ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0558.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:31:24 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) provides opportunities to design objects differently than traditional manufacturing methods allow, but only if designers understand the possibilities AM presents. In this study, we examined whether an AM workshop combined with an idea generation session could inspire engineering professionals to use AM solutions to solve current technical problems they face. All subjects were employees at an organization that will be referred to as Company X, a multinational commercial organization based in North America. During the study, we collected ideas for 24 projects generated before and after a training workshop focused on design for AM. In the workshop, we provided three hours of instruction about design for two metal-based AM processes. The participants’ ideas were assessed using four specific metrics: (1) cost, (2) time,(3) completeness of solution, and (4) quality, which was a function of feasibility, usefulness, and novelty. Using these data, we explored whether the workshop was effective in inspiring the participants to use AM methods and techniques from AM research in their concept generation and whether participants’ AM solutions showed improvement in cost, implementation time, and quality over non-AM designs generated before the workshop.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0685.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: additive manufacturing; dentistry; application
Online: 27 May 2021 (15:09:52 CEST)
(1) In recent ten years, with the fast development of digital and engineering manufacturing technology, additive manufacturing has already been more and more widely used in the field of dentistry, from the first personalized surgical guides to the latest personalized restoration crowns and root implants. (2) Especially, the bioprinting of teeth and tissue is of great potential to realize organ regeneration and finally improve the life quality. (3) In this review paper, we firstly presented the workflow of additive manufacturing technology. Then we summarized main applications and recent research progresses of additive manufacturing in dentistry. (4) Lastly, we sketched out some challenges and future directions of additive manufacturing technology in dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0104.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:07:28 CET)
In the production of green parts from powder, there is unavoidable slight deviation in the die filling, even when high-quality powders are used. The quantity of powder in the die varies and thus affects the weight of the compact. This filling variation results in variation of the pressing force, and thus influences the part geometry. The development of the DORST Netshape® System was conceived as an autonomous manufacturing system in order to compensate for these effects. Based on the Dorst Industry 4.0 innovations for part weight measuring immediately after pressing in combination with a laser dimension measuring system, this technology package attempts to reach enhanced precision and consistency in production. The paper presents results from various trials that show the capability of this new system, designed to improve the quality of pressed parts.
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:30:45 CET)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) simplifies the fabrication of complex geometries. Its scope has rapidly expanded from the fabrication of pre-production visualization models to the manufacturing of end use parts driving the need for better part quality assurance in the additively manufactured parts. Machine learning (ML) is one of the promising techniques that can be used to achieve this goal. Current research in this field includes the use of supervised and unsupervised ML algorithms for quality control and prediction of mechanical properties of AM parts. This paper explores the applications of supervised learning algorithms - Support Vector Machines and Random Forests. Support vector machines provide high accuracy in classifying the data and is used to decide whether the final parts have the desired properties. Random Forests consist of an ensemble of decision trees capable of both classification and regression. This paper reviews the implementation of both algorithms and analyzes the research carried out on their applications in AM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0026.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:41:04 CET)
Fatigue remains a challenge especially for high end metal AM parts and materials. From a design perspective, the fatigue limit of an AM solution can be improved upon by optimizing the manufacturing process for a certain material and part. In addition, improved accuracy of design methodologies aids in capturing the features critical for fatigue and quantifies their significance to desired part lifetime as well as providing a basis for their avoidance. In current work we present an overall concept merging thermomechanical process and powder bed solidification modeling to micromechanical analysis of fatigue of the resulting material microstructure. Material features critical to fatigue, particularly surface roughness, internal defects such as porosity and cracks and on the other hand inclusions, can be assessed directly on the basis of AM part microstructure with respect to the resulting fatigue limit. Case analyses consist of maraging steel and nickel alloys. The overall scheme provides a basis for optimization of metal AM solutions against fatigue and multiscale modeling founded basis for fatigue design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; topology optimization; lattice; Ti6Al4V; automotive; light-weighting
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:38:06 CET)
This paper provides an overview of the new CPAM Project on Additive Manufacturing (AM) in design and simulation, focusing on topology & lattice structure optimization for a light-weighting advantage. This industry/academia collaboration project aims to utilize existing hardware and software tools, and investigate the practical limits of the technologies, providing eventual guidelines for general use. This will provide a solid foundation for the practical use of metal AM optimized solid and latticed structures especially for Ti6Al4V parts. Two case studies are demonstrated here, one a purely topology optimized design, and one also incorporating lattice optimized design, both from Ti6Al4V and load-bearing components, to be utilized in the Nelson Mandela University (NMU) Eco-Car Project in competition, late in 2018. This paper presents the Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) process, the challenges met iro applying a DfAM design mindset, and a unique final voxel-based smoothing step finishing off the design process. Detailed structural integrity assessment of these parts are included - the question remains: can Additive Manufacturing help win the race?
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:59:58 CET)
Quality assurance has been one of the major challenges in laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. This study proposes a novel process modeling methodology for layer-wise in-situ quality monitoring based on image series analysis. An image-based autoregressive (AR) model has been proposed based on the image registration function between consecutively observed thermal images. Image registration is used to extract melt pool location and orientation change between consecutive images, which contains sensing stability information. Subsequently, a Gaussian process model is used to characterize the spatial correlation within the error matrix. Finally, the extracted features from the aforementioned processes are jointly used for layer-wise quality monitoring. A case study of a thin wall fabrication by a Directed Laser Deposition (DLD) process is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacture; topology optimisation; computed tomography
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:53:49 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides an opportunity to fundamentally redesign components previously limited by conventional manufacturing techniques. A new process for this workflow of design, manufacture by Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) and validation is presented, to which a case study of a crank for a high performance racing bicycle is applied. Topology optimisation generated conceptually ideal geometry from which a functional design was interpreted. Design for AM considerations were employed to reduce build time, material usage and post-processing labour. PBF was employed to manufacture the parts, and the build quality assessed using Computed Tomography (CT). Static and dynamic functional testing was performed and compared to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). CT confirmed good build quality of tall, complex geometry with no significant geometrical deviation from CAD over 0.5 mm. Static testing proved performance close to current market leaders, although failure under fatigue occurred after just 2495 ± 125 cycles, the failure mechanism was consistent in both its form and location. These physical results were representative of those simulated, thus validating the FEA. This research demonstrates a complete workflow from design, manufacture, post-treatment and validation of a highly loaded PBF manufactured component, offering practitioners with a validated approach to the application of PBF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0271.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: aluminium alloy; dynamic testing; additive manufacturing; Split-Hopkinson methods
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:16:04 CET)
This work investigates the influence of strain rate on the stress/strain behaviour of Scalmalloy. This material is an aluminium-scandium-magnesium alloy, specifically developed for additive manufacturing. The bulk yield stress of the material processed by Selective Laser Melting is approximately 340 MPa which can be increased by heat-treating to approximately 530 MPa. These numbers, combined with the low mass density of 2.7 g/cm3, make Scalmalloy an interesting candidate for lightweight crash-absorbing structures. As this application is inherently dynamic, it is of interest to study the loading rate sensitivity, which is difficult to predict: Al-Sc alloys exhibit classic strain rate sensitivity with an increased yield stress at elevated strain rates. However, Al-Mg alloys are known to show the contrary effect, they exhibit less strength as strain rate is increased. To answer the question how these effects combine, we study the dynamic behaviour at four different strain rates ranging from 10−3 /s to 1000 /s using servo-hydraulic and Split-Hopkinson testing methods. The resulting data is analysed in terms of strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength and failure strain. A constitutive model based on a simplified Johnson-Cook approach is employed to simulate the tensile tests and provides good agreement with the experimental observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0587.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; surface morphology; real-time measurement; deep learning
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:01:50 CET)
Layer-wise 3D surface morphology information is critical for the quality monitoring and control of additive manufacturing (AM) processes. However, most of the existing 3D scan technologies are either contact or time consuming, which are not capable of obtaining the 3D surface morphology data in a real-time manner during the process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to achieve real-time 3D surface data acquisition in AM, which is achieved by a supervised deep learning-based image analysis approach. The key idea of this proposed method is to capture the correlation between 2D image and 3D point cloud, and then quantify this relationship by using a deep learning algorithm, namely, convolutional neural network (CNN). To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, both simulation and real-world case studies were performed. The results demonstrate that this method has strong potential to be applied for real-time surface morphology measurement in AM, as well as other advanced manufacturing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; confocal microscopy; measurement; calibration; traceability; uncertainty; quality assessment
Online: 12 November 2019 (07:56:55 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a promising new technology that is having a very fast growth from home workshops to high-tech cutting-edge factories. As any manufacturing technique, adequate metrology services are needed to assure the quality of items manufactured by AM. One of the most widely used instruments to measure the characteristics of surfaces manufactured with AM is the confocal microscope. In this paper, authors present a whole calibration procedure for confocal microscopes designed to be implemented preferably in workshops or industrial environments rather than in research and development departments. Because of that, it is as simple as possible. The procedure is designed without forgetting any of the key aspects that need to be taken into account and based on classical reference material standards. These standards can be easily found in industrial dimensional laboratories and easily calibrated in accredited calibration laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Multi-material additive manufacturing; Functionally graded materials; Conventional Manufacturing; Interface Issues
Online: 16 November 2021 (08:50:21 CET)
Additive manufacturing has already been established as a highly versatile manufacturing technique with demonstrated potential to completely transform conventional manufacturing in the future. The objective of this paper is to review the latest progress and challenges associated with the fabrication of multi-material parts using additive manufacturing technologies. Various manufacturing processes and materials used to produce functional components were investigated and summarized. The latest applications of multi-material additive manufacturing (MMAM) in automotive, aerospace, biomedical and dentistry field were demonstrated. Investigation on the current challenges were also carried out to predict the future direction of MMAM processes. It is concluded that the further research and development needed in the design of multi-material interfaces, manufacturing processes and material compatibility of MMAM parts are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0707.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multiphoton lithography; crystalline; 3D nanostructures; ceramic; glass; additive manufacturing
Online: 28 December 2020 (15:44:19 CET)
The current paper is focused on the rapidly developing field of nano-/micro three-dimensional production of inorganic materials. The fabrication method includes laserlithography of hybrid organic-inorganic materials with subsequent heat treatment lead-ing to a variety of crystalline phases in 3D structures. In this work, it was examineda series of organometallic polymer precursors with different silicon (Si) and zirconium (Zr) molar ratios, ranging from 9:1 to 5:5, prepared via sol-gel method. All mixtureswere examined for perspective used in 3D laser by manufacturing by fabricating nano-and micro-feature sized structures. Their deformation and surface morphology wereevaluated depending on chemical composition and crystallographic phase. The appear-ance of a crystalline phase was proven using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis,which revealed a lower crystallization temperature for microstructures compared tobulk materials. Fabricated 3D objects retain a complex geometry without any distortion after heat treatment up to 1400oC. Under the proper conditions, a zircon phase (ZrSiO4 - a highly stable material) can be observed. In addition, the highest newrecord of achieved resolution below 60 nm has been reached. The proposed prepara-tion protocol can be used to manufacture micro/nano-devices with high precision andresistance to high temperature and aggressive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Ti6Al4V; SS316L; AlSi10Mg; mechanical properties; Stress corrosion; Surface post- processing; space environment
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:08:01 CET)
The potential of the Additive Manufacturing technologies is impeded by the surface finish obtained on the as-manufactured material. Therefore, the influence of various surface treatments, commonly applied to space hardware, on the mechanical properties of three selected metallic alloys (SS316L, AlSi10Mg, Ti6Al4V) prepared by using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) additive manufacturing processes have been investigated. Within this study, SLM using EOS M400 and EOS M280 equipment and in addition EBM using an ARCAM Q20 machine have been applied for sample manufacturing. A half-automated shot-peening process followed by a chemical and/or electrochemical polishing or Hirtisation® process has been applied in order to obtain lower surface roughness compared to their as-received states. Special emphasize has been taken on their tensile, fatigue, and fracture toughness properties. In addition, their stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour including microstructural analysis using HR-SEM have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mo-Si-B alloys; laser additive manufacturing; high-temperature mechanical properties; oxide dispersion strengthening
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:38:52 CET)
Intermetallic alloys like e.g. Iron-Aluminides, Titanium-Aluminides or Molybdenum- Silizides are prospective materials for high-temperature applications. For additive manufacturing (AM) intermetallic structural materials are particularly challenging due to their high melting points, oxygen susceptibility and low temperature brittleness. The feasibility of manufacturing intermetallic Mo-Si-B alloys with the laser additive manufacturing process of direct energy deposition (DED) is demonstrated and recent results in characterizing rapidly solidified material with respect to correlations between process, composition and microstructures are presented. The possibility to dope the material with Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) for dispersion is successfully demonstrated. Current challenges, e.g. homogenous distribution of alloying elements and applicability are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Additive-Manufacturing, 3D Printing, Glass-Ceramics, Nanoscale, Laser 3D lithography, SZ2080, Cristobalite, Zirconia, Nanocomposites, Calcination
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:52:10 CEST)
Fabrication of a true-3D inorganic ceramic with resolution down to nanoscale using sol-gel resist precursor is demonstrated. The method has an unrestricted free-form capability, control of the fill-factor, and high fabrication throughput. A systematic study of the proposed approach based on ultrafast laser 3D lithography of organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel resin followed by a heat treatment enabled formation of inorganic amorphous and crystalline composites guided by the composition of the initial resin. The achieved resolution of 100 nm was obtained for 3D patterns of complex free-form architectures. Fabrication throughput of 50×103 voxels/s is achieved; voxel - a single volume element was recorded by a single pulse exposure. After a subsequent thermal treatment, ceramic phase was formed depending on the temperature and duration of the heat treatment as validated by Raman micro-spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a gradual emergence of the crystalline phases at higher temperatures with a signature of cristobalite SiO2, a high-temperature polymorph. Also, the tetragonal ZrO2 phase known for its high fracture strength was observed. This 3D nano-sintering technique is scalable from nano- to millimeter dimensions and opens a conceptually novel route for optical 3D nano-printing of various crystalline inorganic materials defined by an initial composition for diverse applications for microdevices in harsh physical and chemical environments and high temperatures.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; additive manufacturing; N95; respirator; particle transmission; filtration efficiency
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:33:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the supply chain for personal protective equipment (PPE) for medical professionals, including N95-type respiratory protective masks. To address this shortage, many have looked to the agility and accessibility of additive manufacturing (AM) systems to provide a democratized, decentralized solution to producing respirators with equivalent protection for last-resort measures. However, there are concerns about the viability and safety in deploying this localized download, print, and wear strategy. Several polymer-based AM processes produce porous parts, and inherent process variation between printers and materials also threaten the integrity of tolerances and seals within the printed respirator assembly. The goal of this paper is to quantitatively measure particle transmission through printed respirators of different designs, materials, and AM processes, and assess the viability of printed respirators as N95 equivalents. Results from this study show that respirators printed using desktop/industrial-scale fused filament fabrication processes and industrial-scale powder bed fusion processes have insufficient filtration efficiency at the size of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, even while assuming a perfect seal between the respirator and the user’s face. Almost all printed respirators provided <60% filtration efficiency at the 100-300 nm particle range. Only one respirator, printed on an industrial-scale fused filament fabrication system provided >90% efficiency as-printed. Post-processing procedures including cleaning, sealing surfaces, and reinforcing the filter cap seal generally improved performance, but no respirator sustained the filtration efficiency of an N95 respirator, which filters 95% of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. Instead, the printed respirators showed similar performance to various cloth masks. While continued optimization of printing process parameters and design tolerances could be implemented to directly print respirators that provide the requisite 95% filtration efficiency, AM processes are not sufficiently reliable for widespread distribution and local production of N95-type respiratory protection without commensurate quality assurance processes in place. Certain design/printer/material combinations may provide sufficient protection for specific users, but the respirators should not be trusted without quantitative filtration efficiency testing. It is currently not advised to expect printed respirators originating from distributed designs to replicate performance across different printers and materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0285.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; biyomedikal alloy; micro structure; mechanical properties.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:24:36 CEST)
The Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si) and Molybdenum (Mo) doped Co-Cr biomedical alloy were fabricated by additive manufacturing method, which is part of powder metadology. The mixture of Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si), Chrome (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) alloy is known good wear and corrosion resistance among of biomedical applications. By addition of Molybdenum (Mo) into the structure of alloy, the structure become more stbale also increase the corrosion and wear resistance. In addition, the effects of secondary annealing process on the alloy were investigated. The microstructure of the produced alloy was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis EDX and scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover, Electrochemical corrosion test, micro hardness and density measurements were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of the alloy. As a result of the analyzes, the effects of Molydenum (Mo) doped and secondary annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bioalloying were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0707.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymers; recycling; waste plastic; upcycle; circular economy; PET; additive manufacturing; distributed recycling; distributed manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 30 July 2020 (07:49:38 CEST)
This study explores the potential to reach a circular economy for post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) packaging and bottles by using it as a distributed recycling for additive manufacturing (DRAM) feedstock. Specifically, rPET is processed using only an open source toolchain with fused particle fabrication (FPF) or fused granular fabrication (FGF) processing. In this study, first the impact of granulation, sifting and heating (and their combination) is quantified on the shape and size distribution of the rPET flakes. Then feeding studies were performed to see if they could be printed through an external feeder or needed to be direct printed with a hopper using two Gigabot X machines, one with extended part cooling and one without. Print settings were optimized based on thermal characterization and for the latter which was shown to print rPET directly from shredded water bottles mechanical testing is performed. The results showed that geometry was important for extended feeding tubes and direct printed using a hopper. Further there is a wide disparity in the physical properties of rPET from water bottles depending on source and the history of the material. Future work is needed to enable water bottles to be used as a widespread DRAM feedstock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Liquid metal; Additive manufacturing; Thermal management; Temperature gradient; Cooling rate; Crack
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:23:19 CEST)
How to effectively suppress thermal cracks in the metal laser additive manufacturing process is still one of the key issues to be solved in the field of laser additive manufacturing. Metal tin, with wide liquid phase working temperature range, high boiling point, low viscosity, high thermal conductivity and excellent electrical conductivity. The use of tin as an auxiliary thermal management material in the metal additive manufacturing process is expected to achieve effective regulation of the temperature field and stress field of the formed part, thereby inhibiting the initiation of cracks and obtaining formed parts with the target grain structure and high reliability. This paper presented a novel liquid metal-assisted laser additive manufacturing method (LMAAM). A numerical model for the laser additive manufacturing of tin-assisted titanium alloys was established. The differences of the flow field, temperature field and stress field of the formed parts with tin and without tin were compared and analyzed. The influence of the interaction position between the tin liquid level and the forming part on the temperature field and stress field of the forming part was deeply studied. The laser additive manufacturing experiment of tin-assisted titanium alloy was carried out, and the experimental results were basically consistent with the simulation results, which verified the validity of the model. LMAAM technology has proven to be an effective method for additive manufacturing of highly reliable formed parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: 3D structure; gradient foam; additive manufacturing; CO2 foaming; copolymer
Online: 19 October 2019 (02:10:29 CEST)
Synthetic polymer-based gradient foams have considered as promising category of functionally graded materials with unique properties. In this study, the carbon dioxide (CO2) foaming technology has used for PET-PEN (Polyethylene Terephthalate - Polyethylene Naphthalate) copolymer towards porous functional materials with thermal insulation with reasonable mechanical strength. Through scanning electron microscope based morphological characterization, a potential to fabricate gradient foam structures with micro-pores has identified. It has shown that variation of post-foaming temperature can tune the pore size distribution although the very high post-foaming temperature tends to cause structural instability. Thermal measurement data set the limits of operation, confirmed by simultaneous differential scanning calorimeter and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Mechanical stress and thermal conductivity also has measured to find rationale of thermal insulation with reasonable mechanical strength and to elucidate the actual 3D grid foam of copolymer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0224.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cobalt-chromium alloy; Additive manufacturing; Selective laser melting; Microstructure; Tensile properties; Heat-treatment
Online: 10 October 2018 (17:00:23 CEST)
The limitations of investment casting of cobalt-based alloys are claimed to be less problematic with significant improvements in metal additive manufacturing by selective laser melting (SLM). Despite these advantages, the metallic devices are likely to display mechanical anisotropy in relation to build orientations, which could consequently affect their performance ‘in vivo’. In addition, there are inconclusive evidence concerning the requisite composition and post-processing steps (e.g. heat-treatment to relieve stress) that must be completed prior to the devices being used. In the current paper, we evaluate the microstructure of ternary cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) and cobalt-chromium-tungsten (Co-Cr-W) alloys built with Direct Metal Printing and LaserCUSING SLM systems respectively at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° inclinations (Φ) in as-built (AB) and heat-treated (HT) conditions. The study also examines the tensile properties (Young's modulus, E; yield strength, RP0.2; elongation at failure, At and ultimate tensile strength, Rm), relative density (RD), and micro-hardness (HV5) and macro-hardness (HV20) as relevant physico-mechanical properties of the alloys. Data obtained indicate improved tensile properties and HV values after short and cost-effective heat-treatment cycle of Co-Cr-Mo alloy; however, the process did not homogenize the microstructure of the alloy. Annealing heat-treatment of Co-Cr-W led to significant isotropic characteristics with increased E and At (except for Φ = 90º) in contrast to decreased RP0.2, Rm and HV values, compared to the AB form. Similarly, the interlaced weld-bead structures in AB Co-Cr-W were removed during heat-treatment, which led to a complete recrystallization in the microstructure. Both alloys exhibited defect-free microstructures with RD exceeding 99.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0051.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: additive manufacturing; machine learning; tensile modulus; predictive modeling; mechanical properties; polyamide 2200; PA12
Online: 5 March 2019 (05:21:43 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an attractive technology for manufacturing industry due to flexibility in design and functionality, but inconsistency in quality is one of the major limitations that does not allow utilizing this technology for production of end-use parts. Prediction of mechanical properties can be one of the possible ways to improve the repeatability of the results. The part placement, part orientation, and STL model properties (number of mesh triangles, surface, and volume) are used to predict tensile modulus, nominal stress and elongation at break for polyamide 2200 (also known as PA12). EOS P395 polymer powder bed fusion system was used to fabricate 217 specimens in two identical builds (434 specimens in total). Prediction is performed for XYZ, XZY, ZYX, and Angle orientations separately, and all orientations together. The different non-linear models based on machine learning methods have higher prediction accuracy compared with linear regression models. Linear regression models have prediction accuracy higher than 80% only for Tensile Modulus and Elongation at break in Angle orientation. Since orientation-based modeling has low prediction accuracy due to a small number of data points and lack of information about material properties, these models need to be improved in the future based on additional experimental work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; distributed manufacturing; open-source; polymers; recycling; waste plastic; extruder; upcycle; circular economy
Online: 5 November 2018 (07:45:36 CET)
Although distributed additive manufacturing can provide high returns on investment the current markup on commercial filament over base polymers limits deployment. These cost barriers can be surmounted by eliminating the entire process of fusing filament by 3-D printing products directly from polymer granules. Fused granular fabrication (FGF) (or fused particle fabrication (FPF)) is being held back in part by the accessibility of low-cost pelletizers and choppers. An open-source 3-D printable invention disclosed here provides for precise controlled pelletizing of both single thermopolymers as well as composites for 3-D printing. The system is designed, built and tested for its ability to provide high tolerance thermopolymer pellets from a number of sizes capable of being used in a FGF printer. In addition, the chopping pelletizer is tested for its ability to chop multi-materials simultaneously for color mixing and composite fabrication as well as precise fractional measuring back to filament. The US$185 open-source 3-D printable pelletizer chopper system was successfully fabricated and has a 0.5 kg/hr throughput with one motor, and 1.0 kg/hr throughput with two motors using only 0.24 kWh/kg during the chopping process. Pellets were successfully printed directly via FGF and indirectly after being converted into high-tolerance filament in a recyclebot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; powder-bed fusion; laser sintering; polypropylene; process parameter optimization; mechanical properties; computer tomography
Online: 5 November 2018 (03:50:51 CET)
The use of commodity polymers such as polypropylene (PP) is key to open new market segments and applications for the additive manufacturing industry. Technologies such as powder-bed fusion (PBF) can process PP powder; however, much is still to learn concerning process parameters for reliable manufacturing. This study focusses in the process-property relationships of PP using laser-based PBF. The research presents an overview of the intrinsic and the extrinsic characteristic of a commercial PP powder as well as fabrication of tensile specimens with varying process parameters to characterize tensile, elongation at break, and porosity properties. The impact of key process parameters, such as power and scanning speed are systematically modified in a controlled design of experiment. The results were compared to the existing body of knowledge; the outcome is to present a process window and optimal process parameters for industrial use of PP. The computer tomography data revealed a highly porous structure inside specimens ranging between 8.46% and 10.08%, with porosity concentrated in the interlayer planes in the build direction. The results of the design of experiment for this commercial material show a narrow window of 0.122 ≥ Ev ≥ 0.138 J/mm3 led to increased mechanical properties while maintaining geometrical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0509.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing; 3D Printing; Feed of Filament; Curvilinear Path; Variable Stiffness Composites.
Online: 22 September 2020 (04:21:16 CEST)
The extrusion-based additive manufacturing is a popular fabrication method, which has attracted the attention of various industries due to its simplicity, cheapness, ability to produce complex geometric shapes, and high production speed. One of the effective parameters in this process is the feed of filament that is presented in the production G-code. The feed of filament is calculated according to the layer height, the extrusion width and the length of printing path. All the required motion paths and filling patterns created by commercial software are a set of straight lines or circular arcs that are placed next to each other at a fixed distance. In special curved paths, the distance of adjacent ones is not equal at different points, and due to the weakness of common commercial software, it is not possible to create curved paths for proper printing. Therefore, making a special computer code that can be used to create various functions of curved paths is investigated in this research, and also the feed of filament parameter is studied in detail. Next, by introducing a correction technique, the feed of filament is changed during the curved path to distribute the polymer material uniformly. Finally, composite samples (which have variable stiffness) consisting of curved fibers are produced with the proposed method, and the high quality of printed samples confirm the suggested code and technique.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: 3D printings; additive manufacturing; polymerization kinetics; photoredox; monomer conversion; synergic effects; cationic; free radical. UV visible light.
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:29:11 CEST)
The synergic features and enhancing strategies for various photopolymerization systems are reviewed by kinetic schemes and the associated measurements. The important topics include: (i) photo crosslinking of corneas for the treatmnet of corneal deseases using UVA-light (365 nm) light and riboflavin as the photosensitizer; (ii) synergic effects by a dual-function enhancer in a 3-initiator system; (iii) synergic effects by a 3-initiator C/B/A system, having an electron-transfer and oxygen-mediated energy-transfer pathways; (iv) copper-complex (G1) photoredox catalyst in G1/Iod/NVK systems for free radiical (FRP) and cationic photopolymeriation (CP); (v) radical-mediated thiol-ene (TE) photopolymerizations; (vi) superbase photogenerator based-catalyzed thiol−acrylate Michael (TM) addition reaction; and the combined system of TE and TM usinghual wavelength; (vii) dual-wavelength (UV and blue) controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC); (viii) dual-wavelength (UV and red) selectively controlled 3D printing; and (ix) 3-wavelength selectively controlled in 3D printing and additive manufacturing (AM). With minimum mathematics, we present ( for the first time), the synergic features and enhancing strategies for various systems of multi-commponents, initiators, monomers, and under one- two- and there-wavelength light. Therefore, this Review provides not only the bridging between modeling and measurements, but also guidances for further experimantal stuides and new applications in 3D printings and additive manufacturing (AM), based on the innovative concepts (kinetics/schemes).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser metal deposition; hot stamping; die and mold; conformal cooling; design optimization.
Online: 12 December 2017 (15:24:24 CET)
Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies & molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique capable to fabricate nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies & molds and, therefore, new products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); Functionally Graded Materials (FGM); Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP; ceramics; ceramic-based 4D-components; zirconia; graded microstructure
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:21:04 CEST)
In our study we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with a varying microstructure were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore forming agents (PFA) and were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Different zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for AM of single- and multi-material test components. All samples were sintered defect-free and in the end we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. The T3DP opens the door to AM of further ceramic-based 4D-components like multi-color or multi-material, especially multi-functional components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0295.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; rapid solidification; microstructural evolution; non-equilibrium; quasi-equilibrium; multi-phase field method; CALPHAD database; nickel alloy
Online: 11 March 2021 (07:40:42 CET)
Solidification microstructure is formed under high cooling rates and temperature gradients in powder-based additive manufacturing. In this study, a non-equilibrium multi-phase field method (MPFM), which was based on a finite interface dissipation model proposed by Steinbach et. al., coupled with a CALPHAD database was developed for a multicomponent Ni alloy. A qua-si-equilibrium MPFM was also developed for comparison. Two-dimensional equiaxed micro-structural evolution for the Ni (Bal.)–Al–Co–Cr–Mo–Ta–Ti–W–C alloy was performed at various cooling rates. The temperature–γ fraction profiles obtained under 10^5 K/s using non- and qua-si-equilibrium MPFMs were in good agreement with each other. Over 10^6 K/s, the differences between non- and quasi-equilibrium methods grew as the cooling rate increased. The non-equilibrium solidification was strengthened over a cooling rate of 10^6 K/s. Colum-nar-solidification microstructural evolution was performed under cooling rates from 5×10^5 K/s to 1×10^7 K/s at various temperature gradient values under the constant interface velocity (0.1 m/s). The results showed that as the cooling rate increased, the cell space decreased in both methods, and the non-equilibrium MPFM agreed well with experimental measurements. Our results show that the non-equilibrium MPFM can simulate solidification microstructure in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0539.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (12:18:45 CET)
Traditional metals such as stainless steel, titanium and cobalt chrome are used in biomedical applications (implants, scaffolds etc.) but suffer from issues such as osseointegration and compatibility with existing bone. One way to improve traditional biomaterials is to incorporate ceramics with these metals so that their mechanical properties can be similar to cortical bones. Tricalcium phosphate is such a ceramic with properties so that it can be used in human body. This research explores the use of binder jetting based additive manufacturing process to create a novel biocomposite made of cobalt chrome and tricalcium phosphate. Experiments were conducted and processing parameters were varied to study their effect on the printing of this biocomposite. Layer thickness, binder saturation and drying time affected the dimensional tolerance and the density of the green samples. This effect is important to understand so that the material can be optimized for use in specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0103.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:07:12 CET)
This paper presents the results of the investigation of composite sinters W-TiB2 which were used as an electrode in the process of electro-spark deposition (ESD) and the examination of the deposited layers. The scope of the study includes detailed characteristics of powder mixtures, composite sinters made using the spark plasma sintering method (SPS) and layers deposited in the electro-spark process. The ESD process, using the W+30 vol.% TiB2 electrode, was carried out using an automated device. The substrates were made of copper and aluminium. The topography analysis of the surfaces of the composite layer and the evaluation of their wear resistance properties are also presented. The analysis of the results of research showed the possibility to obtain, using the SPS method, composite materials of good quality, which can be used as electrodes in the ESD process. The obtained layers had increased wear resistance in relation to the substrate material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0041.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:07:02 CET)
We present progress in fast, high-resolution imaging, material classification, and fault detection using hyperspectral X-ray measurements. Classical X-ray CT approaches rely on data from many projection angles, resulting in long acquisition and reconstruction times. Additionally, conventional CT cannot distinguish between materials with similar densities. However, in additive manufacturing, the majority of materials used are known a priori. This knowledge allows to vastly reduce the data collected and increase the accuracy of fault detection. In this context, we propose an imaging method for non-destructive testing of materials based on the combination of spectral X-ray CT and discrete tomography. We explore the use of spectral X-ray attenuation models and measurements to recover the characteristic functions of materials in heterogeneous media with piece-wise uniform composition. We show by means of numerical simulation that using spectral measurements from a small number of angles, our approach can alleviate the typical deterioration of spatial resolution and the appearance of streaking artifacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0546.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:20:42 CET)
Wide-scale adoption of binder jet 3D printing for mission-critical components in aerospace, biomedical, defense, and energy applications requires improvement in mechanical properties and performance characteristics of end-use components. Increased fidelity may be achieved with better understanding of the interfacial physics and complex fluid-particle interactions fundamental to the process. In this work, an experimental testing apparatus and procedure is developed to investigate the fluid and particle dynamics occurring upon impact of jetted binder droplets onto a powder bed. High-speed, microscopic imaging is employed to capture short time-scale phenomena such as ballistic particle ejection, capillary flow, and particle clustering. The effects of different process parameters (e.g., translational printhead velocity, jetting frequency, and impact velocity) on the dynamics of Inconel powder are studied. These experiments reveal that the fluid-particle interaction is significantly affected by a combination of printing parameters, ultimately governing the quality and performance of binder jet 3D printed components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0497.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:08:05 CET)
Producing complex shaped tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) tools by classical technologies is difficult and often impossible due to their high hardness and brittle fracture behavior. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a suitable technology for creating complex structures and simultaneously shortening expensive machining processes. Binder Jetting (BJ) is an innovative AM technology that offers several advantages over laser-based processes, for example low manufacturing costs and high build-up rates. Binders with nanoparticle additives have already proven to be effective in in- creasing the packing density of the powder bed and improving the sintering properties. Addition- ally, they offer the possibility of selectively changing the material composition in the part. This paper presents a concept for the use of nanoparticles to generate gradients in the green compact, which leads to a cobalt gradient in the part after sintering. The possibility of introducing particles locally into complex structures allows local modification of the material properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0496.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:05:26 CET)
Understanding the equilibrium saturation level is crucial to Binder Jetting (BJ). Saturation level influences dimensional accuracy, print time, green strength, and final material properties. Improved understanding of the saturation level can reduce development time for new materials and improve existing processes in BJ. Attempts have been made to predict saturation levels of parts with simple calculations from droplet primitives and capillary pressure. There is, however, limited experimental validation for these methods and they do not include the impact of drop velocity and droplet spacing. This study incorporates the influences of drop velocity and droplet spacing on the saturation level of the part. Drop primitives of varying droplet velocity and droplet spacing were compared. Results show that velocity impacts the feasible parameter space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0476.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:43:49 CET)
Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a type of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology that builds parts in a layer-by-layer fashion out of a bed of metal powder via the selective melting action of a laser or electron beam heat source. The technology has become widespread, however the demand is growing for closed loop process monitoring and control in PBF systems to replace the open loop architectures that exist today. This paper demonstrates the simulated efﬁcacy of applying closed-loop state estimation to the problem of monitoring temperature ﬁelds within parts during the PBF build process. A simpliﬁed LTI model of PBF thermal physics with the properties of stability, controllability and observability is presented. An Ensemble Kalman Filter is applied to the model. The accuracy of this ﬁlters’ predictions are assessed in simulation studies of the temperature evolution of various test parts when subjected to simulated laser heat input. The signiﬁcant result of this study is that the ﬁlter supplied predictions that were about 2.5x more accurate than the open loop model in these simulation studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0459.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:22:30 CET)
One of the main benefits of binder jetting is the ability to print quickly compared to other metal additive manufacturing methods. Demand for higher throughput continues to increase, but the effects of faster print speeds on part outcomes are not yet clearly understood. MIM powders are used to achieve optimal density and surface finish. Printing at slower speeds results in densities near 98% and average surface roughness values as low as 4 μm (Ra), in the as-sintered condition. In this study, spread speeds were varied in order to understand the effect of print speed on surface roughness. 316L D90 -22 μm powder was used to print with 3 different spread speeds, 2 different layer thicknesses, and 2 different printhead droplet sizes. The surface finish and density were quantified for the sintered parts that were oriented at 0, 22.5, and 45 degrees with respect to the Z- direction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Fused Deposition Modelling; Robot-based additive manufacturing; Polylactic acid (PLA) and PLA-based composite.
Online: 7 April 2021 (12:24:16 CEST)
Over the last decade, a significant literature has emerged that advocates the potential of different Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and printable polymeric materials. Nevertheless, large scale printing and complex geometric shapes, with curvatures and non-planar layer deposition, are a challenging process for the traditional gantry-based machine. The 3 degrees of freedom cartesian configuration restricted their capability to planar layered printing and restricted part dimensions. To date, many researchers have used industrial robots to overcomes this limitation. This review gives the reader a good overview of the FDM technique due to its scalability, cost efficiency and a wide range of material printability. A strong emphasis is laid on the PLA and PLA-based composites as promising materials for the FDM process applications. The second part of this paper links the successful use of these materials in the traditional printing process to large scale printing using the robot-based FDM process. This survey presents representative setups for robot-based AM and works that have been used these setups for non-planar material deposition. Finally, we conclude this paper by identifying opportunities for realizing new functional capabilities by exploiting robot-based AM, and we also present the future trends in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0076.v1
Online: 6 May 2022 (11:44:55 CEST)
The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) are strongly depended on the bulk-heterojunction active layer. Here, the 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) additives have been added into the PCDTBT: PC70BM blend PSCs. Based on the higher boiling point than host solvent ODB and better solubility of PC71BM, the device photovoltaic properties with DIO additive were changed obviously. The investigations of EQE indicate that the DIO can influence the charge recombination and transportation process, and absorption studies demonstrate that the charge carriers generation process can also be affected by DIO. The overall impact reflected on the decreased equivalent resistant. With 3% v/v DIO, the Jsc, Voc and FF are both increased. Correspondingly, a highest PCE is achieved of 6.15%, while the reference device without DIO only has a PCE of 5.23%. Hence, adding DIO solvent additive is a effective method for the photovoltaic properties improving of PCDTBT: PC70BM blend PSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Binder Jetting; aerospace; Invar36; CTE
Online: 9 February 2021 (12:07:31 CET)
This work opens a new pathway to fabricate high dimensional stability Invar36 aerospace devices with Binder Jetting technology, for applications where temperature fluctuations directly interfere in the correct performance of high sensibility systems. Since full density part fabrication is one of the main ongoing challenges for Binder Jetting, the leading objective of this work is to study and optimise the main process parameters to increase the final density of Invar36 printed parts. Microstructural analysis and obtained density and CTE values, confirmed the feasibility to fabricate Invar36 parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0453.v1
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:56:45 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is today’s buzzword—and not only in commercial production. One of the AM techniques produces 3D objects with complex geometry using a laser beam. The relationship between the morphology of individual powder particles and the printing process has not been adequately documented yet. This article presents a detailed microscopic analysis of virgin and reused powder particles of maraging steel. Metallographic observation was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Detailed analyses of individual particles were carried out using SEM with a focused ion beam (FIB) milling capability. Analyses of elemental distribution and phase distribution were performed using EDS and EBSD, respectively. The findings have led to a better understanding and prediction of defects in additive-manufactured products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; big area additive manufacturing; BAAM; hanging printer; hangprinter; plastic waste; recycling; sustainable manufacturing; wire robot
Online: 3 August 2022 (07:17:07 CEST)
As the additive manufacturing industry grows, it is compounding the global plastic waste problem. Distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) offers an economic solution to this challenge, but it has been relegated to either small-volume 3D printers (limiting waste recycling throughput) or expensive industrial machines (limiting accessibility and lateral scaling). To overcome these challenges, this paper provides proof-of-concept for a novel open-source hybrid 3D printer that combines a low-cost hanging printer design with a compression screw-based end-effector that allows direct extrusion of recycled plastic waste in large expandable printing volumes. Mechanical testing of the resultant prints from 100% waste plastic, however, showed that combining challenges of non-uniform feedstocks and a heavy printhead for a hangprinter reduced the strength of the parts compared to fused filament fabrication. The preliminary results are technologically promising, however, and provide opportunities to improve on the open source design to help process the volumes of waste plastic needed for DRAM to address the negative environmental impacts of global plastic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0356.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: additive manufacturing; microstructure; STEM in situ heating experiments
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:23:25 CET)
Powder and SLM additively manufactured parts of X5CrNiCuNb17-4 maraging steel were systematically investigated by electron microscopy to understand the relationship between the properties of the powder grains and the microstructure of the printed parts. We prove that satellites, irregularities and superficial oxidation of powder particles can be transformed into an advantage through the formation of nanoscale (AlMnSiTiCr)-oxides in the matrix during the printing process. The nano-oxides showed extensive stability in terms of size, spherical morphology, chemical composition and crystallographic disorder upon in situ heating up to 950°C in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Their presence thus indicates a potential for oxide-dispersive strengthening of this steel, which may be beneficial for creep resistance at elevated temperatures. The nucleation of copper clusters and their evolution into nanoparticles as well as the precipitation of Ni and Cr particles upon in situ heating have as well been systematically documented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing, STEP-NC, Boundary representation, Multi-materials
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:59:26 CEST)
The paper describes problems with the current additive manufacturing chain before considering additive manufacturing as part of a modern manufacturing chain. Additive manufacturing can be used for near net-shape for finishing, for repair or for adding special features which cannot be made with traditional manufacturing. This paper describes how STEP-NC deals with these different scenarios in terms of accuracy, multi-material and variation of slice direction. The possibilities of multi-material objects also raises questions about the design of such objects and how these need to be handled by an advanced controller. The paper also describes non-planar slicing. Curved direction and cylindrical direction are shown to improve the accuracy of curved structure additive manufacturing. STEP-NC using boundary representation has better capability of depicting complex internal structures for additive processes. By using exact model of the final product represented by STEP-NC, the paper demonstrates improvements in data size reduction, slicing accuracy, and precise manipulation of internal structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: powder bed fusion; additive manufacturing; ss316l; interface strength
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:12:58 CEST)
Metal powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) builds metal parts layer by layer upon a substrate material. The strength of this interface between substrate and printed material is important to characterize, especially in applications where the substrate is retained and included in the finished part. This paper studied the tensile and torsional strengths of wrought and additively manufactured (through PBF) SS316L and compared them to specimens composed of half wrought material and half PBF material. The PBF specimens consistently exhibited higher strength and lower ductility than the wrought specimens. The hybrid PBF/wrought specimens performed similarly to the wrought material. In no specimens did any failure appear to occur at or near the interface between wrought substrate and PBF material. In addition, most of the deformation in the PBF/wrought specimens appeared to be limited to the wrought portion of the specimens. These results are consistent with microscopy showing smaller grain size in the PBF material, which often leads to increased strength in SS316L due to the Hall-Petch relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0596.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Laser; Polishing; Additive manufacturing; Surface analysis; Identification; Topography
Online: 28 January 2021 (22:22:21 CET)
One of the challenges facing the industrial adoption of additively manufactured parts is the surface roughness on the as-built part. The surface roughness of parts is frequently characterized by metrics specified by international standards organizations. However, these standards list many surface metrics that can make it unclear which to use to best describe the surface. In this work, the ability of the various surface metrics to successfully classify the as-built and post-processed surfaces is studied using linear classification models. Laser polishing via remelting and manual grinding are the post-processing techniques used to smooth the as-built surface. The ability of the linear classifier to successfully categorize the various surfaces is demonstrated, and the various surface metrics are ranked according to the strength of their individual ability to classify the surfaces. This work promotes the method as a potential way to autonomously classify as-built and laser polished surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital construction; 3D-concrete-printing; buildabiltiy; additive manufacturing
Online: 27 August 2018 (06:37:13 CEST)
Buildability, i.e. the ability of a deposited material bulk to retain its dimmensions under increasing load, is an inherent prerequisite for formwork-free digital construction (DC). Since DC processes are relatively new, no standard methods of characterization are available yet. The paper at hand presents practice-oriented buildabilty criteria by taking various process parameters and construction costs into consideration. In doing so, direct links between laboratory buildability tests and target applications are established. A systematic basis for calculating the time interval (TI) to be followed during laboratory testing is proposed for the full-width printing (FWP) and filament printing (FP) processes. The proposed approach is validated by applying it to a high-strength, printable, fine-grained concrete. Comparative analyses of FWP and FP revealed that to test the buildability of a material for FP processes, higher velocities of the printhead should be established for laboratory tests in comparison to those needed for FWP process, providing for equal construction rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: waste mineral oil; Mn additive; engine performance; emission
Online: 31 May 2018 (13:27:48 CEST)
The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste mineral oils. as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm) improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing (AM); Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); Weld cladding; Residual stresses; Reinforcement; Hole drilling method; LS-Dyna; Numerical Simulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (08:46:31 CEST)
Cladding is typically used to protect components from wear and corrosion while also improving the aesthetic value and reliability of the substrate. The cladding process induces significant residual stresses due to the temperature difference between the substrate and the clad layer. However, these residual stresses could be effectively utilized by modifying processes and geometrical parameters. This paper introduces a novel methodology for using the weld-cladding process as a cost-effective alternative to various existing reinforcement techniques. The numerical analyses are performed to maximize the reinforcement of a cylindrical tool. The investigation of how the weld cladding develops compressive stresses on the specimen in response to a change in the weld beads and the welding sequence is presented. For the benchmark shape, experimental verification of the numerical model is performed. The impact of the distance between the weld beads and the effect of the tool diameter is numerically investigated. Furthermore, the variation in compressive stresses due to temperature fluctuations during the extrusion process has been evaluated. The results showed that adequate compressive stresses are generated on the welded parts through the cladding process after cooling. Hence, the targeted reinforcement of the substrate can be achieved by optimizing the welding sequence and process parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0202.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3-D printing; metal additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; SLM; direct metal laser sintering; DMLS; metal powder processing
Online: 4 April 2017 (07:56:07 CEST)
A useful and increasingly common additive manufacturing (AM) process is the selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. SLM/DMLS can produce full-density metal parts from difficult materials, but it tends to suffer from severe residual stresses introduced during processing. This limits the usefulness and applicability of the process, particularly in the fabrication of parts with delicate overhanging and protruding features. The purpose of this study was to examine the current insight and progress made toward understanding and eliminating the problem in overhanging and protruding structures. To accomplish this, a survey of literature was undertaken, focusing on process modeling (general, heat transfer, stress and distortion, and material models), direct process control (input and environmental control, hardware-in-the-loop monitoring, parameter optimization, and post-processing), experiment development (methods for evaluation, optical and mechanical process monitoring, imaging, and design-of-experiments), support structure optimization, and overhang feature design; approximately 140 published works were examined. The major findings of this study were that a small minority of the literature on SLM/DMLS deals explicitly with the overhanging stress problem, but some fundamental work has been done on the problem. Implications, needs, and potential future research directions are discussed in-depth in light of the present review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; wear analysis; mechanical properties; H13 tool steel
Online: 3 February 2022 (16:18:57 CET)
The paper contains the results of the 100-hour test campaign of the Additive Manufactured (AM) spare part (retainer – slipper) dedicated for an exact axial piston pump. The material of the retainer-slipper has been identified by using energy dispersive spectroscopy and replaced by other – with similar material properties as the original one. The obtained spare part had been subjected to only one postprocessing type (sandblasting) to analyze the influence of the rough part after the AM process. The whole test campaign has been divided into stages, where after each stage microscopic measurements have been made. During microscopical investigation roughness and geometrical measurements were conducted. The results revealed that it is possible to replace parts in hydraulic pumps with the use of AM. 100-hour test campaign caused about 500% increase in the surface roughness of the pump’s original part which was cooperated with the AM spare retainer-slipper, without any damages to the test system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optimization; extrusion-based additive manufacturing; 3d printer; continuous fibers
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:40:25 CEST)
In this study, a novel task of printing speed optimization for continuous fiber composites is investigated. Using continuous fibers is an innovative approach to reinforce products made by fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology. In the printing process of composites with continuous fibers, the printing speed is critical because of its significant effect on the geometric shape of the samples, especially their corners. During optimization in this research, continuous glass fiber (CGF) and polylactic acid (PLA) filaments were utilized as reinforcing phase and matrix, respectively, and were simultaneously fed into the extrusion-based polymer 3D printer to form PLA/CGF composites. The optimization was carried out by calculating the temperature changes of the deposited rasters in the presence and absence of fibers as a first step and then determining the special relationship between the printing speeds and rasters temperature changes. Finally, the optimal and the maximum printing speed was computed based on a hypothesis, which is proved by the results of high-quality printed composites with different geometric shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0492.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 316L steel; fatigue cracking; selective laser melting
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:34:49 CEST)
The effects of build orientation and heat treatment on the crack growth behavior of 316L stainless steel (SS) fabricated via a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process were investigated. Significant growth of available research results of additively manufactured metallic parts still needs to be improved. The most important issue connected with properties after additive manufacturing is properties high anisotropy, especially from the fatigue point of view. The research included crack growth behavior of additively manufactured 316L in comparison to conventionally made reference material. Both groups of samples were obtained using precipitation heat treatment. Different build orientation in additively manufactured samples and rolling direction in reference samples were taken into account as well. Precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured parts allowed to reach similar microstructure and tensile properties to elements conventionally made. The heat treatment positively affected fatigue properties. Additionally, precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured elements significantly affected the reduction of fatigue cracking velocity and changed the fatigue cracking mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0064.v1
Subject: Keywords: Binder Jetting; Additive Manufacturing; Simulation; Powder bed; Density; Shrinkage
Online: 6 November 2019 (11:40:48 CET)
Binder jet printed components typically have low overall density in the green state and high shrinkage and deformation after heat treatment. It has previously been demonstrated that, by including nanoparticles of the same material in the binder, these properties can be improved as the nanoparticles can fill the interstices and pore throats between the bed particles. The beneficial effects from using these additive binder particles can be improved by maximising the binder particle size, enabling the space within the powder bed to be filled with a higher packing efficiency. The selection of maximum particle size for a binder requires detailed knowledge of the pores and pore throats between the powder bed particles. In this paper, a raindrop model is developed to determine the critical radius at which binder particles can pass between pores and penetrate the bed. The model is validated against helium pycnometry measurements and binder particle drop tests. It is found that the critical radius can be predicted, with acceptable accuracy, using a linear function of the mean and standard deviation of the particle radii. Percolation theory concepts have been employed in order to generalise the results for powder beds that have different mean particle sizes and size distributions. The results of this work can be employed to inform the selection of particle sizes required for binder formulations, to optimise density and reduce shrinkage in printed binder jet components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0552.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Additive Outliers, Models, Simulation, Time Series length, R Software
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:56:57 CET)
It is a common practice to detect outliers in a financial time series in order to avoid the adverse effect of additive outliers. This paper investigated the performance of GARCH family models (sGARCH; gjrGARCH; iGARCH; TGARCH and NGARCH) in the presence of different sizes of outliers (small, medium and large) for different time series lengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500) using root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) to adjudge the models. In a simulation iteration of 1000 times in R environment using rugarch package, results revealed that for small size of outliers, irrespective of the length of time series, iGARCH dominated, for medium size of outliers, it was sGARCH and gjrGARCH that dominated irrespective of time series length, while for large size of outliers, irrespective of time series length, gjrGARCH dominated. The study further leveled that in the presence of additive outliers on time series analysis, both RMSE and MAE increased as the time series length increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; scaffolds; bioabsorbable metals; lattice structures; stiffness properties; biodegradation
Online: 20 August 2021 (11:57:25 CEST)
For orthopaedic applications, additive manufactured (AM) porous scaffolds made of absorbable metals like magnesium, zinc or iron are of particular interest. They do not only offer the potential to design and fabricate bio-mimetic or rather bone equivalent mechanical properties, they also do not need to be removed in further surgery. Located in a physiological environment, scaffolds made of absorbable metals show a decreasing Young’s modulus over time, due to product dissolution. For WE43 scaffolds, during the first days an increase of the smeared Young's modulus can be observed, which is mainly attributed to a forming substrate layer of degradation products on the struts surfaces. In this study the influence of degradation products on the stiffness properties of metallic scaffolds is investigated. For this, analytical calculations and finite element simulations are performed to study the influence of the substrate layer thickness and Young's modulus for single struts and for a new scaffold geometry with adapted polar f2cc,z unit cells. The finite element model is further validated by compression tests on AM scaffolds made from Zn1Mg. The results show, that even low thicknesses and Young's moduli of the substrate layer increases significantly the smeared Young's modulus under axial compression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0075.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; mechanical properties; fatigue behavior; heat-treatment; aluminum alloys
Online: 2 April 2021 (15:31:11 CEST)
This study aims to identify an optimal heat-treatment parameter set for an additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy in terms of increasing the hardness and eliminating the anisotropic microstructural characteristics of the alloy in as-built condition. Furthermore, the influence of these optimized parameters on the fatigue properties of the alloy investigated. In this respect, microstructural characteristics of an AlSi10Mg alloy manufactured by Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion in non-heat-treated and heat-treated conditions were investigated. Their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated, and fatigue behavior was explained by a detailed examination of fracture surfaces. Much of the microstructure in the non-heat-treated condition was composed of columnar grains oriented parallel to the build direction. Further analysis revealed a high fraction of pro-eutectic α-Al. Through heat-treatment, the alloy was successfully brought to its peak-hardened condition, while eliminating the anisotropic microstructural features. Yield strength and ductility increased simultaneously after heat-treatment, which is due to the relief of residual stresses, preservation of refined grains, and introduction of precipitation strengthening. The fatigue strength, calculated at 10^7 cycles, improved as well after heat-treatment and finally detailed fractography reviled that a more ductile fracture mechanism has happened in the heat-treated condition compared to the non-heat-treated condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: metal additive manufacturing; sintering; tensile; mechanical analysis; metal material extrusion
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:50:12 CEST)
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) has gained much attentions in recent years due to its advantages including geometric freedom and design complexity, appropriate to a wide range of potential industrial applications. However, conventional metal AM methods have high-cost barriers due to the initial cost of the capital equipment, support and maintenance, etc. This study presents a unique low-cost metal material extrusion (MME) technology. The filaments used have polylactic acid (PLA) as the matrix and metal powders (copper, bronze, stainless steel, high carbon iron, and aluminum) as reinforcements. Using the proposed fabrication technology, test specimens were built by extruding polymer/metal composite filaments, which were then sintered in an open-air furnace to produce solid metallic parts. In this research, the mechanical and thermal properties of the built parts are examined using tensile tests, thermogravimetric-, thermomechanical- and microstructural analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0147.v1
Online: 9 May 2020 (04:30:32 CEST)
The sudden pervasive of severe acute respiratory syndrome Covid-19 has been leading the universe into a prominent crisis. It has influenced each zone, for example, industrial area, horticultural zone, Public transportation, economic zone, and so on. So as to see how Covid-19 affected the globe, we conducted an investigation characterizing the effects of the pandemic over the world using Machine Learning (ML) method. Prediction is a typical data science exercise that helps the administration with function planning, objective setting, and anomaly detection. We propose an additive regression model with interpretable parameters that can be naturally balanced by experts with domain intuition about the time series. We focus on global data beginning from 22nd January 2020, till 26th April 2020 and performed dynamic map visualization of Covid-19 expansion globally by date wise and predicting the spread of virus on all countries and continents. The major advantages of this work include accurate analysis of country-wise as well as province/state-wise confirmed cases, recovered cases, deaths, prediction of pandemic viral attack and how far it is expanding globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: ceramic materials; composite structure; additive technologies; dynamic loading; transformation hardening
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:27:49 CEST)
This paper presents a physical and mathematical model that has been developed in the framework of the approach used in the computational mechanics of materials. The model is designed to enable the study of the patterns of deformation and fracture of ceramic composites with a transformation-hardened matrix that are obtained by additive technologies at the mesoscopic and macroscopic levels under intense dynamic loading. The influence of the loading rate on the formation of the fracture and energy dissipation fronts for composite materials, based on the Al2O3 20%ZrO2 system, is shown. Nonlinear effects under intense dynamic loading in the considered composites are associated with the processes of self-organization of structural fragments at the mesoscopic level, as well as the occurrence of martensitic phase transformations in matrix volumes adjacent to the strengthening particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0073.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: temperature field; additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; heat source modeling
Online: 10 June 2019 (09:25:58 CEST)
Selective laser melting is an emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology for metals. Intricate three-dimensional parts can be generated from the powder bed by selectively melting the desired location of the powders. The process is repeated for each layer until the part is built. The necessary heat is provided by a laser. Temperature magnitude and history during SLM directly determine the molten pool dimensions, thermal stress, residual stress, balling effect, and dimensional accuracy. Laser-matter interaction is a crucial physical phenomenon in the SLM process. In this paper, five different heat source models are introduced to predict the three-dimensional temperature field analytically. These models are known as steady state moving point heat source, transient moving point heat source, semi-elliptical moving heat source, double elliptical moving heat source, and uniform moving heat source. The analytical temperature model for all of the heat source models are solved using three-dimensional differential equation of heat conduction with different approaches. The Steady state and transient moving heat source are solved using separation of variables approach. However, the rest of models are solved by employing the Green’s functions. Due to the high magnitude of the temperature in the presence of the laser, the temperature gradient is usually high which has a substantial impact on thermal material properties. Consequently, the temperature field is predicted by considering the temperature sensitivity thermal material properties. Moreover, due to the repeated heating and cooling, the part usually undergoes several melting and solidification cycles, this physical phenomenon is considered by modifying the heat capacity using latent heat of melting. Furthermore, the multi-layer aspect of metal AM process is considered by incorporating the temperature history from the previous layer since the interaction of the layers have an impact on heat transfer mechanisms. The proposed temperature field models based on different heat source approaches are validated using experimental measurement of melt pool geometry from independent experimentations. The detailed explanation of the comparison of models is also provided. Moreover, the effect of process parameters on the balling effect is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0225.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: parts design, additive manufacturing, fused filament fabrication, fatigue, taguchi, ABS
Online: 8 November 2018 (15:19:44 CET)
In this paper, the fatigue response of Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) parts is studied. Different building parameters (layer height, nozzle diameter, infill density, and printing speed) were chosen to study their influence on the lifespan of cylindrical specimens according to a design of experiments (DOE) using the Taguchi methodology. The same DOE was applied on two different specimen sets using two different infill patterns: rectilinear and honeycomb. The results show that infill density is the most important parameter for both studied patterns. The specimens manufactured with the honeycomb pattern show longer lifespans. The best parameter set associated to that infill was chosen for a second experimental phase, in which the specimens were tested under different maximum bending stresses to construct the Wöhler curve associated to this 3D printing configuration. The results of this study are useful to design and manufacture ABS end-use parts that are expected to work under oscillating periodic loads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0459.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Sample size, Measurement error, Generalized Additive Model, GAM, Réseau Hydrique.
Online: 19 October 2018 (16:53:50 CEST)
Live fuel moisture content (LFMC) influences fire activity at landscape scale and fire behavior in laboratory experiments. However, field evidences linking LFMC to fire behavior are very limited despite numerous field experiments. In the present study, we reanalyze a shrubland fire dataset with a special focus on LFMC to explain this counterintuitive outcome. We found that this controversy might result from three reasons. First, the range of experimental LFMC data was too moist to reveal significant effect with the widespread exponential or power functions. Indeed, LFMC exhibited a strong effect below 100%, but marginal above this threshold, contrary to these functions. Second, we found that the LFMC significance was unlikely when the size of the dataset was smaller than 40. Finally, a complementary analysis suggested that 10 to 15% of random measurement error in variables could lead to an underestimation by 30 % of the LFMC effect. The effect of LFMC in field experiments is thus stronger than previously reported in the range prevailing during the actual French fire season and in accordance with observations at different scales. This highlights the need to improve our understanding of the relationship between LFMC and fire behavior to refine fire danger predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0003.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: selective laser sintering (SLS); porous ceramic; carbon additive; laser absorptivity
Online: 1 October 2017 (06:20:03 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of a freeform fabrication of porous ceramic parts through selective laser sintering (SLS). SLS was proposed to manufacture ceramic green parts because this additive manufacturing technique can be used to fabricate three-dimensional objects directly without a mold, and the technique has the capability of generating porous ceramics with controlled porosity. However, ceramic printing has yet fully achieved its 3D fabrication capabilities without using polymer binder. Except for the limitation of high melting point, brittleness and low thermal shock resistance from instinct ceramic material properties, the key hurdle lies on very poor absorptivity of oxide ceramics to fiber laser which is widely installed in the commercial SLS equipment. An alternative solution to overcome the poor laser absorptivity via improving material compositions was presented in this study. The positive effect of carbon additive on the absorptivity of silica powder to fiber laser will be discussed. To investigate the capabilities of the SLS process, 3D porous silica structures were successfully prepared and characterized.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Fatigue data; Polylactic acid; Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, Fused deposition modeling
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:44:17 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) are used in several industries such as automotive, aerospace, and medical sciences. One of the most common devices used in additive manufacturing is fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers. This fabrication method has different inputs that affect the quality of the parts. In this research, the bending fatigue properties of polylactic acid (PLA) biomaterial made with a 3D printer are investigated. To demonstrate the influence of printing parameters on fatigue lifetime, standard specimens with nozzle diameters of 0.2-0.6 mm, extruder temperature of 180-240°C, and print speed of 5-15 mm/s were printed. After performing fully-reversed bending fatigue tests, it was found that printed specimens at 180°C have the best fatigue lifetime in most cases. Accordingly, fatigue behavior improved by reducing the nozzle diameter. Printing at lower temperatures also improved fatigue lifetime. The printing speed affected the slope of the S-N diagram, known as the fatigue strength exponent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0477.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Laser power; Joule heat; Composite heat source; Temperature field; Additive manufacturing
Online: 30 December 2021 (07:16:03 CET)
The Laser Thermal-Joule Heating Composite Process was studied by orthogonal tests based on an analysis of fabrication parameters such as the laser power, wire feeding speed, and electric current. Temperature profiles and the geometric morphology of deposited layers under different process parameters were analyzed, and the overlaps between the layers and the substrate were observed. Results show that when the temperature at the bottom layer of the additive manufacturing is higher than the melting point of the substrate, and the highest temperature at the top layer does not exceed the over-firing temperature, good morphology and close bonding with the substrate can be obtained. Finally, appropriate process parameters were identified and verified to print multiple layers continuously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0427.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: AdaBoost; Cost-sensitive learning; Forward stagewise additive modeling; SAMME; SAMME.C2; SMOTE
Online: 27 December 2021 (12:12:54 CET)
Classification predictive modeling involves the accurate assignment of observations in a dataset to target classes or categories. There is an increasing growth of real-world classification problems with severely imbalanced class distributions. In this case, minority classes have much fewer observations to learn from than those from majority classes. Despite this sparsity, a minority class is often considered the more interesting class yet developing a scientific learning algorithm suitable for the observations presents countless challenges. In this article, we suggest a novel multi-class classification algorithm specialized to handle severely imbalanced classes based on the method we refer to as SAMME.C2. It blends the flexible mechanics of the boosting techniques from SAMME algorithm, a multi-class classifier, and Ada.C2 algorithm, a cost-sensitive binary classifier designed to address highly class imbalances. Not only do we provide the resulting algorithm but we also establish scientific and statistical formulation of our proposed SAMME.C2 algorithm. Through numerical experiments examining various degrees of classifier difficulty, we demonstrate consistent superior performance of our proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0329.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); children; adolescents; lipid profile; cholesterol; generalized additive model
Online: 22 October 2021 (12:07:37 CEST)
Background: Residents of a large area of North-Eastern Italy were exposed for decades to high concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) via drinking water. Despite the large amount of evidence in adults of a positive association between serum PFAS and metabolic outcomes, studies focusing on children and adolescents are limited. We evaluated the associations between serum PFAS concentrations and lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in highly exposed adolescents and children. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 6669 adolescents (14-19 years) and 2693 children (8-11 years) enrolled in the health surveillance program of the Veneto Region. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained and analyzed for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), total cholesterol (TC) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured and BMI z-score accounting for age and sex was estimated. The associations between ln-transformed PFAS (and categorized into quartiles) and continuous outcomes were assessed using generalized additive models. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Among adolescents, significant associations were detected between all investigated PFAS and TC, LDL-C, and to a fewer extent HDL-C. Among children, PFOS and PFNA had significant associations with TC, LDL-C and HDL-C, while PFOA and PFHxS had significant associations with HDL-C only. Increased serum concentrations of PFAS, particularly PFOS, were associated with decreased BMI z-score. No statistically significant associations were observed between PFAS concentrations and BP. Conclusions: Our study supports a consistent association between PFAS concentration and serum lipids, stronger for PFOS and PFNA and with a greater magnitude among children compared to adolescents, and a negative association of PFAS with BMI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Process monitoring; Welding; Additive manufacturing; Digitization; Sensors; Industry 4.0; Digital twin.
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:23:59 CEST)
Welding processes offer a unique capability with a wide range of applications in industries. In recent times, welding has established itself as a tool for large scale additive manufacturing. In general, the quality and repeatability assurance for welding and specifically for additive manufacturing necessitates integrating process monitoring techniques with existing welding and additive manufacturing processes. The process-specific signals such as welding current fluctuations, temperature, and acoustic, generated during the welding operations, make them a suitable candidate for digitization. This chapter comprehensively describes the process monitoring techniques relevant to welding and additive manufacturing. Firstly, various sensors used during welding are described for their construction and working. Subsequently, specific applications of the sensors in digitizing the welding processes are presented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Flexible sensors; additive manufacturing; 3D printing; self-healing; nanocomposites; advanced manufacturing
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:30:46 CEST)
The use of flexible sensors has tripled over the last decade due to the increased demand in various fields including health monitoring, food packaging, electronic skins and soft robotics. Flexible sensors have the ability to be bent and stretched during use and can still maintain their electrical and mechanical properties. This gives them an advantage over rigid sensors that lose their sensitivity when subject to bending. Advancements in 3D printing have enabled the development of tailored flexible sensors. Various additive manufacturing methods are being used to develop these sensors including inkjet printing, aerosol jet printing, fused deposition modelling, direct ink writing, selective laser melting and others. Hydrogels have gained much attention in the literature due to their self-healing and shape transforming. Self-healing enables the sensor to recover from damages such as cracks and cuts incurred during use and this enables the sensor to have a longer operating life and stability. Various polymers are used as substrates on which the sensing conductive material is placed. Polymers including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyvinyl acetate (PVA), and Kapton are extensively used in flexible sensors. The most widely used nanomaterials in flexible sensors are carbon and silver, however, other nanomaterials such as iron, copper, manganese dioxide and gold are also used to provide controlled levels of conductivity or other functional properties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: porous tantalum; clinical application; additive manufacturing; surface modification; bone tissue engineering
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:36:57 CEST)
Porous tantalum (Ta) is a promising biomaterial and has been applied in orthopedics and dentistry for nearly two decades. The high porosity and interconnected pore structure of porous Ta promise fine bone ingrowth and new bone formation within the inner space, which further guarantee rapid osteointegration and bone-implant stability in long term. Porous Ta has high wettability and surface energy that can facilitate adherence, proliferation and mineralization of osteoblasts. Meanwhile, low elastic modulus and high friction coefficient of porous Ta can effectively avoid stress shield effect, minimize marginal bone loss and ensure primary stability. Accordingly, the satisfactory clinical application of porous Ta based implants or prostheses are mainly derived from its excellent biological and mechanical properties. With the advent of additive manufacturing, personalized porous Ta based implants or prostheses have shown their clinical value in the treatment of individual patient who need specially designed implant or prosthesis. In addition, many modification methods have been introduced to enhance the bioactivity and antibacterial property of porous Ta with promising in vitro and in vivo research results. In any case, choosing suitable patients is of great importance to guarantee surgical success after porous Ta insertion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0519.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: machine learning; additive manufacturing; conditional generative adversarial network; in-situ monitoring
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:55:32 CET)
Conditional generative adversarial networks (CGANs) learn a mapping from conditional input to observed image and perform tasks in image generation, manipulation and translation. In-situ monitoring uses sensors to obtain real-time information of additive manufacturing (AM) processes that relate to process stability and part quality. Understanding the correlations between process inputs and in-situ process signatures through machine learning can enable experimental-driven predictions of future process inputs. In this research, in-situ data obtained during a metallic powder bed fusion AM process is mapped with a CGAN. A single build of two turbine blades is monitored using EOSTATE Exposure OT, a near-infrared optical tomography system of the EOS M290 system. Layerwise images generated from the in-situ monitoring system were paired with a conditional image that labeled the specimen cross-section, laser-scan stripe overlap and z-distance to part surfaces. A CGAN was trained using the turbine blade data set and employed to generate new in-situ layerwise images for unseen conditional inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0435.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Additive Manufacturing, Impact energy; Fracture; Hatch Spacing; Scan Speed; Process Parameters
Online: 21 October 2020 (12:03:04 CEST)
The current paper aims to study the impact properties of additively manufactured Maraging steel (1.2709) using laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) processing. The specimens were manufactured using 3Dsystems ProX 300 equipment under constant specific power input, or Andrew Number. The interactions between the build strategy and parameters, such as Hatch spacing and Scan speed was, and the impact strength and fracture were investigated. The Impact energy anisotropy was also investigated parallel and perpendicular to the build direction. Instrumented impact testing was performed, and the fractography supported that the fusion zone geometry dictated the fracture behaviour. The influence from gaseous elements such as Nitrogen, Oxygen and Hydrogen was found insignificant at the levels found in the printed material.
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: additive technology; titanium alloy; TiAl6V4; microstructure; tensile strength; Laser Metal Deposition
Online: 30 September 2020 (16:42:06 CEST)
: TiAl6V4 alloy is widely used in selective laser melting and direct laser melting. In turn, works devoted to the issue of how the track stacking scheme affects the value of mechanical properties is not enough. The influence of the Ti6Al4V alloy track trajectories on the microstructure and mechanical properties during direct laser deposition is studied in this article for the first time. The results were obtained on the influence of «parallel» and «perpendicular» technique of laying tracks in direct laser synthesis. All studied samples have a microstructure typical of the hardened two-phase condition titanium. It is shown that the method of laying tracks and the direction of load application during compression testing relative to the location of the tracks leads to a change in the ultimate strength of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy from 1794 to 1910 MPa. The plasticity of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy obtained by direct laser alloying can vary from 21.3 to 33.0% depending on the direction of laying the tracks and the direction of the compression test. The hardness of alloys varies in the range from 409 to 511 HV and depends on the method of laying the tracks and the direction of hardness measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0125.v1
Subject: Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Thermal stress; Additive manufacturing; Mechanical properties; Thermomechanical simulation
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:44:50 CEST)
Metal 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing method. The quality of the printed product can pass for mechanical application, if the anisotropy of the microstructure, imperfections, deformation, and residual stress of the printed sample could be lower than the appropriate level or if they are fully illuminated. Thermal stress is one of the significant reasons for deformation in the 3D printed samples. Thermal stresses are the direct consequence of the local temperature gradient. In this research, the effect of the temperature printer’s chamber (from room temperature to 900 C) was studied on thermal stress and subsequent total deformation in the printed sample. The printed sample is a six-layers-printed walk, which could be considered as a building block of other complex shapes and give us inside about deformation. The computational results show a meaningful reduction in thermal stress and deformation at the higher temperature of the printer’s chamber. The lower final deformation of the printed sample is an important subject, especially for samples with complex shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; 3-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:16:16 CET)
Detailed kinetics for a 3-wavelength photopolymerization confinement (PC) system is presented for both numerical solutions and analytic formulas. The dynamic profiles are simulated for oxygen, free radical, and conversion for various situations of: blue-light only, 2-light (red and UV), and 3-light (red, blue, UV). An effective PC requires two conditions: (i) a strong N-inhibition for uncured regime with a low conversion (triggered by the UV-light); and (ii) a weak S-inhibition (oxygen-induced) for high conversion under the blue-light or blue and red-light initiation. Good PC candidates are governed by collective factors of: (i) the double ratio of light-intensity and initiator-concentration, (ii) monomers rate-constant; and (iii) effective absorption constants at specific wavelength and initiators. A new reverse feature for the role of N-inhibition on the blue-conversion is found. Higher oxygen concentration leads to a lower conversion, which could be enhanced by reducing the S-inhibition via a red or blue-light pre-irradiation, having a pre-irradiation time TP=200 s for red-light only, and reduced to 150 s, when both red and blue-light. System under UV-only leads a conversion lower than that of blue-only. However, conversion could be improved by the dual-light (blue and UV), and further enhanced by the pre-irradiation of red-light. The two competing factors, N-inhibition and S-inhibition, could be independently and selectively tailored to achieve: (a) high conversion of blue-light (without UV-light), enhanced by red-light pre-irradiation for minimal S-inhibition; and (b) efficient PC initiated by UV-light produced N-inhibition for reduced confinement thickness and for high print speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; flexural properties; fatigue; PLA
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:46:18 CET)
This paper aims to analyse the mechanical properties response of polylactic acid (PLA) parts manufactured through fused filament fabrication. The influence of six manufacturing factors (layer height, filament width, fill density, layer orientation, printing velocity, and infill pattern) on the flexural resistance of PLA specimens is studied through an L27 Taguchi experimental array. Different geometries have been tested on a four-point bending machine and on a rotating bending machine. From the first experimental phase, an optimal set of parameters deriving in the highest flexural resistance have been determined. Results show that layer orientation is the most influential parameter, followed by layer height, filament width, and printing velocity, whereas the fill density and infill pattern show no significant influence. Finally, the fatigue fracture behaviour is evaluated and compared with previous studies results, to present a comprehensive study of the mechanical properties of the material under different kind of solicitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; dual-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3d printing
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:33:03 CEST)
The kinetics and modeling of dual-wavelength controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC) are presented and measured data are analyzed by analytic formulas and numerical data. The UV-light initiated inhibition effect is strongly monomer-dependent and different monomers have different C=C bond rate constants and conversion efficacy. Without the UV-light, for a given blue-light intensity, higher initiator concentration (C10) and rate constant (k’) lead to higher conversion, as also predicted by analytic formulas, in which the total conversion rate (RT) is an increasing function of k’R, which is proportional to k[gB1C1]0.5. However, the coupling factor b1 plays a different role that higher b1 leads to higher conversion only in the transient regime; whereas higher b1 leads lower steady-state conversion. For a fixed initiator concentration C10, higher inhibitor concentration (C20) leads to lower conversion due to stronger inhibition effect. However, same conversion reduction was found for the same H-factor of H0 = [b1C10 - b2C20]. Conversion of blue-only are much higher than that of UV-only and UV-blue combined, in which high C20 results a strong reduction of blue-only-conversion, such that the UV-light serves as the turn-off (trigger) mechanism for the purpose of spatial confirmation within the overlap area of UV and blue light. For example, UV-light controlled methacrylate conversion of a glycidyl dimethacrylate resin formulated with a tertiary amine co-initiator, and butyl nitrite, subject to a continuous exposure of a blue light, but an on-off exposure of a UV-light. Finally, we developed a theoretical new finding for the criterion of a good material/candidate governed by a double ratio of light-intensity and concentration, [I20C20.]/[I10C10].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Electron Beam Melting; Electronic Imaging; Image Generation; STL Model
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:39:08 CET)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an increasingly used Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique employed by many industrial sectors, including the medical device and aerospace industries. In EBM process monitoring, data analysis for processed layer quality evaluation is currently focused on the extraction of information from the raw data collected in-EBM process, i.e. thermal/ optical / electronic images, and the comparison between the collected data and the Computed Tomography (CT)/ microscopy images generated post-EBM process. This article postulates that a stack of bitmaps could be generated from the 3D model at a range of Z heights during file preparation of the EBM process, and serve as a reference image set. In-EBM process comparison between that and the workpiece images collected during the EBM process could then be used for quality assessment purposes. In addition, despite the extensive literature on 3D model slicing and contour generation for AM process preparation, no methods regarding image generation from cross sections of the 3D models have been disseminated in details. This article aims to address this by presenting a piece of 3D model-image generation software. The software is capable of generating binary 3D model reference images with user-defined Region-of-Interest (ROI) of the processing area, and Z heights of the model. It is envisaged that this 3D model-reference image generation ability opens up new opportunities in quality assessment for the in-process monitoring of the EBM process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0590.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: 3D printing; Bioprinting; Additive Manufacturing, Tissue Engineering, Blood Vessels, Vascular Grafting
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:39:44 CET)
Abstract: The broad clinical use of synthetic vascular grafts for vascular diseases is limited by their thrombogenicity and low patency rate, especially for vessels with a diameter inferior to 6 mm. Alternatives such as tissue-engineered blood grafts (TEBGs) have gained increasing interest. Among the different manufacturing approaches, 3D bioprinting presents numerous advantages and enables the fabrication of multi-scale, multi-material, and multicellular tissues with heterogeneous and functional intrinsic structures. Extrusion-, inkjet- and light-based 3D printing techniques have been used for the fabrication of TEBG out of hydrogels, cells, and/or solid polymers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of 3D printing for TEBG with a focus on the biomaterials and deposition methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0072.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Pb-acid batteries, electrolyte additives, battery energy capacity, electrolyte additive concentration
Online: 20 September 2016 (15:39:49 CEST)
The paper presents a method to assess the effect of electrolyte additives on the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. The method applies to any chemically unreactive additive, including suspensions and gels. The approach is thermodynamically based and it leads to the definition of a region of admissible concentrations –the battery’s admissible range– where the battery can undergo an indefinite number of charge/discharge cycles without suffering permanent damage. An experimental procedure to determine this range is presented. The obtained results provide a way to assess the potential of electrolyte additives to improve the energy capacity of Pb-acid batteries. The same results also provide a means to determine the additive concentration that produces the maximum energy capacity increase of the battery. The paper closes with an example of application of the proposed approach to a practical case.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; 3D Printing; Additive Manufacturing; Medical Applications; Open-source files; Innovation
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:24:14 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread to over 180 countries and abruptly disrupted the production rates and supply chains worldwide. Since then, 3D printing also recognized as additive manufacturing (AM) and known to be a novel technique that uses layer-by-layer deposition of material to produce the intricate 3D geometry, has been engaged in reducing the distress caused by the outbreak. During the early stages of this pandemic, shortages of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE), including facemasks, shields, respirators, and other medical gears, were significantly answered by remotely 3D printing them. Amidst the growing testing requirements, the 3D printing emerged as a potential and fast solution manufacturing process to meet the production needs due to its flexibility, reliability, and rapid response capabilities. In the recent past, some of the other medical applications that have gained prominence in the scientific community include 3D printed ventilator splitters, device components, and patient-specific products. Regarding the non-medical applications, researchers have successfully developed contact-free devices to address the sanitary crisis in public places. This work aims to systematically review the applications of 3D printing or AM techniques that have been involved in producing various critical products essential to limit this deadly pandemic's progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0570.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Low-cost Metal Material Extrusion; Additive Manufacturing; Machine Learning; Dimensional Accuracy; Sintering
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:02:44 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerged layer-by-layer manufacturing process. However, its broad adoption is still hindered by limited material options, different fabrication defects, and inconsistent part quality. Material extrusion (ME) is one of the most widely used AM technologies, and, hence, is adopted in this research. Low-cost metal ME is a new and AM technology used to fabricate metal composite parts using sintered metal infused filament material. Since the involved materials and process are relatively new, there is a need to investigate the dimensional accuracy of ME fabricated metal parts for real-world applications. Each step of the manufacturing process, from the material extrusion to sintering, might significantly affect the dimensional accuracy. This research provides a comprehensive analysis of dimensional changes of metal samples fabricated by the ME and sintering process, using statistical and machine learning algorithms. Machine learning (ML) methods can be used to assist researchers in sophisticated pre-manufacturing planning and product quality assessment and control. This study compares linear regression to neural networks in assessing and predicting the dimensional changes of ME made components after 3D printing and sintering process. The prediction outcomes using a neural network performed the best with the highest accuracy as compared to regression. The findings of this study can help researchers and engineers to predict the dimensional variations and optimize the printing and sintering process parameters to obtain high quality metal parts fabricated by the low-cost ME process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0409.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: additive manufacturing; graphene oxide; graphene-based paste; direct ink writing; ceramic nanocomposites
Online: 23 April 2020 (10:09:23 CEST)
In the present work, the state of the art of the most common additive manufacturing (AM) technologies used for the manufacturing of complex shape structures of graphene-based ceramic nanocomposites, ceramic and graphene-based parts is explained. A brief overview of the AM processes for ceramic, which are grouped by the type of feedstock used in each technology, is presented. The main technical factors that affect the quality of the final product were reviewed. The AM processes used for 3D printing of graphene-based materials are described in more detail; moreover, some studies in a wide range of applications related to these AM techniques are cited. Furthermore, different feedstock formulations and their corresponding rheological behaviour were explained. Additionally, the most important works about the fabrication of composites using graphene-based ceramic pastes by Direct Ink Writing (DIW) are disclosed in detail and illustrated with representative examples. Various examples of the most relevant approaches for the manufacturing of graphene-based ceramic nanocomposites by DIW are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Electron Beam Melting; In-Process Monitoring; Quality Control; Electronic Imaging
Online: 10 January 2019 (11:52:10 CET)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an increasingly used Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique employed by many industrial sectors, including the medical device and aerospace industries. The application of this technology is, however, challenged by the lack of process monitoring and control system that underpins process repeatability and part quality reproducibility. An electronic imaging system prototype has been developed to serve as an EBM monitoring technique, the capabilities of which have been verified at room temperature and at 320+10°C. Nevertheless, in order to fully assess the applicability of this technique, the image quality needs to be investigated at a range of elevated temperatures to fully understand the influence of thermal noise due to heat. In this paper, electronic imaging pilot trials at elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to , were carried out. Image quality measure Q of the digital electron images was evaluated, and the influence of temperature was investigated. In this study, raw electronic images generated at higher temperatures had greater Q values, i.e. better global image quality. It has been demonstrated that, for temperatures between , the influence of temperature on electronic image quality was not adversely affecting the visual clarity of image features. It is envisaged that the prototype has significant potential to contribute to in-process EBM monitoring in many manufacturing sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0450.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: laser; additive manufacturing; laser beam machining; laser polishing; waviness; roughness; Inconel 718
Online: 27 June 2018 (15:12:32 CEST)
The present work proposes a novel manufacturing technique based on the combination of Laser Metal Deposition, Laser Beam Machining and Laser Polishing processes for the complete manufacturing of complex parts. Therefore, the complete process is based on the application of a laser heat source both for the building of the preform shape of the part by additive manufacturing and for the finishing operations. Their combination enables to manufacture near-net-shape parts and afterwards, remove the excess material via laser machining, which has resulted to be capable of eliminating the waviness resulting from the additive process. Besides, surface quality is improved via laser polishing to reduce the roughness of the final part. Therefore, conventional machining operations are eliminated, what results in a much cleaner process. In order to validate the capability of this new approach, the dimensional accuracy and surface quality of the resulting parts are evaluated. The process has been validated on an Inconel 718 test part, where a previously additively built up part has been finished by means of laser machining and laser polishing.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: graphene; diamond-like carbon; zinc dialkyldithiophosphate; lubricant additive; surface layers of solid elements
Online: 2 June 2021 (14:46:59 CEST)
If a lubricant contains structures capable of conducting energy, reactions involving zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) may take place both very close to and away from the solid surfaces, with this indicating that ZDDP can be a highly effective anti-wear (AW) additive. The central thesis of this article is that the tribocatalytic effect is observed only when the energy emitted by the solids is transmitted by ordered molecular structures present in the lubricant, e.g., graphene. The friction tests were carried out for 100Cr6 steel balls in a sliding contact with uncoated or a:C-H-coated HS6-5-2C steel discs in the presence of polyalphaolefin 8 (PAO 8) as the lubricant, which was enhanced with graphene and/or ZDDP. There is sufficient evidence of the interactions occurring between ZDDP and graphene and their effects on the tribological performance of the system. It was also found that the higher the concentration of zinc in the wear area, the lower the wear. This was probably due to the energy transfer resulting from the catalytic decomposition of ZDDP molecules. Graphene, playing the role of the catalyst, contributed to that energy transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0006.v1
Subject: Keywords: Additive manufacturing; laser powder bed fusion; support structures; lattice structures; easily removable; overhang
Online: 1 February 2021 (10:16:51 CET)
Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) is a type of additive manufacturing technology that processes metal powders into a component. Support structures are an essential part of the L- PBF process as they transfer the laser-induced heat during and shortly after the process to the substrate, sustaining positional accuracy of downward facing surfaces of the component. Since the use of support structures is inevitable, optimized designs for them are crucial in realizing more sustainable production process. In a serial production setup, reducing the lead time and cost of a non-value-added process step like support structure removal is of significance when improving the overall business case and competitiveness.The goal of this study was to verify the applicability of lattice-based support structures for L-PBF. To achieve this, different lattice types as support structures were designed. They were tested, compared and verified for a Siemens gas turbine component. The results showed that the generated lattice-based support structures could be suitable for L-PBF. The supports had to be designed appropriately such that they could preserve the geometry of the part. Furthermore, they had to have a short fabrication time and to be removable easily, preferably without machining or sawing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0733.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Polylactic acid (PLA); Fused deposition modelling (FDM); Laser joining; Tensile strength.
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:07:28 CEST)
The development of high complexity geometry parts is one of the main goals of the additive manufacturing technology. However, the failure of printed structures and the joining of different parts to create complex assemblies represents a real challenge in the research of efficient and sustainability techniques for the permanent assembly of polymers. Laser welding processes have been used as a single step method to join metals until years ago. Nowadays, the growing trend in the use of thermoplastics for additive manufacturing has led to the need to adapt this technique to materials with a very specific nature and more sensitive to thermal effects. Also, the possibility of transmitting the laser beam through transparent polymer layers allows to focus the energy supply on internal sections of the assembled components. In this research, an infrared laser marking system was used to join two different samples of polylactic acid manufactured by fused deposited modeling technology. In order to increase the effectiveness of the bonding process, a transparent and a dark sample have been used as assembly material, focusing the laser beam on the interface area of the two parts. By means of tensile tests, dimensional measurement and the use of optical microscopy techniques, a basis was established that links the supplied energy by laser to the joining performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0276.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Logic Keywords: Primes; Distribution of Primes; Primes and integers; Additive questions involving primes; Number representations
Online: 14 August 2020 (03:44:15 CEST)
Successive-addition-of-digits-of-a-number(SADN) refers to the process of adding up the digits of an integer number until a single digit is obtained. Concept of SADN has been occasionally identified but seldom employed in extensive mathematical applications. This paper discusses SADN and its properties in terms of addition, subtraction and multiplication. Further, the paper applies the multiplication-property of SADN to understand the distribution of prime numbers. For this purpose the paper introduces three series of numbers -S1, S3 and S5 series- into which all odd numbers can be placed, depending on their SADN and the rationale of such classification. Extending the analysis the paper explains how composite numbers of the S1 and S5 series can be derived. Based on this discussion it concludes that even as the concept of SADN is rather simple in its formulation and appears as an obvious truism but a profound analysis of the properties of SADN in terms of fundamental mathematical functions reveals that SADN holds a noteworthy position in number theory and may have significant implications for unfolding complex mathematical questions like understanding the distribution of prime numbers and Goldbach-problem.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; fused deposition modeling; FDM; dimensional accuracy; manufacturing process repeatability; polymer testing
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:58:13 CET)
This report describes the collection of a large dataset (6930 measurement) on dimensional error in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process for full-density parts. Three different print orientations were studied, as well as seven raster angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°) for the rectilinear infill pattern. All measurements were replicated ten times on ten different samples to ensure a comprehensive dataset. Eleven polymer materials were considered: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), high-temperature PLA, wood-composite PLA, carbon-fiber-composite PLA, copper-composite PLA, aluminum-composite PLA, high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), polyethylene terephthalate glycol-enhanced (PETG), polycarbonate, and synthetic polyamide (nylon). The samples were ASTM-standard impact testing samples, since this geometry allows the measurement of error on three different scales; the nominal dimensions were 3.25mm thick, 63.5mm long, and 12.7mm wide. This dataset is intended to give engineers and product designers a benchmark for judging the accuracy and repeatability of the FDM process for use in manufacturing of end-user products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0251.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: monolithic column; porous shell column; food additive; dye; food colorant; chromatography; fast chromatography
Online: 9 November 2018 (15:32:18 CET)
Food analysis demands fast methods for routine control and high throughput of samples. Chromatographic separation enables simultaneous determination of numerous compounds in complex matrices, several approaches increasing separation efficiency and speed of analysis were involved. In this work, modern types of column with monolithic rod or superficially porous particles were employed and compared for determination of eight synthetic food dyes, their chromatographic performance was evaluated. During method optimization, cyano stationary phase Chromolith Performance CN 100 × 4.6 mm and Ascentis Express ES-CN 100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm were selected for the separation of polar colorants. The separation was performed by gradient elution of acetonitrile/methanol and 2% water solution of ammonium acetate at flow rate 2.0 ml min-1. Mobile phase composition and the gradients were optimized in order to enable efficient separation on both columns. The method using fused-core particle column provided higher separation efficiency, narrow peaks of analytes resulted in increased peak capacity and shortening of analysis time. After the validation, the method was applied for analysis of colored beers, soft drinks and candies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0096.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Microstructure; Hardness; Mechanical properties; Aluminum alloys; Steels; Nickel alloys; Titanium alloys
Online: 5 October 2018 (10:00:36 CEST)
The rapidly evolving field of additive manufacturing requires a periodic assessment of the progress made in understanding the properties of metallic components. Although extensive research has been undertaken by many investigators, the data on properties such as hardness from individual publications are often fragmented. When these published data are critically reviewed, several important insights that cannot be obtained from individual papers become apparent. We examine the role of cooling rate, microstructure, alloy composition, and post process heat treatment on the hardness of additively manufactured components. Hardness data for steels and aluminum alloys processed by additive manufacturing and welding are compared to understand the relative roles of manufacturing processes. Furthermore, the findings are useful to determine if a target hardness is easily attainable either by adjusting AM process variables or through appropriate alloy selection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0432.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bone tissue engineering; biomaterials; bone scaffolds; additive manufacturing techniques/robocasting; marine-derived biomaterials
Online: 26 June 2018 (16:05:49 CEST)
Bone is a dynamic tissue with the capacity of repair and regeneration in specific conditions. Nevertheless, due to the increased incidence of bone disorders, the need of bone grafts has been growing over the past decades and the development of an ideal bone graft with optimal properties remains a clinical challenge. This review addresses the bone properties (morphology, composition and their repair and regeneration capacity) and puts the main focus on the potential strategies for developing bone repair and regeneration materials. It describes the requirements for designing a suitable scaffold material, types of materials (polymers, ceramics and composites) and techniques to obtain the porous structures (additive manufacturing techniques/robocasting or derived from marine skeletons) for bone tissue engineering applications. The main objective of this review is to gather the knowledge on the materials and methods for the production of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering and highlighting the potential of natural porous structures such as marine skeletons as promising alternative bone graft substitute materials without any further mineralogical changes, or after partial or total transformation into calcium phosphate. The suitability of the marine-derived porous bone graft substitutes for the intended applications will be also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0373.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Maraging steel; Microstructure; Martensite structure; Orientation relationship; electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD)
Online: 25 May 2018 (15:26:43 CEST)
This study characterizes the microstructure and its associated crystallographic features of bulk maraging steels fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) combined with a powder bed technique. The fabricated sample exhibited characteristic melt pools in which the regions had locally melted and rapidly solidified. A major part of these melt pools corresponded with the ferrite (alpha) matrix, which exhibited a lath martensite structure with a high density of dislocations. A number of fine retained austenite (gamma) with a <001> orientation along the build direction was often localized around the melt pool boundaries. The orientation relationship of these fine gamma grains with respect to the adjacent alpha grains in the martensite structure was (111) gamma // (011) alpha and [-101] gamma // [-1-11] apha (Kurdjumov–Sachs orientation relationship). Using the obtained results, we inferred the microstructure development of maraging steels during the SLM process. The results depict that new and diverse high-strength materials can be used to develop industrial molds and dies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: antibiotic; bacteroidetes; dietary emulsifier; firmicutes; food additive; gut microbiota; non-nutritive sweetener; proteobacteria
Online: 23 December 2016 (11:21:40 CET)
Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and its co-morbidities, like fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes and cardiovascular events. Among several factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antimicrobials and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota diversity and equilibrium. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.