5 x 2 x 2.5 cm), 2 trillion negative ions are produced per second, and the particulate matter (PM 2.5) can be reduced from 999 to 0 mg / m3 in a period of approximately 5 to 7 minutes (in a 40 x 40 x 40 cm acrylic chamber). This negative ion generator is a viable and sustainable alternative to reduce polluting emissions, with beneficial effects on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Road Traffic; Air Pollution Assessment; Emission factors; Statistical Approach; Transport Policy
Online: 1 November 2021 (12:51:36 CET)
In the article a statistical approach to the assessment of the emission rates discharged by the road traffic in a spatial context is proposed. It exploits an indicator, the Yearly Average Vehicle, representing the pollutant emission rate of the average vehicle belonging to a specific category, and considers the statistical variability of most of the involved traffic parameters: vehicle speed and mileage travelled in the considered time period. Finally, indicators, assessing both the most probable value among the possible emission rates and the extent of their variability range, are proposed. They may also be used to underpin decision making-processes, when the effects of different policies addressing air pollution issues, are to be evaluated. Therefore, they are suitable for the analysis supporting urban planning activities, with a view to addressing and mitigating the effects and the consequences of pollution due to the transportation sector of the urban context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0081.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: air pollution; particulate; PM2.5; open market; pedestrian traffic
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:20:44 CEST)
Market air quality is very important to the economic lives of the people which is rarely researched, however, market activities particularly pedestrian traffic releases particulates which is detrimental to the health of the users and stakeholders. Thermo scientific MIE pDR-1500 particulate was used to monitor the quality of air within the market for eight (8) weeks, air pollutant of concern is PM2.5. ten (10) sample points were located in the market which covers ten (10) sample points for pedestrian traffic to represent the entire market environment spectrum. The analysis of PM2.5 measured daily during dry and wet season shows a clear seasonal variation of this particular pollutant as elevated concentration was measured during the dry season than the wet season. The assessment of PM2.5 concentration shows exceedances of the standards stated by WHO and NAAQS during the dry season which ranges from 47.9 μg/m3- 231.88 μg/m3 in the morning and 65.17 μg/m3- 1806.33 μg/m3 in the afternoon. From the findings, pedestrian traffic contributes immensely to air pollution in an open market, with this elevated concentration, prolonged exposure is highly detrimental to health. This study creates awareness to the pedestrians in an open market about air pollution and informs policy changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Community; Health Risk; Awareness; Knowledge; Air Pollution
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:15:46 CEST)
Exposure to air pollution have detrimental effects on the elderly, women, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people living in poverty and children. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of community awareness and knowledge on the health risks associated with exposure to air pollution. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, using self-administered questionnaires. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 376 respondents. Systematic sampling method was applied to select the households. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze data. Of 376 respondents, 221 were males and 154 females. 113 were aged between 23-47years and 353 were aware that if they don’t protect themselves against polluted air, they may get sick, with age and educational status associated with their awareness (p < 0.05). About 361 knew what air pollution is and 188 think the air they breathe in Annadale is moderate. A total number of 278 said they feel sick/uncomfortable when the quality of air is bad. About 293 knew that people are exposed to air pollution by breathing contaminated air and 237 identified sewage smell as the main cause of air pollution. Respondents who identified internet and television as the main source of information were 199 and 177 respectively. Those who were not aware of actions implemented to reduce air pollution were 180. Based on the results of the study, respondents are aware of the dangers of exposure to polluted air, and it is necessary that air pollution risk communication strategies be implemented to empower residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: ultraviolet radiation; bioaerosol; formaldehyde; total volatile organic compounds; indoor air quality
Online: 22 November 2017 (10:26:40 CET)
This study examined the use of high dosages of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) (253.7 nm) to deal with various concentrations of air pollutants, such as formaldehyde (HCHO), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), under various conditions of humidity. We also estimated the emission of ozone as a secondary pollutant of UVGI as treatment. A number of irradiation methods were applied for various durations in field studies to examine the efficiency of removing HCHO, TVOC, bacteria, and fungi. The removal efficiency of air pollutants (HCHO and bacteria) through long-term exposure to UVGI appears to increase with time. The effects on TVOC and fungi concentration were insignificant in the first week; however, improvements were observed in the second week. No differences were observed among the various irradiation methods in this study regarding the removal of HCHO and TVOC; however significant differences were observed in the removal of bacteria and fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0028.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: air pollution; inbound tourism; tourist arrivals; tourism receipts
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:12:40 CET)
Concerns about China’s air quality, and its impact on the important tourism industry have been on the debate in recent years. This article aims to investigate the potential effect of air pollution on direct economic impact of tourism, using the case of Beijing and Shanghai. The results indicate that air pollution negatively affects China's inbound tourism, resulting in huge loss of tourist arrivals and receipts, and Beijing suffers a greater loss in comparison with Shanghai, its loss in tourist number amounts to 1569,700 persons, equal to CNY 10264.268 million in tourism receipts, and the GDP losses ranges from CNY 20528.536 to 41057.072 across major source countries. This study provides a quantification of the impact helpful to generate a social awareness of air pollution detrimental impacts on inbound tourism and hence the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Air pollution; low birth weight; prenatal exposure; joint effects; cold climate
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:43:42 CEST)
There is accumulating evidence that prenatal exposure to air pollution disturbs fetal growth and development, but little is known about these effects in cold climates or their season-specific or joint effects. Our objective was to assess independent and joint effects of prenatal exposure to specific air pollutants on the risk of low birth weight (LBW). We utilized the 2568 children of the Espoo Cohort Study, born between 1984 and 1990, and living in the City of Espoo. We conducted stratified analyses for births during warm and cold seasons separately. We analyzed the effect estimates using multi-pollutant Poisson regression models with risk ratio (RR) as the measure of effect. The risk of LBW was related to exposure to CO and (adjusted RR 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04-2.00) and exposure to O3 in the spring-summer season (1.82, 1.11-2.96). There was also evidence of synergistic effects between CO and O3 (relative risk due to interaction, RERI, all year 1.08, 95% CI: 0.27-4.94, spring-summer 3.97, 2.17-25.85) and PM2.5 and O3 (all year 0.72, -0.07-3.60, spring-summer 2.80, 1.36-19.88). We present new evidence of both independent and joint effects of prenatal exposure in a cold climate on the risk of LBW at low levels of air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1098.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; STEMI; air pollution; particulate matter; nitrogen dioxide
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:19:45 CEST)
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a major cause of mortality worldwide, has been shown through epidemiological studies to have a relationship with short-term exposure to air pollutants; however, the association between air pollutants and the outcome of STEMI has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of air pollutants on the outcomes of STEMI. Data on particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), <10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) at each of the 11 air monitoring stations in Kaohsiung City were collected between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2017. Medical records of non-trauma patients aged > 20 years who had visited the ED with a principal diagnosis of STEMI were extracted. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders and meteorological variables, we found that an increase in the interquartile range (IQR) in NO2 was associated with an elevated risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI. Moreover, during the warm season, an IQR increase in NO2 corresponded to a higher risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI on lag 3 (OR=3.266; 95% CI:1.203–8.864, p=0.02). Conversely, an IQR increase in PM10 was associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with STEMI on lag 3 (OR=2.792; 95%CI:1.115–6.993, p=0.028) during the cold season. Our study suggests that exposure to NO2 (during warm season) and PM10 (during cold season) may contribute to a higher risk of poor prognosis in patients with STEMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: air pollution; PM2.5; depression; inflammation; ecological analysis; climate; gender
Online: 29 November 2022 (10:12:54 CET)
Several studies have identified a relationship between air pollution and depression, particularly in relation to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure. However, the strength of this association appears to be moderated by variables such as age, gender, genetic vulnerability, physical activity and climatic conditions, and has not been assessed at a cross-national level to date. The current study examines the association between the prevalence of depression in each country, based on the most recent Global Burden of Disease Study data, and the average national level of PM2.5 based on the World Health Organization’s database. The observed associations were adjusted for age, gender, level of physical activity, income, education, population density, climate, and type of depression. It was observed that there was a modest but significant positive correlation between PM2.5 level and the prevalence of depression even after adjusting for the above confounders. This association was more marked above a certain threshold and applied chiefly to major depressive episodes. These findings are of significant public health importance in terms of preventive strategies aimed at reducing the population-level burden of depression.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0614.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: smart cities; artificial intelligence; internet of things; air pollution
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:18:12 CEST)
Air pollution contributes to a critical environmental problem in various towns and cities. With the emergence of the smart cities concept, appropriate methods to curb associated with exposure to pollutants must have been a portion of appropriate urban development policy. This study presents a technologically driven air quality solution in smart cities to advertise energy-efficient and cleaner sequestration in these areas. It aims to address the issue of how to integrate the data-based strategies and artificial intelligence into efficient public sector pollution management in smart cities as a core part of the smart city definition. Exploratory research has been used in 152 smart cities, and environmental experts contributed to this study. It further addresses the technical criteria for implementing such a framework that the public administration uses to prepare the renovation of public buildings, minimize energy use and costs, and link these smart police stations to monitor air pollution as a part of integrated cities. Such a digital transition in resource management will increase public governance's energy performance, a higher standard of operation, and a healthier environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: renewable energy; energy consumption; air pollution; spatial dubin model; spatial analysis
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:00:31 CEST)
The rapid development of China's economy has led to a rapid increase in energy production and use. Among them, the excessive consumption of coal in fossil energy consumption is the leading cause of air pollution in China. This paper incorporates renewable energy innovation, fossil energy consumption and air pollution into a unified analysis framework, and uses spatial measurement models to investigate the spatial effects of renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption on air pollution in China, and decomposes the total impact into direct and indirect effects. influences. The empirical results show that China's air pollution, renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption are extremely uneven in geographical space, generally showing the characteristics of high in the east and low in the west, and showing a strong spatial aggregation phenomenon. Fossil energy consumption will lead to increased air pollution, and the replacement of fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy is an important means of controlling pollution emissions. The direct and indirect effects of renewable energy green innovation on air pollution are significantly negative, indicating that renewable energy green innovation not only suppresses local air pollution, but also suppresses air pollution in neighboring areas. The consumption of fossil energy will significantly increase the local air pollution, and the impact on the SO2 and Dust&Smoke pollution in the adjacent area is not very obvious. It is recommended to strengthen investment in renewable energy green innovation, reduce the proportion of traditional fossil energy consumption, and pay attention to the spatial connection and spillover of renewable energy green innovation.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0364.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Covid-19; infection rate; air pollution; lockdown; China
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:54:49 CET)
Background: Covid-19 was first reported in Wuhan, China in Dec 2019. Since then, it has been transmitted rapidly in China and the rest of the world. While Covid-19 transmission rate has been declining in China, it is increasing exponentially in Europe and America. Although there are numerous studies examining Covid-19 infection, including an archived paper looking into the meteorological effect, the role of outdoor air pollution has yet to be explored rigorously. It has been shown that air pollution will weaken the immune system, and increase the rate of respiratory virus infection. We postulate that outdoor air pollution concentrations will have a negative effect on Covid-19 infections in China, whilst lockdowns, characterized by strong social distancing and home isolation measures, will help to moderate such negative effect. Methods: We will collect the number of daily confirmed Covid-19 cases in 31 provincial capital cities in China during the period of 1 Dec 2019 to 20 Mar 2020 (from a popular Chinese online platform which aggregates all cases reported by the Chinese national/provincial health authorities). We will also collect daily air pollution and meteorology data at the city-level (from the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center and the US National Climatic Data Center), daily inter-city migration flows and intra-city movements (from Baidu). City-level demographics including age distribution and gender, education, and median household income can be obtained from the statistical yearbooks. City-level co-morbidity indicators including rates of chronic disease and co-infection can be obtained from related research articles. A regression model is developed to model the relationship between the infection rate of Covid-19 (number of confirmed cases/population at the city level) and outdoor air pollution at the city level, after taking into account confounding factors such as meteorology, inter- and intra-city movements, demographics, and co-morbidity and co-infection rates. In particular, we shall study how air pollution affects infection rates across different cities, including Wuhan. Our model will also study air pollution would affect infection rates in Wuhan before and after the lockdown. Expected findings: We expect there be a correlation between Covid-19 infection rate and outdoor air pollution. We also expect that reduced intra-city movement after the lockdowns in Wuhan and the rest of China will play an important role in reducing the infection rate. Interpretation: Infection rate is growing exponentially in major cities worldwide. We expect Covid-19 infection rate is related to the air pollution concentration, and is strongly dependent on inter- and intra-city movements. To reduce the infection rate, the international community may deploy effective air pollution reduction plans and social distancing policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0892.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: air pollution; environmental regulation; industrial structure; PVAR model; Moderating effect
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:19:58 CEST)
Air pollution is an important factor affecting human health and daily life. Chinese government is making vigorous efforts to control air pollution. The upgrading of industrial structure is a problem-solving tool in environment and economic growth cases. This paper aims to explore the relationships among environmental regulation, the upgrading of industrial structure and air pollution. The PVAR (Panel Vector Auto Regression) model and moderation effect model has been used to conduct empirical analysis based on panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2004 to 2020. The results of analysis indicate (1) the environmental regulation can significantly reduce the air pollution, but the deterioration of air quality could not effectively influence environmental regulations. (2) The upgrading of industrial structure can weaken the air pollution and air pollution hinders the upgrading of industrial structure. (3) With the improvement of environmental regulation, the industrial structure is constantly upgraded, but the upgrading of the industrial structure has a negative effect on the improvement of environmental regulation. (4) The upgrading of industrial structure can positively moderate the influence of environmental regulation on air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0211.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: air pollution; microenvironment; public health; PM2.5; black carbon; active transport
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:34:12 CET)
The Particulate Matter (PM), particles of variable but small diameter could penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and/or cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to evaluate the association of environmental particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) with respiratory health and physical activity in users traveling by transportation modes over four roads in Bogotá. This was a mixed-method study, in 300 healthy participants, based on a convergent parallel design. Including a descriptive qualitative component focused on asserting the individual perception of air pollution by semi-structured interviews and a cross-sectional study measuring the individual exposure to PM2.5 and BC to evaluate the pulmonary function by spirometry. The analysis included concurrent triangulation and a Poisson regression. This study provides integration of air pollution exposure variables and respiratory health effects in different transport microenvironments. To our knowledge, this is the first mixed-methods study focused on PM2.5, BC, and respiratory health effects in a city above 2.000 meters above sea level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: environmental corrosivity; air quality; IOT; autonomous sensor; RFID; corrosion; archeological wood
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:07:39 CEST)
The control of air quality in museums or storages is of fundamental interest for the conservation of historic artifacts. The present work reports an example of application of RFID sensors developed in the European project SensMat and dedicated to this issue. The sensors are based on the varia-tion of property of an RFID tag coupled to a sensitive silver thin film exposed to the environment. As it will be described in the paper, such low cost sensors are interrogated by a commercial reader and provide the environmental corrosivity index and thus the presence of pollutants. The selected case study concerns the monitoring of pollution by H2S in a building dedicated to conservation and restoration of archeological and historical woods. The ability of sensors to map spatially the corrosivity within buildings is highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; monitoring; lichen; Hypogymnia physodes; trace elements; South-East Baltic
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:48:14 CEST)
Epiphytic lichens are well-known indicators of air contamination. The chemical composition of lichens is affected by the concentration of pollutants in the environment. Usually, researchers assess long-term variations in trace elements or other pollutants in the study area or identify the spatial features of air contamination. The aim of this study is to create a database of trace element concentrations in the samples of the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes growing in the Kaliningrad region. The database can be used as a ‘reference point’ for monitoring studies. Another objective is to identify the spatial patterns of iron, manganese, nickel, cadmium, silver, lead, strontium, rubidium, and calcium in the Kaliningrad region. The samples of wild lichens were collected from pine and birch trees 1.2-1.8 m from the bases of the threes, using a regular grid, in August 2010. One-two-year-old thalli were used in the chemical analysis. The metals Ag, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Zn were determined by AAS (Mn, Fe by flame AAS and the others by ETA-AAS) and the elements Sr, Rb, and Ca by X-ray fluorescence. The concentration of metals in the western coastal area (the Sambian or Kaliningrad Peninsula) is higher than it is in the central and eastern parts of the region. Principal component factor analysis was carried out to detect and characterise different pollution sources and to identify the most polluted areas. The factors of metal emission were described. The authors examined the features of the spatial distribution of trace elements. Prevailing winds are form south-west. Therefore, the highest concentrations of trace elements were found on the Sambian peninsula and on the coasts of the Vistula and Curonian Lagoons. The high concentrations of trace elements in the samples of the lichen H.physodes, which were observed in the coastal part of the region, are associated with human impact and subsequent pollution. The chemical composition of lichens on the Sambian peninsula may have developed under the impact of both local pollution sources – vehicles, thermal energy facilities, and ports – and such factors as transboundary traffic and sea spray.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: smoking; air pollution; health communication; population attributable fraction; copd; emphysema; relative risks
Online: 10 October 2019 (04:47:10 CEST)
A recent study found that a 3ppb increase in O3 ambient concentration was associated with an increased progression of 0.18 percentage points in percent emphysema and that such increase was equal to smoking 20 cigarettes per day for 29 years. A simple estimation of population attributable fraction shows that COPD diagnoses due to smoking are actually 30 times more than those attributed to a 3 ppb increment in O3 concentration. Labelling ozone pollution as the new smoking may distort perception of the risks and hinder proper response to real life threatening risk such as smoking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: ambient air pollution; epidemiology; narrative review; sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:52:02 CET)
An important aspect of the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) is a greater emphasis on reducing the health impacts of urban ambient air pollution (AAP) in developing countries. Meanwhile, the burden of disease attributable to AAP in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is growing, yet estimates of its impact in the region are likely underestimated due to a lack of air quality monitoring, the paucity of epidemiological studies, and important population vulnerabilities in the region. The lack of studies in the SSA region also represents an important global health disparity and environmental justice issue because thousands of air pollution health effects studies have been conducted in Europe and North America rather than in some of the most polluted regions of the world, such as SSA. In this review, we synthesize all of the ambient air pollution epidemiological studies that have been conducted in SSA to date. We highlight the gaps in AAP epidemiological studies conducted in different sub-regions of SSA and provide methodological recommendations for future environmental epidemiology studies addressing AAP in the SSA region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Air pollution; environmental justice; chronic homelessness; unsheltered homelessness; marginalized populations; hidden populations
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:22:22 CEST)
Experiences of homelessness, although widely varied, are characterized by extensive time in public spaces, often outdoors. However, there has been little empirical research about the ways in which environmental factors affect individuals experiencing homelessness (IEHs). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use an environmental justice approach to understand how cardiopulmonary health of IEHs is affected by episodic poor air quality in Salt Lake County. It was hypothesized that people who had experienced unsheltered homelessness and those who had been experiencing homelessness for longer periods of time would report greater health difficulties from poor air quality exposure. Through a combination of in-person semi-structured interviews with IEHs (n = 138) and access to corresponding state-based service provider databases, researchers examined both overall descriptives of and relationships between types (sheltered and unsheltered) and duration (chronic and non-chronic) of homelessness. More than 61% of IEHs reported physical reactions to air pollution, 37% reported air pollution-related emotional stress, and more than 89% had sought medical attention for a condition related to air pollution. Findings indicate that while IEHs report a number of health effects related to poor air quality, there were no significant differences between individuals based on either sheltered status or duration of their experiences of homelessness. This study provides an initial empirical inquiry to understand how environmental disamenities negatively influence IEHs, as well as noting that sheltered status and duration of homelessness are less impactful than originally hypothesized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0686.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: asthma; outdoor air pollution; particulate matter; sulfur dioxide; hydrogen sulfide
Online: 28 June 2021 (16:33:30 CEST)
Clairton, Pennsylvania, is home to the largest coke works facility in the United States (US). On 24 December 2018, a large fire occurred at this facility and damaged pollution control equipment. Although repairs were not completed for several months, production continued at pre-fire capacity and daily emissions increased by 24 to 35 times, with multiple exceedances of monitored levels of outdoor air pollution (OAP). The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate the impact of this industrial incident and resultant OAP exceedances on asthma morbidity. We assessed pre-fire and post-fire rate ratios (RR) of outpatient and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma exacerbations among nearby adult residents. Pre-fire versus post-fire RRs increased for both visit types: RR = 1.82 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.53; p < 0.001) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.05, 3.22; p = 0.032) for outpatient and ED visits, respectively. Additionally, total visit rates increased on days with OAP exceedances: RR = 2.47 (95% CI: 1.52, 4.01; p < 0.0001), 1.58 (95% CI: 1.00, 2.48; p = 0.048) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.27, 2.54; p = 0.001) for PM2.5, SO2, and H2S exceedance days, respectively. These results show a near doubling of acute visits for asthma exacerbations in nearby adult residents during this industrial incident and underscore the need for prompt remediation and public notification of OAP exceedances to prevent adverse health impacts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: air pollution; particulate matter; nitrogen dioxide; COVID-19; pandemic
Online: 18 May 2020 (09:36:25 CEST)
A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have determined a pneumonia outbreak in China (Wuhan and Hubei) on December 2019. While pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies are strengthened worldwide, the scientific community has been studying the risk factors associated with SARS-Cov-2, to enrich epidemiological information. For a long time, before the industrialized era, air pollution has been a real and big health concern and it is today a very serious environmental risk for many diseases and anticipated deaths in the world. It has long been known that air pollutants increasing the invasiveness of pathogens for humans by acting as a carrier and making people more sensitive to pathogens through a negative influence on the immune system. Based on scientific evidences, the hypothesis that air pollution, resulting from a combination of factors such as meteorological data, level of industrialization as well as regional topography, can acts both as an infection carrier as a harmful factor of the health outcomes of COVID-19 disease has been raised recently. This hypothesis is turning in scientific evidence, thanks to the numerous studies that have been launched all over the world. With this review, we want to provide a first unique view of all the first epidemiological studies relating the association between air pollution and SARS-CoV-2. Major findings are consistent, highlighting the important contribution of air pollution on the COVID-19 spread and with a less extent also PM10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: socioeconomic status; indoor air pollution; acute respiratory infection; cooking fuel; under-five children
Online: 23 July 2019 (07:45:08 CEST)
Background: Low-income families often depend on fuels such as wood, coal, and animal dung for cooking. Such solid fuels are highly polluting and are a primary source of indoor air pollutants (IAP). We examined the association between solid fuel use (SFU) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among under-five children in Afghanistan and the extent to which this association varies by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on de-identified data from Afghanistan’s first standard Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2015. The sample consists of ever-married mothers with under-five children in the household (n=27,565). We used mixed-effect Poisson regression models with robust error variance accounting for clustering to examine the associations between SFU and ARI among under-five children after adjusting for potential confounders. We also investigated potential effect modification by SES and sex. Additional analyses were conducted using an augmented measure of the exposure to IAP accounting for both SFU and the location of cooking/kitchen (High Exposure, Moderate, and No Exposure). Results: Around 70% of households reported SFU, whereas the prevalence of ARI was 17.6%. The prevalence of ARI was higher in children living in households with SFU compared to children living in households with no SFU (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]= 1.10; 95%CI: 0.98, 1.23). We did not observe any effect modification by SES or child sex. When using the augmented measure of exposure incorporating the kitchen’s location, children highly exposed to IAP had a higher prevalence of ARI compared to unexposed children (aPR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32). SES modified this association with the strongest associations observed among children from the middle wealth quintile. Conclusion: The findings have significant policy implications and suggest that ARI risk in children may be reduced by ensuring clean cookstove as well as clean fuels and acting on the socio-environmental pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0701.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: low-cost sensors; particle number concentration; laboratory study; fine particles; particulate matter; air pollution
Online: 21 April 2023 (09:10:07 CEST)
Low-cost particulate matter (PM) sensors offer an excellent opportunity to improve our knowledge about this type of pollution. Their size and their cost, which support multi-node network deployment, along with their temporal resolution, enable them to report fine spatio-temporal resolution for a given area. These sensors have known issues across performance metrics. Generally, the literature focuses on the PM mass concentration reported by these sensors but some models of sensors also report particle number concentrations (PNC) segregated into different PM size bins. In this study, 8 units of each Alphasense OPC-R1, Plantower PMS5003 and Sensirion SPS30 have been exposed, under controlled conditions, to short-lived peaks of PM generated using two different combustion sources of PM, exposing the sensors to different particle size distributions to quantify and better understand the low cost sensors performance across a range of relevant environmental ranges. The PNC reported by the sensors were analysed. This study showed that there is added value in directly using the PNC reported by the sensors instead of the mass concentrations, which could aid the efforts to calibrate these sensors to a known accuracy. It demonstrated that all sensors tested here could track the fine temporal variation of PNC, that the Alphasense OPC-R1 could closely follow the variations of size distribution between the two sources of PM, and it showed that particle size distribution and composition are more impactful on the sensors measurement than relative humidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0031.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: user centred design; air pollution exposure campaign; report to participants; communication; focus group; design thinking
Online: 4 November 2021 (15:18:43 CET)
Using low-cost portable air quality (AQ) monitoring devices is a growing trend in personal exposure studies enabling a higher spatio-temporal resolution and identifying acute exposure to high concentrations. Comprehension of results by participants is not guaranteed in exposure studies. However, information on personal exposure is multiplex, which calls for participant involvement in information design to maximise communication output and comprehension. This study describes and proposes a model of a user centred design (UCD) approach for preparing a final report for participants involved in a multi-sensor personal exposure monitoring study performed in seven cities within the EU Horizon 2020 ICARUS project. Using a combination of human-centred design (HCD), human-information interaction (HII) and design thinking approaches, we iteratively included participants in the framing and design of the final report. User needs were mapped using a survey (n=82), and feedback on the draft report was obtained from a focus group (n=5). User requirements were assessed and validated using a post-campaign survey (n=31). The UCD research was conducted amongst participants in Ljubljana, Slovenia and the results report was distributed among the participating cities across Europe. The feedback received made it clear that the final report was well-received and helped participants better understand the influence of individual behaviours on personal exposure to air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0207.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: SSP (Shared Socio-economic Pathway) scenarios; air quality; WRF-CAMx; numerical modelling; urban areas; health impact assessment; premature deaths
Online: 14 September 2022 (11:57:03 CEST)
The World Health Organization estimates that every year air pollution kills seven million people worldwide. As it is expected that climate change will affect future air quality patterns, the full understanding of the links between air pollution and climate change, and how they affect human health, are challenges of future research. In this scope, a methodology to assess the air quality impacts on health was developed. The WRF-CAMx modelling framework was applied for the medium-term future climate (considering the SSP24.5 scenario) and for the recent past (considered as baseline). Following the WHO recommendations, mortality health indicators were used to estimate health impacts of long-term exposures. For that, the Aveiro Region, in Portugal, was considered as a case study. Future climate results indicate the occurrence of higher temperatures, and lower total precipitation. Despite that, improvements in the main pollutants’ concentrations, and consequently in the reduction of the related premature deaths are foreseen, mainly due to the reduction of pollutants emissions imposed by the European legislation for the upcoming years. The applied approach constitutes an added value in this research field, being crucial to anticipate the effects of climate change on air quality and evaluate their impacts on human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-SoV-2; hospital admissions; COPD exacerbation; asthma exacerbation; air pollution
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:27:21 CEST)
We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the hospitalization rates for acute exacerbations of asthma and/or COPD during the first imposed lockdown in Athens, Greece. Patient characteristics and the concentration of eight air pollutants (namely, CO, NO, NO2, O3 PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and benzene) were considered. A total of 153 consecutive hospital admissions were studied. Reduced admissions occurred in the lockdown period when compared to the Pre-lockdown 2020 (p<0.001) or the Control 2019 (p=0.007) period. Furthermore, the concentration of 6/8 air pollutants positively correlated with weekly hospital admissions in 2020 and significantly decreased during the lockdown. Finally, admitted patients for asthma exacerbation during the lockdown were younger (p=0.046) and less frequently presented respiratory failure (p=0.038), whereas patients with COPD presented higher blood eosinophil percentage (p=0.017) and count (p=0.012). Overall, admissions for asthma and COPD exacerbations decreased during the lockdown. This might partially explained by reduction of air pollution during this period while medical care avoidance behavior, especially among elderly patients cannot be excluded. Our findings aid in understanding the untold impact of the pandemic on diseases beyond COVID-19, focusing on patients with obstructive diseases..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air-conditioned filer dust; indoor environment; heavy metal; biological contaminants; risk assessment
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:08:24 CEST)
Among others, road traffic, industrial emissions, commercial activities, smoking and cooking are considered as major contributing factors for the increasing levels of pollutants in atmosphere. High levels of potentially toxic metals and microbes in atmosphere, especially in indoor air, may pose serious threat to human health. Therefore, concentration and associated health risks of potentially toxic trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their risk to human health, and microbial load in indoor air was assessed using air condition (AC) filter dust samples collected from 5 locations representing residential, agricultural and industrial settings of Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The levels of trace metals varied considerably among sampling areas, with the highest levels of Cr and Cd recorded in the Industrial-area sites followed by the Agricultural and Urban-Residential sites. The highest levels of Pb and Fe were found in the Agricultural area sites followed by the Industrial and Urban-Residential area sites. The metals in dust sample, especially Cd, Cr and Pb, showed a considerable health risk through dermal pathway. Among the sites, the highest hazard quotient for these metals was found for Al-Qatif-Industrial areas sites and among the metals it was the highest for Cd. The cancer risk from the metals contained in AC filter dust was negligible. Samples collected from Agricultural and Industrial area sites were substantially contaminated with bacteria and fungi, respectively. Bacterial contaminants were mostly Gram Negative, with considerable antibiotic resistance and haemolytic activity. Thus, indoor air quality as assessed by AC filter dust depicted that a considerable health risk could be posed by the trace heavy metals and microorganisms for a long-term exposure. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that AC filters dust could be a unique and reliable test sample for the assessment of indoor environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1298.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: artiﬁcial neural networks; machine learning; environmental protection; air pollution; atmosphere; pollutants emission prediction; forecasting; data security
Online: 19 July 2023 (07:17:31 CEST)
Environmental monitoring systems play a crucial role in assessing environmental quality, detecting limits exceedances, and predicting potential ecological episodes. These systems rely on the measurement of various variables at specific locations and time intervals over an extended period. The concept of environmental monitoring encompasses the assessment of health and safety issues for public and environmental health purposes. Pollution of the atmosphere and water, climate change, and natural disasters are among the consequences of continuous industrial and municipal development and human interference in natural ecosystems. To address these challenges and to protect human lives and the environment, with a special concern on mitigating the ecological effects of industrial development, advanced technical solutions, including the technologies associated with artificial intelligence (artificial neural networks ANNs, machine learning ML) have been developed. These technologies offer powerful tools for analysing the vast amount of data collected by monitoring systems and extracting valuable insights. By applying ANNs and machine learning algorithms, environmental monitoring systems can effectively process and interpret the measured variables to assess environmental quality. Despite challenges and limitations, such as data quality and interpretability of AI models, ongoing research and interdisciplinary collaboration are paving the way for the successful implementation of AI in environmental monitoring, ultimately supporting informed decision-making and sustainable resource management.While several review papers have explored the theory of artificial intelligence (AI), here I aim to review the application of ANNs and ML, in environmental aspects, specifically in automotive and industrial emissions toxicity measurements, as well as atmospheric pollution prevention. By examining the potential of AI in these domains, the paper contributes to understanding the role of advanced technologies in environmental monitoring and protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: air pollution; skin; nutraceutical; natural compound; polyphenols; antioxidant; skin barrier; anti-agein; clinical trial
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:38:10 CEST)
Repeated air pollution exposure is one of the major threats to skin health. Air pollution causes skin damage and accelerates skin ageing mainly through oxidative stress mechanisms. Since it is difficult to minimize skin exposure from air pollutants, especially in urban areas, strategies to protect the skin are needed. On the other hand, plant phenolic compounds have been found to be effective in attenuating cellular oxidative stress and inflammation induced by different air pollutants. Therefore, we conducted a 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study to assess the efficacy of a polyphenol-enriched dietary supplement (comprised of olive leaf, lemon verbena, rosemary and Sophora japonica extracts) in reducing pollution-induced oxidative stress and in improving different skin parameters related to skin ageing of Caucasian and Asian volunteers living in a polluted urban European area (Milan). One hundred healthy women were recruited and randomized in the placebo or in the test dietary supplement treatment arms. To assess the efficacy of the dietary supplement, the total antioxidant capacity on saliva (FRAP) was determined, as well as the oxidative damage on skin (lipoperoxides content), the skin moisture (corneometry), the trans-epidermal water loss (Tewameter), the skin radiance and the skin colour, (spectrophotometry), the skin elasticity (cutometry), the skin sebum content (sebumeter), and the skin roughness (image analysis). As a result, both inter-group and intra-group analysis proved that the dietary supplement improved all clinical and biochemical monitored parameters, in both Caucasian and Asian individuals. In conclusion, the results of the study indicate a reduced oxidative stress-induced skin damage in both Asian and Caucasian women living in a polluted urban area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1245.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Air pollution; Human health; Environment; Carbon monoxide (CO); Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Ozone (O3), Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Online: 20 November 2023 (14:00:14 CET)
Air pollution has been a major environmental issue worldwide from the last few decades. It is a man-made issue that has a serious harmful impact on the environment and the health of humans. There are different sources of emission, but industrial processes and motor vehicles contribute to a chief part of air pollution. It has acute as well as chronic effects on the health of humans and affects different organs. It is thought the main environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of several diseases such as lung cancer, asthma, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Long-term exposure to air pollution has different toxicological impacts on humans such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, eye irritation and skin diseases. As per the study by the World Health Organization (WHO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals are the major air contaminants. These pollutants are different in their properties, composition and time of disintegration. The aim of this study is to review the different sources, types, impacts, challenges and mitigation of air pollution in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0394.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: fine dust pollution; ozone layer and climate change; global environmental problems, statistical reasoning, air pollution assessment, desertification, particulate matter (PM)
Online: 22 August 2018 (10:22:38 CEST)
Abstract: The frequency and intensity of air pollution are two of most critical issues the world faces in dealing with global environmental problems. They are both important areas that need to be improved. Our previous research  examines the assessment of fine dust pollution in Baekryeong island by statistical reasoning through one specific example of inland city (Yanggu) in Republic of Korea; however, given that Baekryeong Island is a remote island, there has been little focus on in-depth examination of its effect on the high density of fine dust in Baekryeong Island. The purpose of this article is twofold: (i) to examine the effect of a remote island on the high density of fine dust on Baekryeong Island using statistical reasoning and to provide a more specific statistical basis for the claim that one of the non-negligible factors influencing the high density of fine dust on Baekryeong Island is the geographic proximity to China; and (ii) to present brief discussion of fundamental cause of fine dust and global air pollution issues, which are not discussed in .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0628.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air pollution; Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs); Adverse Perinatal Out-come; Inhalation Intake model; Long-term Exposure
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:48:35 CEST)
Air pollution includes particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which eventually reach the placenta triggering adverse perinatal outcomes by long-term exposure. Late-ly, air pollution has increased over the Metropolitan Area of Medellin-Colombia (MAMC) but its effects on pregnancy are still unknown. In this research, we made a real-time analysis of airborne total PAHs using a photoelectric sensor for residential places influenced by industrial and traffic sources contrasting southern and northern MAMC during the second peak of the bimodal ten-dency for PM2.5 emissions in this region. Additionally, we analyzed individual PAHs by GC/MS coupled to pressurized hot water extraction methodology. Data was applied in an Inhalation In-take Model to assess pregnancy exposure. The average concentration of PAHs over southern MAMC was three times higher than over northern MAMC where the abortion rate has been 1.4 times higher presented in database. Previous research found that PAHs act as an Endo-crine-Disrupting Chemical (EDC) during pregnancy and even heavy congeners could reside in umbilical cord blood. Finally, the annual series of abortion rates in the MAMC showed a signifi-cant correlation with the annual average levels of PM2.5 which are associate to PAHs. Although this significant correlation does not imply causality, our results suggest an important connection between both variables. This latter finding opens a gap in deeply understanding how regions with high PAHs-convergence influences abortion rates in MAMC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0053.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Google Trend; Particulate Matter; National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Information System; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Big Data
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:29:51 CEST)
Depending on the characteristics of the industrial area, toxicity evaluation of human body, risk assessment and health impact assessment may directly cause cancer due to air pollution. Environmental data collection is from August 2018 to January 31, 2019, and the average, minimum, and maximum values of air pollution data respectively. According to the global data on global trends using the Big Data, high blood pressure is confirmed at 33rd place in the world, and myocardial infarction among the environmental diseases is confirmed to be lower than Korea. Disease that occurred in Jeolla province industrial complex considering the characteristics of our country was identified as representative. Air pollutants are considered to be the causes of allergic diseases in Korea. PM10 was found to be higher than the control area (28.8804348 (㎍ / ㎥), 31.7065217 (㎍ / ㎥) and 32.8532609 (㎍ / ㎥). The mean concentrations of PM2.5 in the middle and high exposure areas were lower than those of the control areas, but the highest in the intermediate exposure areas was 16.5978261 (㎍ / ㎥), 16.1086957 (㎍ / ㎥) and 17.1847826 (㎍ / ㎥) respectively. The relationship between the major variables of environmental exposure in Yeosu was confirmed to be correlated with high blood pressure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, cerebrovascular, diabetes, thyroid disease, sinus infection, anemia and pneumonia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0232.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Air Quality; Urban air quality; air quality measurement systems
Online: 26 April 2022 (09:57:05 CEST)
Urban air quality is increasingly becoming a cause for concern for the health of the human population. The poor air quality is already wreaking havoc in major cities of the world, where serious health issues and reduction of average human life by a factor of years are reported. The air quality in developing countries can become worse as they undergo development. The urban air quality varies non-linearly depending upon the various factors such as land use, industrialization, waste disposal, traffic volume, etc. To address this problem, it is necessary to look at the plethora of available literature from multiple perspectives such as types and sources of pollutants, meteorology, urban mobility, urban planning and development, health care, economics, etc. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art in urban air quality. We first review the fundamental background on air quality and present the emerging landscape of urban air quality. We then explore the available literature from multiple urban air quality measurement projects and provides the insights uncovered in them. We then take a look at the sources that are significantly contributing to polluting the air quality. Finally, we highlight open issues and research challenges in dealing with urban air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: qlity of the environment; spatial location conditions; air pollution research; the problem of city ventilation; spending of EU funds to improve the quality of the environment
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:34:01 CET)
The article discusses determinants of living environment in Central and Eastern Europe. As an example, the city of Radzionkow was chosen, with 16 thousand inhabitants, located in the Silesia agglomeration in southern Poland, in the area where hard coal has been mined for almost two hundred years, which largely serves as a source of heating for houses and flats. 360 buildings in 6 groups of 60 buildings were examined in the selected city, which allowed to distinguish 3 different areas in terms of the quality of the living environment depending on the technical condition of buildings, the method of heating and location. To a large extent, determinants are the existing spatial and geophysical conditions of a given location. Many research and reports on the living environment do not take into account the factors mentioned, focusing only on the statistical data of pollution, excluding spatial factors. In the research presented, the author, taking into account location variables, shows differences in the measurements of air pollution in relation to the designated location zones depending on the morphological structure of the building, the degree of its modernization and the types of heating used in buildings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mobile air conditioning; thermally driven; adsorption; automotive refrigeration; automobile air-conditioning; air-conditioning; car air-conditioning
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:37:13 CEST)
The automotive industry is continuously seeking innovative solutions to improve the energy efficiency and sustainability of vehicles. Among the various energy-consuming systems in automobiles, air conditioning plays a crucial role. However, conventional vapour compression-based air conditioning systems are known for their high energy consumption and environmental impact. In recent years, adsorption technology has gained significant attention as a promising alternative due to its potential for higher energy efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. This review paper presents a comprehensive analysis of advancements in adsorption air conditioning technology specifically designed for automotive applications. The paper examines the recent research and development efforts in enhancing the performance and practicality of these systems, encompassing areas such as advanced materials selection, and system integration strategies. Furthermore, this review highlights the benefits and challenges associated with implementing adsorption air conditioning systems in vehicles. The environmental impact and potential for waste heat recovery are also discussed. Additionally, emerging trends, such as hybridization with conventional vapour compression systems, are explored to further optimize the energy efficiency and sustainability of automotive air conditioning. By critically evaluating the existing literature and research advancements, this review provides insights into the state-of-the-art thermally driven technologies for automotive applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0077.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: aqueous electrolyte; corrosion; iron-air; metal-air batteries; silicon-air; stationary energy storage
Online: 10 June 2019 (11:24:23 CEST)
Abstract: Metal-air batteries provide a most promising battery technology given their outstanding potential energy densities, which are desirable for both stationary and mobile applications in a ‘beyond lithium-ion’ battery market. Silicon- and iron-air batteries underwent less research and development compared to lithium- and zinc-air batteries. Nevertheless, in the recent past, the two also-ran battery systems made considerable progress and attracted rising research interest due to the excellent resource-efficiency of silicon and iron. Silicon and iron are among the top five of the most abundant elements in the earth’s crust, which ensures almost infinite material supply of the anode materials, even for large scale applications. Furthermore, primary silicon-air batteries are set to provide one of the highest energy densities among all batteries, while iron-air batteries are frequently considered as a highly rechargeable system with decent performance characteristics. Considering fundamental aspects for the anode materials, i.e., the metal electrodes, in this review, we will first outline the challenges, which explicitly apply to silicon- and iron-air batteries and prevented them from a broad implementation so far. Afterwards, we provide an extensive literature survey regarding state-of-the-art experimental approaches, which are set to resolve the aforementioned challenges and might enable the introduction of silicon- and iron-air batteries into the battery market in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: dehumidification; desiccant wheels; air quality; air conditioning systems
Online: 20 June 2023 (07:18:10 CEST)
A review of desiccant dehumidification technologies for improving air-quality has been presented, especially focusing on alternatives for air conditioning systems for minimizing the Sick Building Syndrome. The principles and types of desiccant wheels, as well as the existing selection software for these types of equipment, were reviewed and comparatively evaluated. The study focuses on the Brazilian context, therefore, information about air condition systems and laws of this country were evaluated. Possible applications of desiccant wheels are also analyzed, such as their integration into cooling cycles and the sensible heat wheel. Finally, several commercial desiccant wheel selection software were evaluated, which are useful in many situations. Nevertheless, it was evidenced that the available softwares are not capable of performing an operation analysis for only a specific period. Therefore, it is essential to create computational tools to select desiccant wheels, considering the data from the different Brazilian regions for a year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air flow medical sensor; emergency air flow sensor; low-cost air flow sensor; COVID-19
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:14:23 CET)
Mechanical ventilation systems, which are used for breathing support when a person is not able to do it by their own, requires a device for measuring the air flow to the patient in order to monitoring and a assure the magnitude establish by a medical staff. Flow sensors are the conventional devices used for the air flow measuring; however, there were not available in Peru, because of the international demand during COVID-19 pandemic. In this sense, a novel air flow sensor based on orifice plate and an intelligent transducer stage were developed as an integrated design. Advanced methodologies in simulations and experiments using specially designed equipment for this application were carried out. The obtained data was used for a mathematical characterization and dimensions validation of the integrated design. The device was tested in its real working conditions, it was implemented in a breathing circuit connected to a low-cost mechanical ventilation system based on cams. Results indicate that the designed air flow sensor/transducer is a low-cost complete medical device for mechanical ventilators able to provide satisfactorily all the ventilation parameters air flow, pressure and volume over time by measuring the air flow and calculating the others. Furthermore, this device provides directly a filtered equivalent electrical signal for a display or a computer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0058.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air-entraining admixture, air-content, cement, mortar, concrete, porosity.
Online: 5 September 2019 (10:31:12 CEST)
Research results of the relationships between air-volume in air-entrained cement paste, mortar and concrete, all designed according to PN-EN 480-1 guidelines are presented in the paper. The cement paste, mortar and concrete, with w/c=0,5 ratio, were prepared using innovative air-entraining cement CEM II/B-V. The air-entraining cement CEM II/B-V was produced using two methods: mixed together with natural or synthetic aerated admixture. The air volume test of the volumetric method was carried out in case of fresh cement paste, mortar and concrete mix. Fresh concretes were evaluated in terms of stability of air entrainment and consistency for 5, 20 and 40 min. The porosity structure parameters, like summarized air-content, specific surface of air voids, air-voids spacing factor and micropores content of hardened concrete, were estimated using computed tomography with a resolution of 2-5 μm. The aim of the research was to determine the dependence between air-content of cement paste, mortar and concrete on the measurement of air-entrainment of cement paste or mortar with the same w/c ratio and type of cement, all designed according to PN-EN 480-1 guidelines. Test results proved that there is a good correlation between the measured air-content of the cement paste, mortar and concrete. Therefore, it is possible to predict the aeration of concrete on the air-entrainment of the mortar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Air transportation; air traffic control; airspace capacity; cell transmission model
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:54:49 CEST)
Air traffic congestion is caused by the unbalance between increasing traffic demand and saturating capacity. Flight delay not only causes huge economical lost, but also has very negative environmental impact in the whole air transportation system. In order to identify the impact of extended TMA on airport capacity, an airspace capacity assessment method based on augmented cell transmission model was proposed. Firstly, the airspace structure was modeled with points, segments, layers, and cells. Secondly, mixed integer linear programming model was built up with maximum throughput or capacity as the objective function. Finally, genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal result, and the results were validated by comparing with the fast-time simulation results generated by total airspace and airport modeler (TAAM) software. It is found that the proposed method could achieve a relatively accurate result in a much affordable and fast way. The numerical results could be very helpful for air traffic controllers to analyze the dynamic traffic flow entering and exiting TMA, so as to make decisions via reasonable analysis and do planning in advance by referring to the airport capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0022.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; Air pollution; Air quality; Health effects; Economic burden
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:59:24 CEST)
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by spreading rapidly a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a unique situation for the humanity. Sao Paulo has reported 124,105 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 5,623 deaths up to June 14th, being considered the epicenter of the pandemic in Brazil and in South America. Due to the measures for social distancing, there was a drop in the air pollution concentration in Sao Paulo. Starting on March 16th, 2020, we broke 90 days of social distancing into 13 weeks and compared to an equivalent period in 2019. We investigated the air quality improvement during the quarantine period and compared the associated avoided deaths to COVID-19 burden deaths. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the best indicator of air quality in the analyzed weeks, since its reduction reached 58 %. Our study showed that the 5,623 deaths occurred during the analyzed weeks of quarantine represents an economic health loss of US$ 10.5 billion. In opposite, we observed a significant air quality improvement due to pollutants concentrations’ reductions during the analyzed weeks. Considering PM10, PM2.5 and NO2, the decrease of concentration levels respectively avoided 78, 337 and 387 premature deaths and prevented up to US$ 1.5 billion on health costs. These results highlight the importance of continuing to enforce existing air pollution regulations and measures to protect human health both during and after COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0636.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: livestock manure; waste management; air pollution; air quality; biocoal; odor emission
Online: 24 December 2020 (15:14:59 CET)
The rural communities are affected by gaseous emissions from intensive livestock production. Practical mitigation technologies are needed to minimize emissions from stored manure and improve air quality inside barns. In our previous research, the one-time surficial application of biochar to swine manure significantly reduced emissions of NH3 and phenol. We observed that the mitigation effect decreased with time during the 30-day trials. In this research, we hypothe-sized that bi-weekly reapplication of biochar could improve the mitigation effect on a wider range of odorous compounds using larger scale and longer trials. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of biochar dose and reapplication on mitigation of targeted gases (NH3, odor-ous VOCs, odor, GHGs) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale setup over 8-weeks. The bi-weekly reapplication of the lower biochar dose (2 kg/m2) showed much higher significant percent reductions of emissions for NH3 (33% without & 53% with reapplication) and skatole (42% without & 80% with reapplication), respectively. In addition, the reapplication resulted in the emergence of statistical significance to the mitigation effect for all other targeted VOCs. Spe-cifically, for indole, the % reduction improved from 38% (p=0.47, without reapplication) to 78% (p=0.018, with reapplication). For phenol, the % reduction improved from 28% (p=0.71, without reapplication) to 89% (p=0.005, with reapplication). For p-cresol, the % reduction improved from 31% (p=0.86, without reapplication) to 74% (p=0.028, with reapplication). For 4-ethyl phenol, the percent emissions reduction improved from 66% (p=0.44, without reapplication) to 87% (p=0.007, with reapplication). The one-time 2 kg/m2 and 4 kg/m2 treatments showed similar effectiveness in mitigating all targeted gases, and no statistical difference was found between the dosages. The one-time treatments showed significant % reductions of 33% & 42% and 25% & 48% for NH3 and skatole, respectively. The practical significance is that the higher (one-time) biochar dose may not necessarily result in improved performance over the 8-week manure storage, but the bi-weekly reapplication showed significant improvement in mitigating NH3 and odorous VOCs. The lower dosages and the frequency of reapplication on the larger-scale should be explored to optimize biochar treatment and bring it closer to on-farm trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0467.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-CoV; Environmental factors; Air pollution; Smoking; Air temperature
Online: 29 May 2020 (13:02:07 CEST)
The physical environment plays an important role in the transmission of respiratory infections like Covid-19. To find relevant articles on environmental factors influencing respiratory infection outbreaks, we searched Pub med Central on the following topics: 1. Environmental pollution causing coronavirus fatality- 73 results, relevant 1 article, 2. Environmental factors affecting Covid-19, 149 results from which there were 6 relevant articles, 3. Impact of air pollution on Covid-19 fatality, 10 results, relevant 3 articles, 4. Environmental factors affecting respiratory viruses- 10646 results were obtained, 2 relevant articles. We searched Google scholar on environmental factors affecting Covid-19 transmission and found 7 relevant papers. We excluded the duplicates in each of the key words search. Date of search was on 20th April 2020. All articles included in results were scrutinized and relevance of articles was based on their content that discussed meteorological and physical environment factors in the spread and severity of Covid-19. We have discussed factors like air pollution, smoking, air temperature, humidity and air velocity as contributing factors. If meteorological factors are conducive to spread in a particular area, we need protective measures way before a respiratory infection outbreak occurs. Covid-19 is a lesson learnt the hard way, and we must enable people to practice hygienic practices with limited resources but high level of protection that it provides. Air pollution control can prevent priming of respiratory system which shall further protect from pulmonary infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; air quality standard; spatial pattern; variability; human health protection
Online: 5 October 2018 (14:15:36 CEST)
Shenzhen is China’s top ten clean air city and the cleanest air megacity. Even so, epidemiologic studies have shown ambient air pollution had significant adverse impacts on human health in this less polluted city. In this study, the concentrations of six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2, and CO) from 2014 to 2017 were analyzed and compared to thresholds of both national and international air quality standards. The results showed concentrations of all air pollutants were below target values of current national air quality standard, but levels of particulate matter (PM) and O3 were still much higher than the recommended levels by the World Health Organization. Within national air quality standards, the number of over-limit days was rare with few variations between highly polluted and low pollution areas. The air quality improvement was slowing down recently. Our results suggest annual and daily thresholds for PM are too loose for air quality improvement in Shenzhen. Hence, we call for evaluation and establishment of tougher air quality standard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0156.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Diwali; Air Pollution; Haze
Online: 9 April 2020 (14:40:11 CEST)
As the haze engulfed the Delhi NCR after Diwali there is a panic in public about its causes and consequences. Here are some facts and figures to know the truth behind the scene. Temperature fell down from 24’C on October 31 to 21’C on November 2 as recorded at UPPCB station at sector-125, Noida which is adjacent to Delhi a very strategic location and can be considered as reference point for Delhi-NCR. The details of the study conducted is given below.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0111.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: miniaturized monitors; Arduino; air quality; air pollution; exposure assessment; low-cost monitor
Online: 3 September 2023 (13:52:18 CEST)
This publication aims to disseminate a step-by-step process that walks through the conceptualization and building of a low-cost (~ $150 monitoring device for airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5), based on miniaturized sensors and components. Details on the implementation of the hardware and software are provided which facilitate the data acquisition, capture and analysis. The central components and their setup discussed in what follows include: the sensor device (called “P.ALP” – Ph.D. Air quality Low-cost Project), Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) and R code (open-access software). A monitoring device for PM2.5, using low-cost sensors and technologies was successfully conceptualized, designed, and implemented. The P.ALP monitoring system was designed and developed to be a basic device, which can be further customized and implemented using the wide range of low-cost sensors available on the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: CO2 concentration; living walls; fresh air energy consumption; Energyplus; indoor air quality
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:13:19 CEST)
Elevated indoor CO2 levels might have adverse effects on human health. However, the introduction of outdoor air to lower indoor CO2 concentrations results in significant HVAC energy consumption. Aligning with office hours and the natural light cycle, the utilization of photosynthesis in living walls offers an energy-efficient and sustainable solution for the mitigation of high CO2 levels in office spaces. This study experimentally investigates the impacts of the carbon fixation pathways, light intensity, and substrate moisture content on the CO2 removal rate of living walls at the room scale. Furthermore, the fresh air energy-saving effects of living walls under different scenarios are accurately simulated in EnergyPlus. The results demonstrate that choosing C3 plants over CAM plants in living walls yields higher CO2 removal efficiency. In a 30-m2 office room accommodating 2-3 occupants, living walls can reduce the demand for fresh air by 12.3%-27.8% and decrease fresh air energy consumption by 11.2%-28.2%. The city with the highest energy savings has energy savings that are 4.5 times greater than those of the city with the lowest energy savings. The findings of this research promote the application and development of living walls, thus providing a viable solution for improving indoor air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; positive pressure; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; moisture damage
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:06:04 CET)
This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants´ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5-7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants´ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased, and occupants´ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0035.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Cold air outbreaks; Air–sea interaction; Polar climate; Wind speed; polar lows
Online: 2 May 2017 (17:45:56 CEST)
Marine cold air outbreaks (MCAOs) are large-scale events in which cold air masses are advected over open ocean. It is well-known that these events are linked to the formation of polar lows and other mesoscale phenomena associated with high wind speeds, and that they therefore in some cases represent a hazard to maritime activities. However, it is still unknown whether MCAOs are generally conducive to higher wind speeds than normal. Here this is investigated by comparing ocean near-surface wind speeds during MCAOs in atmospheric reanalysis products with different horizontal grid spacings, along with two case studies using a convection-permitting numerical weather prediction model. The study regions are the Labrador Sea and the Greenland–Iceland–Norwegian (GIN) Seas, where MCAOs have been shown to be important for air–sea interaction and deep water formation. One of the main findings is that wind speeds during the strongest MCAO events are higher than normal and higher than wind speeds during less severe events. Limited evidence from the case studies suggests that reanalyses with grid spacings of more than 50 km underestimate winds driven by the large ocean–atmosphere energy fluxes during MCAOs. The peak times of MCAO usually occur when baroclinic waves pass over the regions. Therefore, the strong wind episodes during MCAOs generally last for just a few days. However, MCAOs can persist for 50 days or more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Air Corridors; Unmanned Air Vehicle; Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications; Geofence, Capacity; Collision-Avoidance
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:09:48 CEST)
Air corridors are an integral part of the advanced air mobility infrastructure. They are the virtual highways in the sky for transportation of people and cargo in the controlled airspace at an altitude of around 1000 ft. to 2000 ft. above the ground level. This paper presents fundamental insights into the design of air corridors with high operational efficiency as well as zero collisions. It begins with the definitions of air cube, skylane or track, intersection, vertiport, gate, and air corridor. Then, a multi-layered air corridor model is proposed. Traffic at intersections is analyzed in detail with examples of vehicles turning in different directions. The concept of capacity of an air corridor is introduced along with the nature of distribution of locations of vehicles in the air corridor and collision probability inside the corridor are discussed. Finally, the results of simulations of traffic flows are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0440.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air quality; thermal comfort; air quality index; heat index; wind chill; Bulgaria; Europe
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:18:02 CEST)
Air pollution is responsible for any adverse effects on human beings. Thermal discomfort, on the other hand, is able to overload the human body and eventually provoke health implications due to the heat imbalance. Methods: The aim of the present work is to study the behavior of two bio-climatic indexes and statistical characteristics of the air quality index for Sofia city - the capital of Bulgaria for the period 2008 - 2014. The study is based on WRF-CMAQ model system simula-tions with a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. The air quality is estimated by the air quality index, taking into account the influence of different pollutants and the thermal conditions by two indi-ces, respectively, for hot and cold weather. Results: It was found that half of the heat and cold index categories are present in the simulations. Their distribution has some spatial features. All air quality categories are present in the domain, with dominance only of the O3 and PM10. Conclu-sions: It was found that Sofia is not so hot and air polluted place, but in some situations, people have to have some concerns when intend to be outdoors for a prolonged time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: thermal performance; ventilated bioclimatic wall; air space thickness; air flow rate; Hot Box
Online: 2 February 2021 (09:17:28 CET)
The building sector is the largest consumer of energy and there are still major scientific challenges in this field. The façade, being the interface between the exterior and interior space, plays a key role in the energy efficiency of a building. In this context, this paper focuses on a ventilated bioclimatic wall for NZEB zero energy buildings. The objective of this study is to investigate an experimental set-up based on a Hot Box allowing characterizing the thermal performances of the ventilated wall. A specific ventilated prototype and an original thermal metrology has been developed. This paper presents the ventilated prototype, the experimental set-up and experimental results on the thermal performances of the ventilated wall. The influence of the air space thickness and the air flow rate on the thermal performances of the ventilated wall is studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0608.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; odor; volatile organic compounds
Online: 24 December 2020 (08:58:47 CET)
Livestock production systems generate nuisance odor and gaseous emissions affecting local communities and regional air quality. Also, there are concerns about the occupational health and safety of farm workers. Proven mitigation technologies that are consistent with the socio-economic challenges of animal farming are needed. We have been scaling up the photocatalytic treatment of emissions from lab-scale, aiming at farm-scale readiness. In this paper, we present the design, testing, and commissioning of a mobile laboratory for on-farm research and demonstration of performance in real farm conditions. The mobile lab is capable of treating up to 1.2 m3·s-1 of air with TiO2-based photocatalysis and adjustable UV-A dose based on LED lamps. We summarize the main technical requirements, constraints, approach, and performance metrics for the mobile laboratory, such as the effectiveness (measured as the percent reduction) and cost of photocatalytic treatment of air. The commissioning of all systems with standard gases resulted in ~9% and 34% reduction of NH3 and butan-1-ol, respectively. We demonstrated that as the percent reduction of standard gases increased with increased light intensity and treatment time. These results show that the mobile laboratory was ready for on-farm deployment and evaluating the effectiveness of UV treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Neural Network; Air Quality; Environment
Online: 19 October 2023 (03:33:09 CEST)
In the pursuit of energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact, adequate ventilation in enclosed spaces is essential. This study presents a hybrid neural network model designed for real-time monitoring and prediction of environmental variables. The system comprises two phases: An IoT hardware-software platform for data acquisition and decision-making, and a hybrid model combining short-term memory and convolutional recurrent structures. The results are promising and hold potential for integration into parallel processing AI architectures.
Online: 27 August 2020 (05:33:14 CEST)
Human factors are the things that go wrong in the interactions between a team of people and a system of technology. This is part of a broader transdisciplinary field called engineering psychology, which as the name suggests, draws from both engineering and psychology. Many, if not most, catastrophic accidents involve a socio-technical interaction, i.e. are not solely due to technology failure. Hence, there is a need to consider human factors in the development or deployment of any technical system. This article is about the human factors involved in an aviation accident in New Zealand between a Yak and a cherry picker. The types of human error are identified, and the barrier bowtie method is used to represent them. The analysis gives different insights into the accident compared to the formal accident report, and better represents the human error characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0849.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Cognitive function; ambient air quality; air pollution and brain health; older adults; cognitive frailty
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:54:32 CET)
(1) Background: Environmental and public health research has given considerable attention to the impact of air quality on brain health, with systematic reviews widespread. No literature review has been done for cognitive frailty – a multidimensional syndrome combining physical frailty and cognitive impairment and their apparent co-dependence, linked to increased vulnerability and adverse health outcomes, including dementia. Instead, cognitive decline and frailty is implicitly explored through research on air quality and comorbid cognitive and physical decline in elderly populations. (2) Methods: A scoping review was conducted to explore the need for a systematic review. Combining Arksey and O’Malley  and PRISMA-ScR checklist , a scoping review of SCOPUS using ‘cogniti*’ + ‘resilience’ + ‘air quality’ or ‘cogniti*’ + ‘ageing’ + ‘air quality’ resulted in N=2503 articles, screened and reduced using inclusion and exclusion criteria, to N=16 articles. (3) Results: Air quality appears to be a critical risk factor for cognitive decline, even at air quality levels below WHO targets. Moderate long-term ambient air pollution appears linked to increased risk of cognitive frailty, suggesting earlier and more active interventions to protect older people. There are varied effects on cognition across the life course, with both emotional and functional impacts. Effects may be more detrimental to elderly people with existing conditions, including economic and health inequalities. Generalisation of results is limited due to the absence of a dose-response, variations in methods, controlling for comorbid effects, and variance across studies. (4) Conclusions: The findings support the need for more research and a more extensive summary of the literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: air pollution control; air quality; volatile organic compounds; odor; environmental technology; advanced oxidation; UV
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:08:29 CET)
It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study's objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3 – sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a mobile lab equipped with UV-A and UV-C lights and TiO2-based photocatalyst. Treated gas airflow (0.25 to 0.76 m3/s) simulates output from a small ventilation fan in a barn. Through controlling the light intensity and airflow, UV dose was tested for techno-economic analyses. The treatment effectiveness depended on the UV dose and wavelength. Under UV-A (367 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reduction of targeted gases was up to i) 63% of odor, ii) 51%, 51%, 53%, 67%, and 32% of acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, p-cresol, and indole, respectively, iii) 14% of nitrous oxide (N2O), iv) 100% of O3, and 26% generation of CO2. Under UV-C (185+254 nm) photocatalysis, the percent reductions of target gases were up to i) 54% and 47% for p-cresol and indole, respectively, ii) 25% of N2O, iii) 71% of CH4, and 46% & 139% generation of CO2 & O3, respectively. The results proved that the UV technology was sufficiently effective in treating odorous gases, and the mobile lab was ready for farm-scale trials. The UV technology can be considered for the scaled-up treatment of emissions and air quality improvement inside livestock barns.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: trajectory data analytics; air traffic flows; anomaly detection; air traffic management; machine learning; autoencoders
Online: 21 December 2019 (12:23:31 CET)
A large amount of data is produced every day by stakeholders of the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in particular airline operators, airports, and air navigation service provider (ANSP). Most data is kept private for many reasons, including commercial and security concerns. More than data, shared information is precious, as it leverages intelligent decision-making support tools designed to smooth daily operations. We present a framework to detect, identify and characterise anomalies in past aircraft trajectory data. It is based on an open source of ADS-B based aircraft trajectories, and extracted information can benefit a wide range of stakeholders: Air Traffic Control (ATC) training centres could play more realistic simulations; ANSP may improve capacity indicators; academics improve safety models and risk estimations; and commercial stakeholders, like airlines and airports, may use such information to improve short-term predictions and optimise their operations. The technique is based on autoencoding artificial neural networks applied on flows of trajectories, which provide a useful reading grid associating cluster analysis with quantified level of abnormality. In particular, we find that the highest anomaly scores correspond to poor weather conditions, whereas anomalies with a lower score relate to ATC tactical actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0362.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: solid-phase microextraction; air sampling; air analysis; volatile organic compounds; COMSOL; time-weighted average
Online: 19 September 2018 (04:08:14 CEST)
Determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is advantageous over other sampling techniques, but is often characterized by insufficient accuracies, particularly at longer sampling times. Experimental investigation of this issue and disclosing the origin of the problem is problematic and often not practically feasible due to high uncertainties. This research is aimed at developing the model of TWA extraction process and optimization of TWA air sampling by SPME using finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics). It was established that sampling by porous SPME coatings with high affinity to analytes is affected by slow diffusion of analytes inside the coating, an increase of analytes concentrations in the air near the fiber tip due to equilibration, and eventual lower sampling rate. The increase of a fiber retraction depth (Z) resulted in better recoveries. Sampling of studied VOCs using 23-ga Car/PDMS assembly at maximum possible Z (40 mm) was proven to provide more accurate results. Alternative sampling configuration based on 78.5 x 0.75 mm i.d. SPME liner was proven to provide similar accuracy at improved detection limits. Its modification with the decreased internal diameter from the sampling side should provide even better recoveries. The developed model offers new insight into optimization of air and gas sampling using SPME.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1836.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: personal monitoring tools; air pollution monitoring; air quality monitoring; commercial portable low-cost wearable sensor; portable air quality; field evaluation; public health; performance evaluation
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:56:50 CEST)
Low-cost personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure personal exposure to air pollution are potentially promising tools for health research. However, their adoption requires robust validation. This study evaluated the performance of twenty-one Plume Lab Flow2 (PLF) by comparing its air pollutant measurements, particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), 10 μm or less (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), against several high-quality air pollution monitors under field conditions (at indoor, outdoor, and roadside locations). Correlation and regression analysis were used to evaluate measurements obtained by different PLFs against reference instrumentation. For all measured pollutants, the overall correlation coefficient between the PLFs and the reference instruments was often weak (r<0.4). Moderate correlation was observed for one PLF unit at indoor location and two units at roadside location, when measuring PM2.5, but not for PM10 and NO2 concentration. During periods of particularly higher pollution, 11 PLF tools showed stronger regression results (R2 values > 0.5) with one-hour and 9 PLF units with one-minute time interval. Results show that the PLF cannot be used robustly to determine high and low exposure to poor air. Therefore, the use of PLFs in research studies should be approached with caution if data quality is important to the research outputs.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: theoretical design, aero submarine, aerial submersible vehicle, direct dive, water-air transition, air-water transition.
Online: 9 June 2021 (22:57:46 CEST)
Aero submarines (aerosubs) are vehicles that can both fly both in air and travel under water. The concept of dual aerial and aquatic vehicles emerged in 1939 when Russian engineer Boris Ushakov proposed the “flying submarine”, and this was followed by further developments including RFS1 , convair project in 1964 , etc. however, to date, limited attempt has been diverted towards the advanced development of such aircraft. This is heavily influenced by challenges associated with the design and operation of the same. Based on the review of literature the authors aim to introduce a theoretical design for an aerosub (QFS-20) with a view to address the design and operation issues including power, entry to and exit from water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: air transport management; transportation; bibliometric analysis
Online: 7 July 2023 (15:37:28 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: describe briefly the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article’s main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article, it must not contain results which are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0515.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; MASP; human health; quarantine
Online: 30 April 2020 (03:11:40 CEST)
Social distancing policies put in place during COVID-19 epidemic in addition to helping to limit the spread of the disease also contributed to improving urban air quality. Here we show a decrease in air pollutant concentration as a consequence of mobility reduction in São Paulo during the containment measure which began on 22nd March 2020. When comparing to foregoing weeks to equivalent periods of 2019, the concentration of most air pollutants sharply decreased in the first days of mobility restriction, to then increase again after government officials downplayed the threat of the disease. This trend is also followed by a decrease in hospital admissions by SARS-influenza. Therefore, despite the great economic and social unrest caused by the pandemic, this unique situation shows that large-scale mobility reduction policy had a significant impact on air quality, benefiting, directly and indirectly, the public health system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Air temperature; MODIS; machine learning; interpolation
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:48:32 CEST)
Several methods have been tried to estimate air temperature using satellite imagery. In this paper, the results of two machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machine and Random Forest, are compared with Multivariate Linear Regression, TVX and Ordinary kriging. Several geographic, remote sensing and time variables are used as predictors. The validation is carried out using four different statistics on a daily basis allowing the use of ANOVA to compare the results. The main conclusion is that Random Forest with residual kriging produces the best results (R$^2$=0.612 $\pm$ 0.019, NSE=0.578 $\pm$ 0.025, RMSE=1.068 $\pm$ 0.027, PBIAS=-0.172 $\pm$ 0.046), whereas TVX produces the least accurate results. The environmental conditions in the study area are not really suited to TVX, moreover this method only takes into account satellite data. On the other hand, regression methods (Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Multivariate Linear Regression) use several parameters that are easily calculated from a Digital Elevation Model, adding very little difficulty to the use of satellite data alone. The most important variables in the Random Forest Model were satellite temperature, potential irradiation and cdayt, a cosine transformation of the julian day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: low-cost monitoring; environment, air-pollution
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:00:20 CEST)
The present work aimed to validate a low-cost passive monitoring procedure. For its validation, the monitoring of atmospheric organic pollutants - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was carried out in a capital of the central-western region of Brazil. The sensors were fixed on poles intended for electrification during the dry season. After 15 days, samples were extracted by solvent extraction and analysed by High-Resolution Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (HRGC-FID). For the validation of the procedure, PAHs monitored and standardised by the American Environmental Agency (EPA), a benchmark for environmental monitoring of air quality by several countries, were analysed. The results demonstrated that the low-cost passive monitoring method was effective in the quantification of PAH in the environment-air, capable of being used by countries that do not have many resources for monitoring air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0123.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: AOD; MODIS; Alaska; AERONET; air quality
Online: 8 May 2018 (06:30:56 CEST)
The air quality monitoring network in Alaska is currently limited to ground-based observations in urban areas and national parks leaving a large proportion of the state unmonitored. The use of MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate ground-level particulate pollution concentrations has been successfully demonstrated around the world, and could potentially be used in Alaska. In this work, MODIS AOD measurements at 550 nm were validated against AOD derived from AERONET ground-based sunphotometers in Barrow and Bonanza Creek to determine if MODIS AOD from the Terra and Aqua satellites could be used to estimate ground-level particulate pollution concentrations. The MODIS AOD was obtained from MODIS collection 6 using the dark target Land and Ocean algorithms from 2000 to 2014. MODIS data could only be obtained between the months of April and October; therefore, it could only be validated for those months. Individual and combined Terra and Aqua MODIS data were considered. The results showed that MODIS collection 6 products at 10 km resolution for Terra and Aqua combined are not valid over land but are valid over the ocean. On the other hand, the individual Terra and Aqua MODIS collection 6 AOD products at 10 km resolution are valid over land individually but not when combined. Results also suggest the MODIS collection 6 AOD products at 3 km resolution are valid over land and ocean and perform better over land than the 10-km product. These findings indicate that MODIS collection 6 AOD products can be used quantitatively in air quality applications in Alaska during the summer months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Airport; Local Air Quality; Local Scale
Online: 11 April 2017 (17:32:40 CEST)
Local air quality is a major concern for the population regularly exposed to high levels of air pollution. The airport, mainly due to its aircraft engines activities during taxiing and take off, is often submitted to heterogeneous but important concentrations of NOx and PM. The study suggests an innovative approach to determine the air traffic impact on air quality at the scale of the airport, its runways and terminals, in order to be able to locate the persistent high concentrations spots. The pollutants concentrations at 10 m resolution and 1 s time step are calculated in order to identify the most affected areas of an airport platform. A real day of air traffic on a regional airport is simulated, using real data as aircraft trajectories (from radar streams). In order to estimate the aircraft emissions, the Air Transport Systems Evaluation Infrastructure (IESTA) is used. Regarding local air quality, IESTA relies on the non-hydrostatic meso-scale atmospheric model Meso-NH using grid-nesting capabilities with 3 domains, for this study. The detailed cartography of the airport distinguishes between grassland, parking and terminals, allowing to compute exchanges of heat, water and momentum between the different types of surfaces and the atmosphere as well as the interactions with the building using a drag force. The dynamic parameters like wind, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy and pollutants concentration are computed at 10 m resolution over the 2 × 4 km airport domain. The pollutants are considered in this preliminary study as passive tracers, without chemical reactions. This preliminary study aims at proving the feasibility of high scale modelling over an airport with state of the art physical models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Odour Legislation; Air Quality; Air Pollution; Odor; Smell; Odour Units; Dispersion Modelling; Agriculture; Environmental Regulations; Policy
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:58:20 CET)
When it comes to air pollution complaints, odours are often the most significant contributor. Sources of odour emissions range from natural to anthropogenic. Mitigation of odour can be challenging, multifaceted, site-specific, and is often confounded by its complexity—defined by existing (or non-existing) environmental laws, public ordinances, and socio-economic considerations. The objective of this paper is to review and summarize odour legislation in selected European countries (France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain, The Netherlands, Italy, Belgium), North America (USA and Canada), South America (Chile and Colombia), as well as Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) and Asia (Japan, China). Many countries have incorporated odour controls into their legislation. However, odour-related assessment criteria tend to be highly variable between countries, individual states, provinces and even counties and towns. Legislation ranges from (1) no specific mention in environmental legislation that regulates pollutants which are known to have an odour impact to (2) extensive details about odour source testing, odour dispersion modeling, ambient odour monitoring, (3) setback distances, (4) process operations, and (5) odour control technologies and procedures. Agricultural operations are one specific source of odour emissions in rural and suburban areas and a model example of such complexities. Management of agricultural odour emissions is important because of the dense consolidation of animal feeding operations and the advance of housing development into rural areas. Overall, there is a need for continued survey, review, development, and adjustment of odour legislation that considers sustainable development, environmental stewardship, and socio-economic realities, all of which are amenable to a just, site-specific, and sector-specific application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air quality; fine particulate matter; primary schools; building ventilation; environmental inequality; research grade sensors; indoor air quality
Online: 13 January 2022 (10:28:35 CET)
Every day around 93% of children under the age of 15 (1.8 billion children) breathe outdoor air that is so polluted it puts their health and development at serious risk. Due to the pandemic, however, ventilation of buildings using outdoor air has become an important safety technique to prevent the spread of COVID-19. With the mounting ev-idence suggesting that air pollution is impactful to human health and educational out-comes, this contradictory guidance may be problematic in schools with higher air pol-lution levels, but keeping kids COVID-19 free and in school to receive their education is now more pressing than ever. To understand if all schools in an urban area are ex-posed to similar outdoor air quality and if school infrastructure protects children equally indoors, we installed research grade sensors to observe PM2.5 concentrations in indoor and outdoor settings to understand how unequal exposure to indoor and out-door air pollution impacts indoor air quality among high- and low-income schools in Salt Lake City, Utah. Based on this approach, we found that during atmospheric inver-sions and dust events, there was a lag ranging between 35 to 73 minutes for the out-door PM2.5 concentrations to follow a similar temporal pattern as the indoor PM2.5. This lag has policy and health implications and may help to explain the rising concerns re-garding reduced educational outcomes related to air pollution in urban areas. These data and resulting analysis show that poor air quality may impact school settings, and the potential implications with respect to environmental inequality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0221.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: air shaft; air well; solar chimney; field measurement; natural ventilation; tropical climate; terrace house; passive cooling design
Online: 10 September 2020 (04:46:23 CEST)
The provision requirement of 10% openings of the total floor area stated in the Uniform Building by Law 1984 Malaysia has been practiced by designers for building plan submission approval. However, the effectiveness of thermal performance in landed residential buildings, despite the imposition by the by-law, has never been empirically measured and proven. Although terraced houses in Malaysia have dominated 40.9% of the total property transaction in 2019, such mass production with typical designs hardly provides its occupants with thermal comfort due to the static outdoor air condition and lack of external windows, where the conventional ventilation technique does not work well, even for houses with an air well system. Consequently, the occupants need to rely on mechanical cooling, which is a high energy-consuming component contributing to outdoor heat dissipation and therefore urban heat island effect. Thus, encouraging more effective natural ventilation to eliminate excessive heat from the indoor environment is critical. Since most of the research focuses on simulation modelling lacking sufficient empirical validation, this paper drawing on field measurement investigates natural ventilation performance in terraced housing with an air well system. More importantly, the key concern as to what extent the current air well system serving as a ventilator is effective to provide better thermal performance in the single storey terraced house is to be addressed. By adopting an existing single storey air welled terrace house, the existing indoor environmental conditions and thermal performance were monitored and measured using scientific equipment, namely HOBO U12 air temperature and air humidity, the HOBO U12 anemometer and the Delta Ohm HD32.3 Wet Bulb Globe Temperature meter for a six-month duration. The findings show that the air temperature of the air well ranged from 27.48°C to 30.92°C, while the mean relative humidity were from 72.67% to 79.25%. The mean air temperature for a test room (single sided ventilation room) ranged from 28.04°C to 30.92°C with a relative humidity of 70.16% to 76%. These empirical findings are of importance, offering novel policy insights and suggestions to potentially revising the existing building code standard and by laws; since the minimum provision of 10% openings has been revealed to be less effective to provide a desired thermal performance and comfort, mandatory compliance with, and the necessity for, the bylaw requirement should be revisited and further studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: coffee; air flow; forced convection; temperature; quality
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:19:28 CET)
Different coffee drying technologies face complex task in ensuring an acceptable final seed moisture content. Drying technology of agricultural commodities aims to maintain and improve the quality of the agricultural products themselves. In addition to maintaining quality, especially from other bacterial attacks, it can last for a long time before further processing. Coffee commodities are promising for the welfare of coffee farmers. Drying technology plays a major role in determining the quality of coffee. Various drying models are applied including the traditional model that until now is still applied, direct drying under solar radiation. However, this drying process is less hygienic and requires a large area. Thus, one of the drying technologies that can accelerate drying time is to vary the air flow in the drying chamber so that the coffee can be determined to reduce the water content with a certain temperature. In this study, it was found that the moisture content of coffee beans dried using a dryer on air flow with variations of velocity in solar collector 1 (DB1) air velocity of 1.0m/s obtained the final mass = 732.249 gr, solar collector 2 (DB2) with air velocity 1.5 m/s obtained the final mass = 774.70 gr, solar collector 3 (DB3) with air velocity 2.0 m/s obtained the final mass = 855.10 gr, solar collector 4 (DB4) with air velocity 2.5 m/s obtained the final mass = 745.79 gr, and solar collector 5 (DB5) with air velocity 3.0 m/s obtained the final mass = 786.40 gr. Water Content DB1=12.0%, DB2=13.6%, DB3=18.5%, DB4=12.9% and DB5=15.2%. The time required for 25 hours with a maximum radiation of 586.9 w/m2, total heat utilized from solar radiation in 3 days =16.663128 MJ/m2. from the initial weight of 1500gr coffee bean samples and dried in five solar collectors with parallel simultaneously. The evaporated water content DB1=51.18%, DB2=48.35%, DB3=42.96%, DB4=50.28% and DB5=47.57%. Based on this research, it was found that the most optimum quality of coffee was by using solar collector 2 (DB2), namely with air flow of 1.5 m/s with average temperature in the drying box DB2=43.68°C, with the quality content of the coffee, Protein content=12.2%, Carbohydrate=22.8% and Free Fatty Acid (ALB) content=0.05%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1381.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: TiO2; Air purification; Sustainable cities; Photocatalytic buildings
Online: 21 August 2023 (02:35:26 CEST)
TiO2-based building materials have air purification, auto-cleaning and sterilization functions, and these innovative green building materials have great potential for energy-saving and emission reduction applications in the future. However, there are still great challenges in improving photocatalytic efficiency and stability from laboratory to practical applications. In recent years, researchers have done a lot of work to improve the efficiency and stability of TiO2-based building materials. This paper briefly discussed the air purification principle by photocatalytic building, and the preparation techniques of TiO2-based building materials and the strategies to improve the efficiency of TiO2. Moreover, this paper has outlined the key factors that affect the photocatalytic building performance in practical applications, and analyzed the limitations and future development trends. Finally, we proposed some suggestions for further research on photocatalytic buildings and its application in practice, aiming to provide an efficient reference for developing highly efficient and stable photocatalytic building materials. The aim of this paper is to provide effective guidance for the application of TiO2-based photo-catalysts in the field of green buildings, helping to develop more efficient and stable low-carbon buildings for the development of sustainable cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1869.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: biotechnological filter; moss; air pollution; smart city
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
The research considers creating a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters in the Smart City concept. The extent of absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated using the example of the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded by sensors located in the biggest Kazakhstani cities from 06/21/2020 to 06/04/2023 were selected as the basis for calculating the efficiency. In total, there are two hundred twenty sensors in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, the task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. As a result, it is shown that ten filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, 100 filters 5.72%, and 500 filters 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University, considering the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the ISO 37120:2018 standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.