ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0022.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: AIED; independent robot teachers; robotics; embodied pedagogical agents; full-fledged robot teachers
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:54:09 CET)
Global teacher shortage is a serious concern with grave implications for the future of education. This calls for novel ways of addressing teacher roles. The economic benefits of tireless labour inspires the need for teachers who are unlimited by natural human demands, highlighting consideration for the affordances of robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) as currently obtainable in other areas of human life. This however demands designing robotic personalities that can take on independent teacher roles despite strong opinions that robots will not be able to fully replace humans in the classroom of the future. In this paper, we argue for a future classroom with independent robot teachers, highlighting the minimum capabilities required of such personalities in terms of personality, instructional delivery, social interaction and affect. We describe our project on the design of a robot teacher based on these. Possible directions for future system development and studies are highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis; CAD algorithms; deep neural networks; medical diagnosis; review
Online: 17 October 2017 (11:57:17 CEST)
With recent focus on deep neural network architectures for development of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), we provide a review of studies within the last 3 years (2015-2017) reported in selected top journals and conferences. 29 studies that met our inclusion criteria were reviewed to identify trends in this field and to inform future development. Studies have focused mostly on cancer-related diseases within internal medicine while diseases within gender-/age-focused fields like gynaecology/pediatrics have not received much focus. All reviewed studies employed image datasets, mostly sourced from publicly available databases (55.2%) and few based on data from human subjects (31%) and non-medical datasets (13.8%), while CNN architecture was employed in most (70%) of the studies. Confirmation of the effect of data manipulation on quality of output and adoption of multi-class rather than binary classification also require more focus. Future studies should leverage collaborations with medical experts to aid future with actual clinical testing with reporting based on some generally applicable index to enable comparison. Our next steps on plans for CAD development for osteoarthritis (OA), with plans to consider multi-class classification and comparison across deep learning approaches and unsupervised architectures were also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: virtual reality; immersive learning; haptics; chemistry education; organic chemistry; hydrocarbons; middle school science; introductory chemistry; hands-on learning; gamification
Online: 5 April 2018 (05:59:19 CEST)
Human-Computer Interaction, including technology-aided instruction, is beginning to focus on virtual reality (VR) technology due to its ability to support immersive learning, teaching through simulation, and gamification of learning. These systems can deliver high-level multisensory learning experiences that are important in the teaching of many subjects, especially those involving abstract concepts or requiring spatial skills, such as organic chemistry. Haptic experiences with VR, however, remain a challenge. In addition, development have focused on general entertainment/gaming; VR systems in chemistry implement simulations of the chemistry laboratory and other advanced systems whereas those that support safe, game-like, immersive and multisensory learning of organic chemistry with haptics at pre-university education levels are scarce. We developed the VR Multisensory Classroom (VRMC) as an immersive learning environment within a VR head-mounted display, where learners employ hand movements to build hydrocarbon molecules and experience haptic feedback through gloves with built-in sensors and hand-tracking with the Leap Motion system. We report here the evaluation of the first prototype by learners from diverse backgrounds who reported on the ability of the VRMC to support high engagement, motivation, interest and organic chemistry learning as well as diverse learning styles. The VRMC is a novel VR classroom that supports immersive learning in molecular organic chemistry with haptics for multisensory learning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options