ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0558.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:31:24 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) provides opportunities to design objects differently than traditional manufacturing methods allow, but only if designers understand the possibilities AM presents. In this study, we examined whether an AM workshop combined with an idea generation session could inspire engineering professionals to use AM solutions to solve current technical problems they face. All subjects were employees at an organization that will be referred to as Company X, a multinational commercial organization based in North America. During the study, we collected ideas for 24 projects generated before and after a training workshop focused on design for AM. In the workshop, we provided three hours of instruction about design for two metal-based AM processes. The participants’ ideas were assessed using four specific metrics: (1) cost, (2) time,(3) completeness of solution, and (4) quality, which was a function of feasibility, usefulness, and novelty. Using these data, we explored whether the workshop was effective in inspiring the participants to use AM methods and techniques from AM research in their concept generation and whether participants’ AM solutions showed improvement in cost, implementation time, and quality over non-AM designs generated before the workshop.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: sustainability; circular economy; additive manufacturing; recyclability
Online: 3 October 2023 (05:43:52 CEST)
The paper delves into an extensive exploration of the integration of the circular economy paradigm within the realm of additive manufacturing (AM). The objective is to comprehensively investigate existing methodologies for structuring the symbiotic relationship between circular economy and additive manufacturing, while meticulously analyzing the current research gap concerning the implementation of circular economy principles in additive manufacturing practices. A thorough review focusing on the sustainability of additive manufacturing within the circular economy framework was conducted. This review aims to recognize and delineate pertinent aspects related to post-use material valuation in AM, recyclability of materials, and the environmental footprint associated with these processes. Emphasis was placed on the significance of examining circular economy facets concerning additive manufacturing processes to establish a holistic understanding. The overarching goal of this review is to augment knowledge regarding the potential advantages and benefits derived from the seamless integration of circular economy principles within AM. By elucidating the activities essential to attain compliance with the Sustainable Development Goals, this study endeavors to illuminate the pathway toward promoting sustainable development through the harmonious marriage of additive manufacturing and the circular economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0743.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing applications; 3D printing platform for additive manufacturing; FDM; robot arm
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:18:03 CEST)
The paper presents the conceptualization and realization of a novel platform for additive manu-facturing, an industrial robot arm-based system for additive manufacturing applications. Tradi-tional 3D printers, especially those employing fused deposition modelling (FDM) processes, are restricted to depositing material in a single toolpath plane (e.g. x-y plane). The focus of this study was to explore the feasibility of integrating commercial off the shelf (COTS) additive manufac-turing technologies with a six degree of freedom industrial robot arm to yield a 3D additive manufacturing system with the capability to perform free-form six degree of freedom fused deposition modelling. The present paper presents the development of a platform from stage 0, i.e. materials to its use, and finally a printed product with the developed extruder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0685.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: additive manufacturing; dentistry; application
Online: 27 May 2021 (15:09:52 CEST)
(1) In recent ten years, with the fast development of digital and engineering manufacturing technology, additive manufacturing has already been more and more widely used in the field of dentistry, from the first personalized surgical guides to the latest personalized restoration crowns and root implants. (2) Especially, the bioprinting of teeth and tissue is of great potential to realize organ regeneration and finally improve the life quality. (3) In this review paper, we firstly presented the workflow of additive manufacturing technology. Then we summarized main applications and recent research progresses of additive manufacturing in dentistry. (4) Lastly, we sketched out some challenges and future directions of additive manufacturing technology in dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0104.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:07:28 CET)
In the production of green parts from powder, there is unavoidable slight deviation in the die filling, even when high-quality powders are used. The quantity of powder in the die varies and thus affects the weight of the compact. This filling variation results in variation of the pressing force, and thus influences the part geometry. The development of the DORST Netshape® System was conceived as an autonomous manufacturing system in order to compensate for these effects. Based on the Dorst Industry 4.0 innovations for part weight measuring immediately after pressing in combination with a laser dimension measuring system, this technology package attempts to reach enhanced precision and consistency in production. The paper presents results from various trials that show the capability of this new system, designed to improve the quality of pressed parts.
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:30:45 CET)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) simplifies the fabrication of complex geometries. Its scope has rapidly expanded from the fabrication of pre-production visualization models to the manufacturing of end use parts driving the need for better part quality assurance in the additively manufactured parts. Machine learning (ML) is one of the promising techniques that can be used to achieve this goal. Current research in this field includes the use of supervised and unsupervised ML algorithms for quality control and prediction of mechanical properties of AM parts. This paper explores the applications of supervised learning algorithms - Support Vector Machines and Random Forests. Support vector machines provide high accuracy in classifying the data and is used to decide whether the final parts have the desired properties. Random Forests consist of an ensemble of decision trees capable of both classification and regression. This paper reviews the implementation of both algorithms and analyzes the research carried out on their applications in AM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:41:04 CET)
Fatigue remains a challenge especially for high end metal AM parts and materials. From a design perspective, the fatigue limit of an AM solution can be improved upon by optimizing the manufacturing process for a certain material and part. In addition, improved accuracy of design methodologies aids in capturing the features critical for fatigue and quantifies their significance to desired part lifetime as well as providing a basis for their avoidance. In current work we present an overall concept merging thermomechanical process and powder bed solidification modeling to micromechanical analysis of fatigue of the resulting material microstructure. Material features critical to fatigue, particularly surface roughness, internal defects such as porosity and cracks and on the other hand inclusions, can be assessed directly on the basis of AM part microstructure with respect to the resulting fatigue limit. Case analyses consist of maraging steel and nickel alloys. The overall scheme provides a basis for optimization of metal AM solutions against fatigue and multiscale modeling founded basis for fatigue design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: metal additive manufacturing; metal 3D-Printing; deposition
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:47:10 CEST)
In this article, metallic additive manufacturing (AM) processes were classified and demonstrated. AM technology can be applied to a wide range of industrial areas because of its great feasibility in the design and manufacturing of various complex parts. The main factor that distinguishes various metallic AM processes from each other is the deposition method. Deposited metal can be imported in the form of melt or semi-solid. AM technology also covers a wide range of materials like aluminum, titanium, and many other alloys. Some of the common applications of metallic AM processes are the quick manufacturing of the parts which utilized in various industries like medical, automotive, aerospace, and jewelry industries. AM can help to fabricate parts that are impossible to be manufactured by other processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; topology optimization; lattice; Ti6Al4V; automotive; light-weighting
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:38:06 CET)
This paper provides an overview of the new CPAM Project on Additive Manufacturing (AM) in design and simulation, focusing on topology & lattice structure optimization for a light-weighting advantage. This industry/academia collaboration project aims to utilize existing hardware and software tools, and investigate the practical limits of the technologies, providing eventual guidelines for general use. This will provide a solid foundation for the practical use of metal AM optimized solid and latticed structures especially for Ti6Al4V parts. Two case studies are demonstrated here, one a purely topology optimized design, and one also incorporating lattice optimized design, both from Ti6Al4V and load-bearing components, to be utilized in the Nelson Mandela University (NMU) Eco-Car Project in competition, late in 2018. This paper presents the Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) process, the challenges met iro applying a DfAM design mindset, and a unique final voxel-based smoothing step finishing off the design process. Detailed structural integrity assessment of these parts are included - the question remains: can Additive Manufacturing help win the race?
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:59:58 CET)
Quality assurance has been one of the major challenges in laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. This study proposes a novel process modeling methodology for layer-wise in-situ quality monitoring based on image series analysis. An image-based autoregressive (AR) model has been proposed based on the image registration function between consecutively observed thermal images. Image registration is used to extract melt pool location and orientation change between consecutive images, which contains sensing stability information. Subsequently, a Gaussian process model is used to characterize the spatial correlation within the error matrix. Finally, the extracted features from the aforementioned processes are jointly used for layer-wise quality monitoring. A case study of a thin wall fabrication by a Directed Laser Deposition (DLD) process is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacture; topology optimisation; computed tomography
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:53:49 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides an opportunity to fundamentally redesign components previously limited by conventional manufacturing techniques. A new process for this workflow of design, manufacture by Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) and validation is presented, to which a case study of a crank for a high performance racing bicycle is applied. Topology optimisation generated conceptually ideal geometry from which a functional design was interpreted. Design for AM considerations were employed to reduce build time, material usage and post-processing labour. PBF was employed to manufacture the parts, and the build quality assessed using Computed Tomography (CT). Static and dynamic functional testing was performed and compared to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). CT confirmed good build quality of tall, complex geometry with no significant geometrical deviation from CAD over 0.5 mm. Static testing proved performance close to current market leaders, although failure under fatigue occurred after just 2495 ± 125 cycles, the failure mechanism was consistent in both its form and location. These physical results were representative of those simulated, thus validating the FEA. This research demonstrates a complete workflow from design, manufacture, post-treatment and validation of a highly loaded PBF manufactured component, offering practitioners with a validated approach to the application of PBF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticles; cobalt ferrite; barium ferrite; additive manufacturing; VAT Photopolymerization
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:25:47 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing and nanotechnology have been used as basic tools for the manufacture of nanostructured parts with magnetic properties to expand the variety of applications in additive processes by tank photopolymerization. Magnetic cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) and barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) nanoparticles with the size distribution of average value DTEM of 12 ± 2.95 nm and 37 ± 12.78 nm, respectively were generat-ed by hydroxide precipitation method. The dispersion of the nanoparticles on commercial resins (Anycubic Green and IRIX White resin) was obtained by mechanochemical reactions carried out in an agate mortar for 20 minutes, at room temperature and with limited exposure to light. The product of each reaction was placed in amber vials, also being kept in a box, to avoid contact with light. The photopolymerization process was carried out only at low concentrations (w/w % nanoparticles/resin) since, at high concentrations, there is no for-mation of pieces due to the high refractive index of ferrites. Raman shift spectroscopy of the final pieces showed that they contain the magnetic nanoparticles, with no apparent chemical changes. The EPR results of the pieces maintain the magnetic properties and apparently, they are not modified during the photopolymer-ization. Although significant differences were found in the dispersion process of the nanoparticles in each piece, we determined that the photopolymerization did not influence the structure and superparamagnetic behavior of ferrite nanoparticles during processing, and the magnetic properties were successfully transferred to the final 3D-printed magnetic obtained piece.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1925.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: wire electron beam additive manufacturing; aluminum bronze; wire-based additive manufacturing; EBAM; DED-EB
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:08:25 CEST)
In recent years, in addition to the commonly known wire-based processes of Directed Energy Deposition using lasers, a process variant using the electron beam has also developed to industrial market maturity. The process offers particular potential for processing highly conductive, reflective or oxidation-prone materials. However, for industrial usage there is a lack of comprehensive data on performance, process limits and possible applications. The present study deals with this problem using the example of the high-strength aluminum bronze CuAl8Ni6. Multi-stage test welds are used to determine the physically possible process limits and draw conclusions about the suitability of the parameters for additive manufacturing. For this purpose, optimal ranges for energy input, possible welding speeds and the scalability of the process were investigated. Finally, additive test specimens in the form of cylinders and walls are produced and the hardness profile, microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated. It is found that the material CuAl8Ni6 can be well processed by wire electron beam additive manufacturing. The microstructure is similar to a cast structure, the hardness profile over the height of the specimens is constant and the tensile strength and elongation at fracture values achieved correspond to the specification of the raw material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; compositionally complex alloys; microstructure-property correlation
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:25:09 CEST)
The recent decade has witnessed the evolution of a novel paradigm of alloying which is based on utilising multiple elements to design compositionally complex alloys also known as high entropy alloys (HEAs). Conventional manufacturing of HEAs has a number of drawbacks, especially in terms of mechanical properties and design complexities. This has been addressed by additive manufacturing (AM), which has not only led to the fabrication of complex-shaped HEA components but has also enabled both ex-situ and in-situ tailoring of alloy microstructures. Considering the increasing interest in AM-based fabrication of HEAs in the last ten years, the present chapter is aimed at highlighting the present status and challenges in the avenue of AM of HEAs. This has been followed by a discussion on the recent trends in the avenue of AM-based fabrication of HEAs from the viewpoints of (i) microstructure evolution and mechanical properties, and (ii) alloy fabrication techniques. The chapter ends with a discussion on the future prospects in the aforementioned avenue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Graded Porosity; Acetabular Cup; Ti6Al4V; DMLS
Online: 24 April 2023 (11:19:12 CEST)
Porous structured metallic implants are preferable as bone graft substitutes due to their faster tissue integration mediated by bone in-growth and vascularization. The porous scaffolds/ implants should also mimic the graded structure of natural bone to ensure a match of mechanical properties. This article presents a method to design graded porous structured acetabular implant and identifies the suitable parameters for manufacturing the model through additive manufacturing. The design method is based on slice-wise modification to ensure continuity of gradation. Modification of the slices was achieved through the binary image processing route. A geodesic dome type design was adopted for developing the acetabular cup model from the graded porous structure. The model had a solid shell with the target porosity and pore size gradually changing from 65% and 950 µm, respectively, in the inner side to 75% and 650 µm, respectively, towards the periphery. The required dimensions of the unit structures, and the combinations of pore structure and strut diameter to obtain the target porosity and pore size were determined analytically. Suitable process parameters were identified to manufacture the model by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) using Ti6Al4V powder after carrying out a detailed experimental study to minimize the variation of surface roughness and warping over different build angles of the strut structures. A dual contour scanning was implemented to simplify the scan strategy. The minimum diameter of struts that could be manufactured using the selected scanning strategy and scanning parameters was found to be 375 µm. Finally, the model was built and from the micro-CT data, the porosities and pore sizes were found to be closely conforming to the designed values. The stiffness of the structures, as found from compression testing, was also found to be well matching with that of human trabecular bone. Further, the structure exhibited compliant bending-dominated behavior under compressive loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0271.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: aluminium alloy; dynamic testing; additive manufacturing; Split-Hopkinson methods
Online: 14 January 2021 (13:16:04 CET)
This work investigates the influence of strain rate on the stress/strain behaviour of Scalmalloy. This material is an aluminium-scandium-magnesium alloy, specifically developed for additive manufacturing. The bulk yield stress of the material processed by Selective Laser Melting is approximately 340 MPa which can be increased by heat-treating to approximately 530 MPa. These numbers, combined with the low mass density of 2.7 g/cm3, make Scalmalloy an interesting candidate for lightweight crash-absorbing structures. As this application is inherently dynamic, it is of interest to study the loading rate sensitivity, which is difficult to predict: Al-Sc alloys exhibit classic strain rate sensitivity with an increased yield stress at elevated strain rates. However, Al-Mg alloys are known to show the contrary effect, they exhibit less strength as strain rate is increased. To answer the question how these effects combine, we study the dynamic behaviour at four different strain rates ranging from 10−3 /s to 1000 /s using servo-hydraulic and Split-Hopkinson testing methods. The resulting data is analysed in terms of strain rate sensitivity of tensile strength and failure strain. A constitutive model based on a simplified Johnson-Cook approach is employed to simulate the tensile tests and provides good agreement with the experimental observations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: Prototyping; Spare Parts; Metal Additive Manufacturing; Demand Variability; Stockout
Online: 14 August 2023 (13:36:47 CEST)
Metal Additive Manufacturing (MAM) has emerged as a promising technology in the aerospace industry, enabling the production of complex components with enhanced design flexibility and reduced lead times. Concurrently, Industry 4.0 has gained significant attention for its potential to revolutionize aerospace manufacturing processes. The paper aims to cluster and review the literature on MAM in the aerospace industry, specifically focusing on its relevance to Industry 4.0 and its applicability throughout the various stages of the product life cycle for the chief purpose of matching supply with demand. Identified gaps and challenges are analyzed, highlighting the need for further research and outlining research agenda aimed at advancing the integration of MAM for Industry 4.0 in the aerospace sector. By addressing these research areas, the aerospace industry can unlock the value of MAM within an Industry 4.0 framework, leading to improved efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0587.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; surface morphology; real-time measurement; deep learning
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:01:50 CET)
Layer-wise 3D surface morphology information is critical for the quality monitoring and control of additive manufacturing (AM) processes. However, most of the existing 3D scan technologies are either contact or time consuming, which are not capable of obtaining the 3D surface morphology data in a real-time manner during the process. Therefore, the objective of this study is to achieve real-time 3D surface data acquisition in AM, which is achieved by a supervised deep learning-based image analysis approach. The key idea of this proposed method is to capture the correlation between 2D image and 3D point cloud, and then quantify this relationship by using a deep learning algorithm, namely, convolutional neural network (CNN). To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, both simulation and real-world case studies were performed. The results demonstrate that this method has strong potential to be applied for real-time surface morphology measurement in AM, as well as other advanced manufacturing processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1821.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; design for additive manufacturing; topology optimization; development of designing
Online: 27 September 2023 (03:50:16 CEST)
The solved research problem is oriented to the implementation of advanced methods of component design and their sophisticated use in the ever-advancing additive manufacturing. Based on the stated objectives, the research was divided into several parts. Initially, the methods and principles of design in additive manufacturing were evaluated and investigated, from which the intent was subsequently defined and the DfAM method in the component design and development process was determined. The given design method, namely topology optimization (TO), was applied to multiple development and production cycles of additive manufacturing parts to validate the research conclusions. In this paper, the procedure for a specific part or component assembly is shown. By evaluating the developed design procedure using the TO method included in the design process, the conclusions are positive in terms of both time savings and properties of the designed part such as strength and weight parameters. The given findings need to be further developed by implementing on specific product lines for increasing the efficiency of the developed design methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Microsegregation; Solidification; Calphad; Phase-field
Online: 3 April 2023 (04:09:19 CEST)
Rapid solidification during metal additive manufacturing (AM) leads to non-equilibrium microsegregation, which can result in the formation of detrimental phases and cracking. Most of the microsegregation models, assume a Scheil-type solidification, where the solidification interface is planar and there exists local equilibrium at the interface along with either zero or infinite solute diffusion in the respective participating phases - solid and liquid. This assumption leads to errors in prediction. One has to account for finite solute diffusion and the curvature at the dendritic tip for more accurate predictions. In this work, we compare different microsegregation models that do and do not consider finite diffusion and dendrite tip kinetics against the experiments. We also propose a method to couple dendrite tip kinetics with the diffusion module (DICTRA®) implemented in Thermo-Calc®. The models which accounted for both finite diffusion and dendrite tip kinetics matched well with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2098.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Additive manufacturing; antimicrobial materials; biopolymers; copper composite additives; medical devices
Online: 29 September 2023 (10:36:34 CEST)
Background: Advances in additive manufacturing and the development of antimicrobial biopolymers facilitate the production of critical medical devices with strong and safe biocidal properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy, safety, and longevity of a polylactic acid-based biopolymer supplemented with a copper-based composite additive. Methods: An antimicrobial polylactic acid-based biopolymer was tested against several inoculants including Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA, E. coli, Listeria, HCoV-229E (a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate), and HIV-1. Material safety was evaluated according to international testing standards for in vitro cytotoxicity. Results: The main findings of the present investigation showed a strong and long-lasting biocidal effect of a polylactic acid-based biopolymer embedded with a copper-based composite additive against Staphylococcus Aureus, MRSA, E. coli, Listeria, HCoV-229E (a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate), and HIV-1. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity and safety assessment of the antimicrobial biopolymer was found to be “non-toxic” and safe for human skin contact. Conclusions: The present investigation showed that the antimicrobial biopolymer exhibits strong and long-lasting biocidal properties against an array of viral and bacterial inoculants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0459.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: magnesium; aluminum; additive manufacturing; complex structure; mechanical characteristics; tribological performance
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:28:16 CEST)
Magnesium and Aluminum alloys continue to be important in the context of modern and lightweight technologies. With the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM), components can be produced directly in a net shape, widen up the usage of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as holding new ideas for the application of unique physical structures made feasible by 3D printing. Laser-based approach, one of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods, enables the formation of arbitrary 3D structures. With promising findings, research in this area is advancing quickly, bringing up a variety of potential applications in both the scientific and industrial sectors. Complex structures can now be manufactured easily utilizing AM technologies to meet the pre-requisite objectives like reduced part numbers, greater functionality, and lightweight, among others. AM has the ability to meet demands by lowering costs and speeding up the manufacturing process. Due to their popularity in numerous high-value applications, aluminum, and magnesium alloys are one of the key material systems being researched in the laser-based additive manufacturing approaches. The review here aims to comprehensively examine the additive manufacturing of magnesium and aluminum alloys, highlighting the influence of the laser-based additive manufacturing approach on the mechanical characteristics, microstructure, and tribological performance of magnesium and aluminum alloys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; confocal microscopy; measurement; calibration; traceability; uncertainty; quality assessment
Online: 12 November 2019 (07:56:55 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a promising new technology that is having a very fast growth from home workshops to high-tech cutting-edge factories. As any manufacturing technique, adequate metrology services are needed to assure the quality of items manufactured by AM. One of the most widely used instruments to measure the characteristics of surfaces manufactured with AM is the confocal microscope. In this paper, authors present a whole calibration procedure for confocal microscopes designed to be implemented preferably in workshops or industrial environments rather than in research and development departments. Because of that, it is as simple as possible. The procedure is designed without forgetting any of the key aspects that need to be taken into account and based on classical reference material standards. These standards can be easily found in industrial dimensional laboratories and easily calibrated in accredited calibration laboratories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1034.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); microstructure; 5000 series alloys; mechanical characteristics
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:55:19 CEST)
In recent years, additive manufacturing of products made from 5000 series alloys has grown in popularity for marine and automotive applications. In this work, we compare of mechanical properties characteristics of aluminum alloy 5056 material produced by wire-arc additive technology and rolling. We carried out tension tests under quasi-static loading and impact toughness tests under impact loading. The results show that upon similar ultimate tensile strength and ductility, material after additive manufacturing demonstrates decreased resistance against dynamic loading than material manufactured by the typical method of casting and rolling. This decrease in properties was explained through macro- and microstructure analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Multi-material additive manufacturing; Functionally graded materials; Conventional Manufacturing; Interface Issues
Online: 16 November 2021 (08:50:21 CET)
Additive manufacturing has already been established as a highly versatile manufacturing technique with demonstrated potential to completely transform conventional manufacturing in the future. The objective of this paper is to review the latest progress and challenges associated with the fabrication of multi-material parts using additive manufacturing technologies. Various manufacturing processes and materials used to produce functional components were investigated and summarized. The latest applications of multi-material additive manufacturing (MMAM) in automotive, aerospace, biomedical and dentistry field were demonstrated. Investigation on the current challenges were also carried out to predict the future direction of MMAM processes. It is concluded that the further research and development needed in the design of multi-material interfaces, manufacturing processes and material compatibility of MMAM parts are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multiphoton lithography; crystalline; 3D nanostructures; ceramic; glass; additive manufacturing
Online: 28 December 2020 (15:44:19 CET)
The current paper is focused on the rapidly developing field of nano-/micro three-dimensional production of inorganic materials. The fabrication method includes laserlithography of hybrid organic-inorganic materials with subsequent heat treatment lead-ing to a variety of crystalline phases in 3D structures. In this work, it was examineda series of organometallic polymer precursors with different silicon (Si) and zirconium (Zr) molar ratios, ranging from 9:1 to 5:5, prepared via sol-gel method. All mixtureswere examined for perspective used in 3D laser by manufacturing by fabricating nano-and micro-feature sized structures. Their deformation and surface morphology wereevaluated depending on chemical composition and crystallographic phase. The appear-ance of a crystalline phase was proven using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis,which revealed a lower crystallization temperature for microstructures compared tobulk materials. Fabricated 3D objects retain a complex geometry without any distortion after heat treatment up to 1400oC. Under the proper conditions, a zircon phase (ZrSiO4 - a highly stable material) can be observed. In addition, the highest newrecord of achieved resolution below 60 nm has been reached. The proposed prepara-tion protocol can be used to manufacture micro/nano-devices with high precision andresistance to high temperature and aggressive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Ti6Al4V; SS316L; AlSi10Mg; mechanical properties; Stress corrosion; Surface post- processing; space environment
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:08:01 CET)
The potential of the Additive Manufacturing technologies is impeded by the surface finish obtained on the as-manufactured material. Therefore, the influence of various surface treatments, commonly applied to space hardware, on the mechanical properties of three selected metallic alloys (SS316L, AlSi10Mg, Ti6Al4V) prepared by using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Electron Beam Melting (EBM) additive manufacturing processes have been investigated. Within this study, SLM using EOS M400 and EOS M280 equipment and in addition EBM using an ARCAM Q20 machine have been applied for sample manufacturing. A half-automated shot-peening process followed by a chemical and/or electrochemical polishing or Hirtisation® process has been applied in order to obtain lower surface roughness compared to their as-received states. Special emphasize has been taken on their tensile, fatigue, and fracture toughness properties. In addition, their stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour including microstructural analysis using HR-SEM have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mo-Si-B alloys; laser additive manufacturing; high-temperature mechanical properties; oxide dispersion strengthening
Online: 1 February 2021 (15:38:52 CET)
Intermetallic alloys like e.g. Iron-Aluminides, Titanium-Aluminides or Molybdenum- Silizides are prospective materials for high-temperature applications. For additive manufacturing (AM) intermetallic structural materials are particularly challenging due to their high melting points, oxygen susceptibility and low temperature brittleness. The feasibility of manufacturing intermetallic Mo-Si-B alloys with the laser additive manufacturing process of direct energy deposition (DED) is demonstrated and recent results in characterizing rapidly solidified material with respect to correlations between process, composition and microstructures are presented. The possibility to dope the material with Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) for dispersion is successfully demonstrated. Current challenges, e.g. homogenous distribution of alloying elements and applicability are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; additive manufacturing; N95; respirator; particle transmission; filtration efficiency
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:33:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the supply chain for personal protective equipment (PPE) for medical professionals, including N95-type respiratory protective masks. To address this shortage, many have looked to the agility and accessibility of additive manufacturing (AM) systems to provide a democratized, decentralized solution to producing respirators with equivalent protection for last-resort measures. However, there are concerns about the viability and safety in deploying this localized download, print, and wear strategy. Several polymer-based AM processes produce porous parts, and inherent process variation between printers and materials also threaten the integrity of tolerances and seals within the printed respirator assembly. The goal of this paper is to quantitatively measure particle transmission through printed respirators of different designs, materials, and AM processes, and assess the viability of printed respirators as N95 equivalents. Results from this study show that respirators printed using desktop/industrial-scale fused filament fabrication processes and industrial-scale powder bed fusion processes have insufficient filtration efficiency at the size of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, even while assuming a perfect seal between the respirator and the user’s face. Almost all printed respirators provided <60% filtration efficiency at the 100-300 nm particle range. Only one respirator, printed on an industrial-scale fused filament fabrication system provided >90% efficiency as-printed. Post-processing procedures including cleaning, sealing surfaces, and reinforcing the filter cap seal generally improved performance, but no respirator sustained the filtration efficiency of an N95 respirator, which filters 95% of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. Instead, the printed respirators showed similar performance to various cloth masks. While continued optimization of printing process parameters and design tolerances could be implemented to directly print respirators that provide the requisite 95% filtration efficiency, AM processes are not sufficiently reliable for widespread distribution and local production of N95-type respiratory protection without commensurate quality assurance processes in place. Certain design/printer/material combinations may provide sufficient protection for specific users, but the respirators should not be trusted without quantitative filtration efficiency testing. It is currently not advised to expect printed respirators originating from distributed designs to replicate performance across different printers and materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Additive-Manufacturing, 3D Printing, Glass-Ceramics, Nanoscale, Laser 3D lithography, SZ2080, Cristobalite, Zirconia, Nanocomposites, Calcination
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:52:10 CEST)
Fabrication of a true-3D inorganic ceramic with resolution down to nanoscale using sol-gel resist precursor is demonstrated. The method has an unrestricted free-form capability, control of the fill-factor, and high fabrication throughput. A systematic study of the proposed approach based on ultrafast laser 3D lithography of organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel resin followed by a heat treatment enabled formation of inorganic amorphous and crystalline composites guided by the composition of the initial resin. The achieved resolution of 100 nm was obtained for 3D patterns of complex free-form architectures. Fabrication throughput of 50×103 voxels/s is achieved; voxel - a single volume element was recorded by a single pulse exposure. After a subsequent thermal treatment, ceramic phase was formed depending on the temperature and duration of the heat treatment as validated by Raman micro-spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a gradual emergence of the crystalline phases at higher temperatures with a signature of cristobalite SiO2, a high-temperature polymorph. Also, the tetragonal ZrO2 phase known for its high fracture strength was observed. This 3D nano-sintering technique is scalable from nano- to millimeter dimensions and opens a conceptually novel route for optical 3D nano-printing of various crystalline inorganic materials defined by an initial composition for diverse applications for microdevices in harsh physical and chemical environments and high temperatures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1041.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: additive manufacturing; electron beam melting; aluminum bronze; molecular dynamics simulation; crystallization, electron backscatter diffraction
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:43:15 CEST)
To obtain a given structure in 3D building-up modes, it is necessary to use optimal surfacing modes that determine the amount of heat input in local areas. For this purpose, aluminum bronze was surfacing onto a deformed base and the structure and its characteristics in the surfacing and heat-affected zones were studied by the EBSD method. The heterogeneity of the formation of the structure in each selected zone is established, which indicates the heterogeneity of heat input in local areas of the material in one mode of surfacing. For typical cases of crystallization, a molecular dynamics simulation of crystallization processes with different heat input to the base with characteristics specified based on experimental data was carried out. It has been established that the amount of heat input determines the degree of melting and the inherited defectiveness of growing crystals. The formation of misorientation boundaries and crystallization centers of new grains is determined by the conditions of joint growth of grains with given crystallographic parameters of the computational model. Numerical calculations agree with the experimentally observed results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0285.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; biyomedikal alloy; micro structure; mechanical properties.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:24:36 CEST)
The Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si) and Molybdenum (Mo) doped Co-Cr biomedical alloy were fabricated by additive manufacturing method, which is part of powder metadology. The mixture of Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si), Chrome (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) alloy is known good wear and corrosion resistance among of biomedical applications. By addition of Molybdenum (Mo) into the structure of alloy, the structure become more stbale also increase the corrosion and wear resistance. In addition, the effects of secondary annealing process on the alloy were investigated. The microstructure of the produced alloy was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis EDX and scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover, Electrochemical corrosion test, micro hardness and density measurements were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of the alloy. As a result of the analyzes, the effects of Molydenum (Mo) doped and secondary annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bioalloying were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0707.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymers; recycling; waste plastic; upcycle; circular economy; PET; additive manufacturing; distributed recycling; distributed manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 30 July 2020 (07:49:38 CEST)
This study explores the potential to reach a circular economy for post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) packaging and bottles by using it as a distributed recycling for additive manufacturing (DRAM) feedstock. Specifically, rPET is processed using only an open source toolchain with fused particle fabrication (FPF) or fused granular fabrication (FGF) processing. In this study, first the impact of granulation, sifting and heating (and their combination) is quantified on the shape and size distribution of the rPET flakes. Then feeding studies were performed to see if they could be printed through an external feeder or needed to be direct printed with a hopper using two Gigabot X machines, one with extended part cooling and one without. Print settings were optimized based on thermal characterization and for the latter which was shown to print rPET directly from shredded water bottles mechanical testing is performed. The results showed that geometry was important for extended feeding tubes and direct printed using a hopper. Further there is a wide disparity in the physical properties of rPET from water bottles depending on source and the history of the material. Future work is needed to enable water bottles to be used as a widespread DRAM feedstock.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0572.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: 3D printing polymers; Additive manufacturing; 4D printing; polymer textiles; multifunctional polymers
Online: 8 September 2023 (08:59:51 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) printing emerged as the next generation of manufacturing techniques, spanning several research areas such as engineering, chemistry, biology, computing, and materials science. Three-dimensional printing allows the manufacture of complex shapes with high precision, by adding layer by layer of different materials. The use of smart materials that change shape or color, produce an electrical current, become bioactive, or perform an intended function in response to an external stimulus. Shape memory materials (SMMs) in 3D printing technology have attracted a lot of attention due to their ability to respond to external stimuli, leading this technology towards an emerging area of research, "4D printing technology." The core part of this review summarizes the effect of the main external stimuli on 4D textile materials followed by the main applications 4D printed textiles can change their shape over time due to external stimuli such as temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Liquid metal; Additive manufacturing; Thermal management; Temperature gradient; Cooling rate; Crack
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:23:19 CEST)
How to effectively suppress thermal cracks in the metal laser additive manufacturing process is still one of the key issues to be solved in the field of laser additive manufacturing. Metal tin, with wide liquid phase working temperature range, high boiling point, low viscosity, high thermal conductivity and excellent electrical conductivity. The use of tin as an auxiliary thermal management material in the metal additive manufacturing process is expected to achieve effective regulation of the temperature field and stress field of the formed part, thereby inhibiting the initiation of cracks and obtaining formed parts with the target grain structure and high reliability. This paper presented a novel liquid metal-assisted laser additive manufacturing method (LMAAM). A numerical model for the laser additive manufacturing of tin-assisted titanium alloys was established. The differences of the flow field, temperature field and stress field of the formed parts with tin and without tin were compared and analyzed. The influence of the interaction position between the tin liquid level and the forming part on the temperature field and stress field of the forming part was deeply studied. The laser additive manufacturing experiment of tin-assisted titanium alloy was carried out, and the experimental results were basically consistent with the simulation results, which verified the validity of the model. LMAAM technology has proven to be an effective method for additive manufacturing of highly reliable formed parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0976.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Functionally graded lattice structure; infill; design exploration; finite element method; bicycle crank arm; additive manufacturing
Online: 26 April 2023 (10:24:45 CEST)
The presented research article shows a functionally graded lattice as an infill structure in designing a 3D printed mechanical element—a bicycle crank arm. The authors want to answer the fundamental question: whether the functionally graded lattice structures can efficiently improve structural performance and how they can be implemented in real complex components. Intuitively, everyone senses that using such elements must bring profit. A good example might be nature, which commonly reaches for such a solution in the skeletons of animals and humans. Two aspects determine their realisations: the lack of adequate construction and analysis methods and the limitations of existing manufacturing methods. Thus, the authors used relatively simple crank arm design and design exploration methods for structural analysis. The design exploration method enabled us to find the optimum solution efficiently. A developed prototype was created utilising additive manufacturing. One of the 3D printing methods - fused filament fabrication technology for metals, allowed the prototype of a crank arm with the optimised infill to be made. As a result, the authors developed a lightweight and manufacturable crank arm showing the new construction and analysis method implementable in similar 3D printed elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: WC-Co composite; Additive Manufacturing; Transversal Rupture Strength
Online: 4 May 2023 (09:03:20 CEST)
This study is focused on the mechanical properties of WC-Co composites obtained via Selective Laser Sintering using PA12 as a binder. The as-printed samples were thermally debonded, and sintered, first in vacuum, and then sinter-HIPed at 1400oC, using 50 bar Ar, which has led to relative densities up to 66 %. Optical metallographic images show a microstructure consisting of WC, with an average grain size in the range of 1.4 – 2.0 µm, with isolated large grains, in a well-distributed Co matrix. The shrinkage of the samples was 43 %, with no significant shape distortion. The printing direction of the samples has a great impact on the transversal rupture strength (TRS). Nevertheless, the bending strength was low, with a measured maximum of 612 MPa. SEM images of the fracture surface of TRS samples show the presence of defects that constitute the cause of the low measured values. The hardness values position the obtained composites in the range of medium coarse classical cemented carbides. The results were also related to the amount of free Co after sintering, close to the initial one, as assessed by magnetic measurements, indicating a low degree of interaction with PA12 decomposition products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: 3D structure; gradient foam; additive manufacturing; CO2 foaming; copolymer
Online: 19 October 2019 (02:10:29 CEST)
Synthetic polymer-based gradient foams have considered as promising category of functionally graded materials with unique properties. In this study, the carbon dioxide (CO2) foaming technology has used for PET-PEN (Polyethylene Terephthalate - Polyethylene Naphthalate) copolymer towards porous functional materials with thermal insulation with reasonable mechanical strength. Through scanning electron microscope based morphological characterization, a potential to fabricate gradient foam structures with micro-pores has identified. It has shown that variation of post-foaming temperature can tune the pore size distribution although the very high post-foaming temperature tends to cause structural instability. Thermal measurement data set the limits of operation, confirmed by simultaneous differential scanning calorimeter and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Mechanical stress and thermal conductivity also has measured to find rationale of thermal insulation with reasonable mechanical strength and to elucidate the actual 3D grid foam of copolymer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Cobalt-chromium alloy; Additive manufacturing; Selective laser melting; Microstructure; Tensile properties; Heat-treatment
Online: 10 October 2018 (17:00:23 CEST)
The limitations of investment casting of cobalt-based alloys are claimed to be less problematic with significant improvements in metal additive manufacturing by selective laser melting (SLM). Despite these advantages, the metallic devices are likely to display mechanical anisotropy in relation to build orientations, which could consequently affect their performance ‘in vivo’. In addition, there are inconclusive evidence concerning the requisite composition and post-processing steps (e.g. heat-treatment to relieve stress) that must be completed prior to the devices being used. In the current paper, we evaluate the microstructure of ternary cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) and cobalt-chromium-tungsten (Co-Cr-W) alloys built with Direct Metal Printing and LaserCUSING SLM systems respectively at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° inclinations (Φ) in as-built (AB) and heat-treated (HT) conditions. The study also examines the tensile properties (Young's modulus, E; yield strength, RP0.2; elongation at failure, At and ultimate tensile strength, Rm), relative density (RD), and micro-hardness (HV5) and macro-hardness (HV20) as relevant physico-mechanical properties of the alloys. Data obtained indicate improved tensile properties and HV values after short and cost-effective heat-treatment cycle of Co-Cr-Mo alloy; however, the process did not homogenize the microstructure of the alloy. Annealing heat-treatment of Co-Cr-W led to significant isotropic characteristics with increased E and At (except for Φ = 90º) in contrast to decreased RP0.2, Rm and HV values, compared to the AB form. Similarly, the interlaced weld-bead structures in AB Co-Cr-W were removed during heat-treatment, which led to a complete recrystallization in the microstructure. Both alloys exhibited defect-free microstructures with RD exceeding 99.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Additive manufacturing; Powder bed fusion; Thermal simulation; Thermal history
Online: 17 September 2021 (09:28:45 CEST)
The powder bed fusion (PBF) metal additive manufacturing (AM) method uses an energy source like a laser to melt the metal powders. The laser can locally melt the metal powders and creates a solid structure as it moves. The complexity of the heat distribution in laser PBF metal AM is one of the main features that need to be accurately addressed and understood to design and manage an optimized printing process. In this research, the dependency of local thermal rates and gradients on print after solidification (in the heat-affected zone) was numerically simulated and studied to provide information for designing the print process. The simulation results were validated by independent experimental results. The simulation shows that the local thermal rates are higher at higher laser power and scan speed. Also, the local thermal gradients increase if the laser power increases. The effect of scan speed on the thermal gradients is opposite during heating versus cooling times. Increasing the scan speed increases the local thermal gradients in the cooling times and decreases the local thermal gradients during the heating. In addition, these simulation results could be used in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning for developing digital additive manufacturing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0290.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design for manufacture and assembly; digital fabrication; additive manufacturing, construction, review
Online: 11 January 2023 (11:42:43 CET)
Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA) in architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry is attracting the attention of designers, practitioners, and construction project stakeholders. Digital fabrication (Dfab) and design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) practices are found in current needs for further research and development. The DfMA's conceptual function is to maximize the process efficiency of Dfab and AM building projects. This work reviewed 171 relevant research articles over the past few decades. The concept of DfMA and the fundamentals of DfMA in building and construction were explored. In addition, DfMA procedures associated with Dfab and DfAM, as well as its AM assembly process, were discussed. Lastly, the current machine learning research on DfMA in construction was also highlighted. Large research gaps in the DfMA for Dfab and DfAM can be filled to increase operational efficiency and sustainable practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0712.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; FFF printing; printing parameters; experiment; interlocking metasurfaces; manufacturing-driven design
Online: 11 October 2023 (10:48:54 CEST)
This study presents the manufacturing process driven development of an interlocking metasurface mechanism (ILM) for Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) with a focus on open-source accessibility. The presented ILM is designed to enable strong contact between to planar surfaces. The mechanism consists of spring elements and locking pins which snap together when forced into contact. The mechanism is designed to optimize mechanical properties, functionality and printability with common FFF printers. The mechanisms is printed from thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) filament which was selected for its flexibility, crucial for spring element performance and tolerances of the fabrication method. To characterize the designed mechanism a tensile test is carried out to assess the holding force of the ILM. The force-displacement profiles are analyzed and categorized into distinct phases, highlighting the interplay between spring deformation, sliding, and disengagement. The results show variations in holding forces attributed to geometric and material-related factors. The testing results are compared and discussed to a numerical simulation carried out with a frictionless approach with a nonlinear Neo–Hookean material law. The study underscores the importance of meticulous parameter control in 3D printing for consistent and reliable performance of interlocking metasurface mechanisms. The investigation leads to a scalable model of a ILM element pair with a distinct three-phase snapping characteristics ensuring reliable holding capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0051.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: additive manufacturing; machine learning; tensile modulus; predictive modeling; mechanical properties; polyamide 2200; PA12
Online: 5 March 2019 (05:21:43 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is an attractive technology for manufacturing industry due to flexibility in design and functionality, but inconsistency in quality is one of the major limitations that does not allow utilizing this technology for production of end-use parts. Prediction of mechanical properties can be one of the possible ways to improve the repeatability of the results. The part placement, part orientation, and STL model properties (number of mesh triangles, surface, and volume) are used to predict tensile modulus, nominal stress and elongation at break for polyamide 2200 (also known as PA12). EOS P395 polymer powder bed fusion system was used to fabricate 217 specimens in two identical builds (434 specimens in total). Prediction is performed for XYZ, XZY, ZYX, and Angle orientations separately, and all orientations together. The different non-linear models based on machine learning methods have higher prediction accuracy compared with linear regression models. Linear regression models have prediction accuracy higher than 80% only for Tensile Modulus and Elongation at break in Angle orientation. Since orientation-based modeling has low prediction accuracy due to a small number of data points and lack of information about material properties, these models need to be improved in the future based on additional experimental work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0366.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Silk Fibroin; Sil-MA; 3D Printing; Additive Manufacturing; Tissue Engineering; Bioprinting; Bone Tissue Engineering
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:36:19 CET)
Methacrylated silk (Sil-MA) is a chemically modified silk fibroin specifically designed to be crosslinkable under UV light. This allows the structuring of this material throught additive manufacturing techniques and then to easily prototype patient specific construct. In this study we used Sil-MA to produce single layer crosslinked structures that can be withdrawal and ejected recovering their shape after rehydration. A complete chemical and physical characterization of the material has been conducted. Additionally, we tested the material biocompatibility according to the International Standard Organization protocols (ISO 10993) ensuring the possibility to use it in future trials. The material was also tested to verify its ability to support the osteogenesis. Two different additive manufacturing techniques have been tested (a Digital Light Processing (DLP) UV projector and a pneumatic extrusion technique) to develop Sil-MA grid. Finally, we provide a proof-of-concept that the printed Sil-MA structures are injectable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0758.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: additive manufacturing; material extrusion; continuous fiber reinforcement; electromagnetic shielding effectiveness; thermoplastic composite; continuous carbon fiber; multi-material
Online: 12 October 2023 (04:06:54 CEST)
Electronic devices are sensitive to electromagnetic (EM) emissions requiring electromagnetic shielding protection to assure good operation, preventing noise, malfunctioning, or even burning. To assure protection, it is important to develop suitable material and design solutions for electronic enclosures. Most common enclosures are made with metal alloys by traditional manufacturing methods. However, resourcing to thermoplastic composites combined with additive manufac-turing (AM) technologies emerges as an alternative that enables to fabricate complex parts that are lightweight, consolidated and oxidation and corrosion resistant. In this research, an AM technique based in material extrusion was used to print 2 mm thick specimens with a multi-material made of micro-carbon fiber (CF) filled polyamide, reinforced, at specific layers, by continuous carbon fibers stacked with a 90° rotation to each other. Specimens electromagnetic shielding effectiveness (EMSE) was evaluated in the frequency band of 0.03 – 3 GHz by coaxial transmission line method. De-pending on the number of CF layers, the EM shielding obtained can up to 70 dB, with a specific shielding up to 60 dB.cm3/g, predominantly by absorption mechanism, being 22 times higher that without the CF layers. These findings fundament this innovative approach for lightweight cus-tomizable solutions for EM shielding applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; distributed manufacturing; open-source; polymers; recycling; waste plastic; extruder; upcycle; circular economy
Online: 5 November 2018 (07:45:36 CET)
Although distributed additive manufacturing can provide high returns on investment the current markup on commercial filament over base polymers limits deployment. These cost barriers can be surmounted by eliminating the entire process of fusing filament by 3-D printing products directly from polymer granules. Fused granular fabrication (FGF) (or fused particle fabrication (FPF)) is being held back in part by the accessibility of low-cost pelletizers and choppers. An open-source 3-D printable invention disclosed here provides for precise controlled pelletizing of both single thermopolymers as well as composites for 3-D printing. The system is designed, built and tested for its ability to provide high tolerance thermopolymer pellets from a number of sizes capable of being used in a FGF printer. In addition, the chopping pelletizer is tested for its ability to chop multi-materials simultaneously for color mixing and composite fabrication as well as precise fractional measuring back to filament. The US$185 open-source 3-D printable pelletizer chopper system was successfully fabricated and has a 0.5 kg/hr throughput with one motor, and 1.0 kg/hr throughput with two motors using only 0.24 kWh/kg during the chopping process. Pellets were successfully printed directly via FGF and indirectly after being converted into high-tolerance filament in a recyclebot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0994.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mobility; mobility aid; adaptive aid; walker; 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; mechanical testing; open hardware; open source hardware; frugal innovation
Online: 26 April 2023 (13:06:50 CEST)
To improve accessibility, this article describes a static, four-legged, walker that can be constructed from materials and fasteners commonly available from hardware stores coupled by open-source 3-D printed joints. The designs are described in detail, shared under an open-source license, and fabricated with a low-cost open-source desktop 3-D printer and hand tools. The resulting device is loaded to failure to determine the maximum load that the design can safely support in both vertical and horizontal failure modes. The experimental results showed the average vertical failure load capacity was 3680±694.3N, equivalent to 375.3±70.8kg of applied weight with the fractured location at the wood dowel handlebars. The average horizontal load capacity was 315.6±49.4N, equivalent to 32.2±5.1kg. The maximum weight capacity of a user of 187.1±29.3kg was obtained, which indicates the open-source walker design can withstand the weight requirements of all genders with a 95% confidence interval that includes a safety factor of 1.8 when considering the lowest deviation weight capacity. The design has a cost at the bottom of the range of commercial walkers and reduces the mass compared to a commercial walker by 0.5kg (19% reduction). It can be concluded that this open-source walker design can aid accessibility in low-resource settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; powder-bed fusion; laser sintering; polypropylene; process parameter optimization; mechanical properties; computer tomography
Online: 5 November 2018 (03:50:51 CET)
The use of commodity polymers such as polypropylene (PP) is key to open new market segments and applications for the additive manufacturing industry. Technologies such as powder-bed fusion (PBF) can process PP powder; however, much is still to learn concerning process parameters for reliable manufacturing. This study focusses in the process-property relationships of PP using laser-based PBF. The research presents an overview of the intrinsic and the extrinsic characteristic of a commercial PP powder as well as fabrication of tensile specimens with varying process parameters to characterize tensile, elongation at break, and porosity properties. The impact of key process parameters, such as power and scanning speed are systematically modified in a controlled design of experiment. The results were compared to the existing body of knowledge; the outcome is to present a process window and optimal process parameters for industrial use of PP. The computer tomography data revealed a highly porous structure inside specimens ranging between 8.46% and 10.08%, with porosity concentrated in the interlayer planes in the build direction. The results of the design of experiment for this commercial material show a narrow window of 0.122 ≥ Ev ≥ 0.138 J/mm3 led to increased mechanical properties while maintaining geometrical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0509.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing; 3D Printing; Feed of Filament; Curvilinear Path; Variable Stiffness Composites.
Online: 22 September 2020 (04:21:16 CEST)
The extrusion-based additive manufacturing is a popular fabrication method, which has attracted the attention of various industries due to its simplicity, cheapness, ability to produce complex geometric shapes, and high production speed. One of the effective parameters in this process is the feed of filament that is presented in the production G-code. The feed of filament is calculated according to the layer height, the extrusion width and the length of printing path. All the required motion paths and filling patterns created by commercial software are a set of straight lines or circular arcs that are placed next to each other at a fixed distance. In special curved paths, the distance of adjacent ones is not equal at different points, and due to the weakness of common commercial software, it is not possible to create curved paths for proper printing. Therefore, making a special computer code that can be used to create various functions of curved paths is investigated in this research, and also the feed of filament parameter is studied in detail. Next, by introducing a correction technique, the feed of filament is changed during the curved path to distribute the polymer material uniformly. Finally, composite samples (which have variable stiffness) consisting of curved fibers are produced with the proposed method, and the high quality of printed samples confirm the suggested code and technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1046.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing; Life Cycle Assessment; carbon footprint; solid waste; greenhouse gas emissions; energy consumption; environmental impact; sustainable development
Online: 17 October 2023 (12:02:04 CEST)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been proving suitable to support or even replace traditional manufacturing in several industries, offering many advantages such as delivery time and reduction in terms of material waste, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study aimed to carry out a comparative assessment of the life cycle, from gate to gate, in the production of a low alloy carbon steel flange part using ER-90 wire. The methods utilized were Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) and conventional manufacturing (CM) by forging, and comparative factors were energy demands, GHG emissions and generated solid waste. The total energy consumption in WAAM was 10,239.40 MJ, total carbon footprint in CO2 equivalent (CO2e) was 714.1 kgCO2e kg-1, and generated solid waste was 68.6 kg, respectively, 90%, 95% and 76% lower than consumption calculated in conventional manufacturing.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: 3D printings; additive manufacturing; polymerization kinetics; photoredox; monomer conversion; synergic effects; cationic; free radical. UV visible light.
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:29:11 CEST)
The synergic features and enhancing strategies for various photopolymerization systems are reviewed by kinetic schemes and the associated measurements. The important topics include: (i) photo crosslinking of corneas for the treatmnet of corneal deseases using UVA-light (365 nm) light and riboflavin as the photosensitizer; (ii) synergic effects by a dual-function enhancer in a 3-initiator system; (iii) synergic effects by a 3-initiator C/B/A system, having an electron-transfer and oxygen-mediated energy-transfer pathways; (iv) copper-complex (G1) photoredox catalyst in G1/Iod/NVK systems for free radiical (FRP) and cationic photopolymeriation (CP); (v) radical-mediated thiol-ene (TE) photopolymerizations; (vi) superbase photogenerator based-catalyzed thiol−acrylate Michael (TM) addition reaction; and the combined system of TE and TM usinghual wavelength; (vii) dual-wavelength (UV and blue) controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC); (viii) dual-wavelength (UV and red) selectively controlled 3D printing; and (ix) 3-wavelength selectively controlled in 3D printing and additive manufacturing (AM). With minimum mathematics, we present ( for the first time), the synergic features and enhancing strategies for various systems of multi-commponents, initiators, monomers, and under one- two- and there-wavelength light. Therefore, this Review provides not only the bridging between modeling and measurements, but also guidances for further experimantal stuides and new applications in 3D printings and additive manufacturing (AM), based on the innovative concepts (kinetics/schemes).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; laser metal deposition; hot stamping; die and mold; conformal cooling; design optimization.
Online: 12 December 2017 (15:24:24 CET)
Hot stamping dies include cooling channels to treat the formed sheet. The optimum cooling channels of dies & molds should adapt to the shape and surface of the dies, so that a homogeneous temperature distribution and cooling are guaranteed. Nevertheless, cooling ducts are conventionally manufactured by deep drilling, attaining straight channels unable to follow the geometry of the tool. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technique capable to fabricate nearly free-form integrated cooling channels and therefore shape the so-called conformal cooling. The present work investigates the design and manufacturing of conformal cooling ducts, which are additively built up on hot work steel and then milled in order to attain the final part. Their mechanical performance and heat transfer capability has been evaluated, both experimentally and by means of thermal simulation. Finally, conformal cooling conduits are evaluated and compared to traditional straight channels. The results show that LMD is a proper technology for the generation of cooling ducts, opening the possibility to produce new geometries on dies & molds and, therefore, new products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1983.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: additive manufacturing; bioactive scaffolds; porous materials; finite element simulation; pore design; microstructure, biocompatibility; mechanical properties, titanium alloys
Online: 30 August 2023 (02:25:24 CEST)
We overview recent findings achieved in the field of model-driven development of additively manufactured porous materials for development of a new generation of bioactive implants for orthopedic applications. Porous structures produced of biocompatible titanium alloys by selective laser melting can present a promising material to design scaffolds with regulated mechanical properties and with capacity to be loaded with pharmaceutical products. Adjusting pore geometry, one could control elastic modulus and strength/fatigue properties of the engineered structures to be compatible with bone tissues, thus preventing the stress shield effect when replacing a diseased bone fragment. Adsorption of medicals by internal spaces would make it possible to emit the antibiotic and anti-tumor agents into surrounding tissues. We critically analyze the recent advances in the field featuring model design approaches, virtual testing of the designed structures, capabilities of additive printing of porous structures, biomedical issues of the engineered scaffolds and so on. A special attention is paid to highlight the current troubles in the field and the ways of their solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1297.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: friction stir processing; additive manufacturing; wire; titanium alloy; material transfer; micro-structure; microhardness
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:48:41 CET)
Keywords: friction stir processing; additive manufacturing; wire; titanium alloy; material transfer; microstructure; microhardness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); Functionally Graded Materials (FGM); Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP; ceramics; ceramic-based 4D-components; zirconia; graded microstructure
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:21:04 CEST)
In our study we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with a varying microstructure were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore forming agents (PFA) and were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Different zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for AM of single- and multi-material test components. All samples were sintered defect-free and in the end we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. The T3DP opens the door to AM of further ceramic-based 4D-components like multi-color or multi-material, especially multi-functional components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0845.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Multi-Material; Additive Manufacturing; Bone Tissue Engineering; Digital Light Processing; Biomedical Application; Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces (TPMS)
Online: 14 November 2023 (16:39:35 CET)
In this study, an optimized multi-material system was designed and developed to print samples in various applications, including biomedical fields (e.g., mandibular bone loss). To improve the mechanical and biological properties of scaffolds utilized for dental bone loss applications, a multi-material setup was devised, which employs digital light processing technology. This setup consists of a linear system comprising two resin vats and one ultrasonic cleaning tank, enabling the integration of diverse materials and structures to optimize the composition of the scaffold. This approach was used to print multi-material PLLA scaffolds containing 20 wt.%. HA on the interior side, and PLLA containing 1 wt.% GO on the exterior surface of the scaffold, which were evaluated mechanically and biologically after printing. The scaffold was designed using a triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) lattice structure, which is known to possess favorable mechanical and biological properties. Various multi-material samples were successfully printed and evaluated to illustrate the multiple-material setup's potential for ensuring proper function, cleaning, and adequate interface bonding. By numerically evaluating several TMPS structures, a novel Gyroid TPMS scaffold with a nominal porosity of 50% was developed and validated experimentally. The biological properties of the scaffolds were also evaluated, including surface morphology, (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay, and cell adhesion. Based on the results, multi-material components with the least contaminations with suitable mechanical and biological properties were successfully printed. By combining PLLA-HA and PLLA-GO, this innovative technique holds tremendous potential for enhancing the effectiveness of regenerative procedures in the field of dentistry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: environmental indicators; wire and arc additive manufacturing; life cycle assessment; atmospheric emission; carbon footprint; energy demand; sustainable development
Online: 2 November 2023 (06:11:06 CET)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique developed to measure possible environmental impacts during the manufacture and use of a given product or service. Additive Manufacturing (AM) has proven to be suitable in several industries, especially wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), offering many advantages such as delivery time and reduction in terms of material waste, energy consumption and equivalent CO2 emissions (CO2e). This study aimed to develop a methodology to evaluate environmental indicators during the life cycle assessment, from gate-to-gate, in the production of two low-alloy carbon steel metal parts (flanges) using ER-90 wire and allowed identifying the main stages that most influence environmental indicators. The total energy consumption in the production of flanges 1 and 2 were, respectively, 10,239.0 MJ, 12,754.0 MJ and the total carbon footprint, respectively, 714.1 kgCO2e kg-1 and 749.3 kgCO2e kg-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing technologies; sustainable development; parametrized programs; computer numerical control; variable thickness deposition; mathematical model
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:01:14 CEST)
This paper presents an original method of additive manufacturing of cylindrical parts with variable circumference thickness, which allows the control of the deposition of molten material using an algorithm for decomposing the part geometry into volumetric elements with known dimensional configuration. In the absence of a post-processor capable of controlling additive manufacturing on a 5-axis numerical control machine, control of the deposition of molten material is done using parameterized programs, which can control both the feed speeds of the machine tool axes and the specific functions of the printing equipment. Additive manufacturing can make a positive contribution to sustainable development compared to traditional manufacturing technologies, thus making a positive contribution for a sustainable future. The aim of the work is to make it possible to 3D print parts with variable wall thickness using a CNC machining centre. To obtain the variable thickness layer we have implemented an original method of deposition with molten material (FDM), the coordination of the system composed of physical elements respectively programmable elements, is realized through control functions materialized in parameterized part programs, the generated outputs being the variable speed of the machine axes on a circular trajectory, the angular positioning, the filament advance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Selective Paste Intrusion; Print Quality; Print Nozzle to Particle Bed Distance; Shape accuracy; 3D scanning
Online: 13 March 2023 (15:35:22 CET)
The Selective Paste Intrusion (SPI) method is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that allows for the production of complex geometries in concrete elements by selectively bonding aggregates with cement paste in a particle bed. To create reinforced concrete, the Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) process shall be integrated into SPI. This technique allows the production of almost free-formed reinforcement and thus complements the advantage of SPI to produce free-formed structures of almost any geometry. However, integration of WAAM into SPI poses a considerable challenge, as high temperatures are generated during the welding process. These temperatures can negatively affect the rheological properties of the cement paste, in turn the penetration behavior of the paste in the particle bed and, subsequently, the mechanical properties of the hardened concrete. A possible passive cooling strategy is to increase the protruding length of the reinforcement bars out of the particle-bed. This requires that the distance of the print nozzle to the particle bed is as well increased, since it must be possible to move it across the reinforcement. The objective was thus to investigate the effect of that distance on print quality and to quantify a maximum allowable distance for an adequate print quality (for the printer setting used) in terms of shape accuracy and concrete strength. Compressive and flexural strength tests as well as geometrical measurements using a 3D scanning method were performed on specimen, printed with varying print nozzle to particle bed distances. It can be stated that for the used SPI print-heads, nozzle-types and parameter settings, the distance between the nozzle and the particle bed should not exceed 50 mm to ensure sufficient print quality in both shape accuracy and mechanical strength.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0367.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: wire arc additive manufacturing; microstructure; mechanical characteristics; aluminum-magnesium alloys; aluminum-scandium alloys; ultrafine-grained structure
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:51:05 CEST)
In this study composite with alternate layers of 5056 and 1580 alloys was manufactured by wire arc additive manufacturing technology. It is shown that increased strength characteristics of composite material can be obtained due to deformation treatment by high-pressure torsion (HPT) technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the HPT-processed material in different structural states were investigated. The HPT-processed material exhibits high value of ultimate tensile strength (~ 770 MPa) but low ductility. Short-term annealing at 250 oС and additional deformation by HPT to 0.25 of revolution at room temperature resulted in a slight decrease in material’s strength to ~ 700 MPa but provided ductility ∼ 9%. Physical mechanisms to improve plasticity in correlation with microstructure evolution is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0295.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; rapid solidification; microstructural evolution; non-equilibrium; quasi-equilibrium; multi-phase field method; CALPHAD database; nickel alloy
Online: 11 March 2021 (07:40:42 CET)
Solidification microstructure is formed under high cooling rates and temperature gradients in powder-based additive manufacturing. In this study, a non-equilibrium multi-phase field method (MPFM), which was based on a finite interface dissipation model proposed by Steinbach et. al., coupled with a CALPHAD database was developed for a multicomponent Ni alloy. A qua-si-equilibrium MPFM was also developed for comparison. Two-dimensional equiaxed micro-structural evolution for the Ni (Bal.)–Al–Co–Cr–Mo–Ta–Ti–W–C alloy was performed at various cooling rates. The temperature–γ fraction profiles obtained under 10^5 K/s using non- and qua-si-equilibrium MPFMs were in good agreement with each other. Over 10^6 K/s, the differences between non- and quasi-equilibrium methods grew as the cooling rate increased. The non-equilibrium solidification was strengthened over a cooling rate of 10^6 K/s. Colum-nar-solidification microstructural evolution was performed under cooling rates from 5×10^5 K/s to 1×10^7 K/s at various temperature gradient values under the constant interface velocity (0.1 m/s). The results showed that as the cooling rate increased, the cell space decreased in both methods, and the non-equilibrium MPFM agreed well with experimental measurements. Our results show that the non-equilibrium MPFM can simulate solidification microstructure in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (12:18:45 CET)
Traditional metals such as stainless steel, titanium and cobalt chrome are used in biomedical applications (implants, scaffolds etc.) but suffer from issues such as osseointegration and compatibility with existing bone. One way to improve traditional biomaterials is to incorporate ceramics with these metals so that their mechanical properties can be similar to cortical bones. Tricalcium phosphate is such a ceramic with properties so that it can be used in human body. This research explores the use of binder jetting based additive manufacturing process to create a novel biocomposite made of cobalt chrome and tricalcium phosphate. Experiments were conducted and processing parameters were varied to study their effect on the printing of this biocomposite. Layer thickness, binder saturation and drying time affected the dimensional tolerance and the density of the green samples. This effect is important to understand so that the material can be optimized for use in specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0103.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:07:12 CET)
This paper presents the results of the investigation of composite sinters W-TiB2 which were used as an electrode in the process of electro-spark deposition (ESD) and the examination of the deposited layers. The scope of the study includes detailed characteristics of powder mixtures, composite sinters made using the spark plasma sintering method (SPS) and layers deposited in the electro-spark process. The ESD process, using the W+30 vol.% TiB2 electrode, was carried out using an automated device. The substrates were made of copper and aluminium. The topography analysis of the surfaces of the composite layer and the evaluation of their wear resistance properties are also presented. The analysis of the results of research showed the possibility to obtain, using the SPS method, composite materials of good quality, which can be used as electrodes in the ESD process. The obtained layers had increased wear resistance in relation to the substrate material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0041.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:07:02 CET)
We present progress in fast, high-resolution imaging, material classification, and fault detection using hyperspectral X-ray measurements. Classical X-ray CT approaches rely on data from many projection angles, resulting in long acquisition and reconstruction times. Additionally, conventional CT cannot distinguish between materials with similar densities. However, in additive manufacturing, the majority of materials used are known a priori. This knowledge allows to vastly reduce the data collected and increase the accuracy of fault detection. In this context, we propose an imaging method for non-destructive testing of materials based on the combination of spectral X-ray CT and discrete tomography. We explore the use of spectral X-ray attenuation models and measurements to recover the characteristic functions of materials in heterogeneous media with piece-wise uniform composition. We show by means of numerical simulation that using spectral measurements from a small number of angles, our approach can alleviate the typical deterioration of spatial resolution and the appearance of streaking artifacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0497.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:08:05 CET)
Producing complex shaped tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) tools by classical technologies is difficult and often impossible due to their high hardness and brittle fracture behavior. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a suitable technology for creating complex structures and simultaneously shortening expensive machining processes. Binder Jetting (BJ) is an innovative AM technology that offers several advantages over laser-based processes, for example low manufacturing costs and high build-up rates. Binders with nanoparticle additives have already proven to be effective in in- creasing the packing density of the powder bed and improving the sintering properties. Addition- ally, they offer the possibility of selectively changing the material composition in the part. This paper presents a concept for the use of nanoparticles to generate gradients in the green compact, which leads to a cobalt gradient in the part after sintering. The possibility of introducing particles locally into complex structures allows local modification of the material properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0496.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Binder Jetting
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:05:26 CET)
Understanding the equilibrium saturation level is crucial to Binder Jetting (BJ). Saturation level influences dimensional accuracy, print time, green strength, and final material properties. Improved understanding of the saturation level can reduce development time for new materials and improve existing processes in BJ. Attempts have been made to predict saturation levels of parts with simple calculations from droplet primitives and capillary pressure. There is, however, limited experimental validation for these methods and they do not include the impact of drop velocity and droplet spacing. This study incorporates the influences of drop velocity and droplet spacing on the saturation level of the part. Drop primitives of varying droplet velocity and droplet spacing were compared. Results show that velocity impacts the feasible parameter space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0476.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:43:49 CET)
Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) is a type of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology that builds parts in a layer-by-layer fashion out of a bed of metal powder via the selective melting action of a laser or electron beam heat source. The technology has become widespread, however the demand is growing for closed loop process monitoring and control in PBF systems to replace the open loop architectures that exist today. This paper demonstrates the simulated efﬁcacy of applying closed-loop state estimation to the problem of monitoring temperature ﬁelds within parts during the PBF build process. A simpliﬁed LTI model of PBF thermal physics with the properties of stability, controllability and observability is presented. An Ensemble Kalman Filter is applied to the model. The accuracy of this ﬁlters’ predictions are assessed in simulation studies of the temperature evolution of various test parts when subjected to simulated laser heat input. The signiﬁcant result of this study is that the ﬁlter supplied predictions that were about 2.5x more accurate than the open loop model in these simulation studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0459.v1
Online: 25 January 2021 (09:22:30 CET)
One of the main benefits of binder jetting is the ability to print quickly compared to other metal additive manufacturing methods. Demand for higher throughput continues to increase, but the effects of faster print speeds on part outcomes are not yet clearly understood. MIM powders are used to achieve optimal density and surface finish. Printing at slower speeds results in densities near 98% and average surface roughness values as low as 4 μm (Ra), in the as-sintered condition. In this study, spread speeds were varied in order to understand the effect of print speed on surface roughness. 316L D90 -22 μm powder was used to print with 3 different spread speeds, 2 different layer thicknesses, and 2 different printhead droplet sizes. The surface finish and density were quantified for the sintered parts that were oriented at 0, 22.5, and 45 degrees with respect to the Z- direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; interlocking structure; Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM); Netfabb Local Simulation
Online: 29 September 2023 (08:39:31 CEST)
Additive manufactured interlocking structures often face challenges in achieving suitable joinability due to thermal deformation. This issue becomes particularly interesting when fabricating structures that require high density but not fully connected layers, such as soft-magnetic materials. This study focuses on systematical investigation of the deformation as a function of finger thickness and building direction in model interlocking structure. In the perpendicular direction to the build plate, the distortions of joint part were significantly reduced due to lower thermal stress. In addition, the effect of laser power and scan speed on interlocking structure are systematically discussed. Additionally, through stress and thermal simulations of additive manufacturing process, it was confirmed that the compensated model can enhance the joinability of interlocking structures. These findings contribute to the development of optimal design for additive manufactured parts of soft magnetic materials such as stators in electric motor components, which needs insulations and density.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: nitrate; nitrite; nitrosamine; food additive
Online: 21 June 2023 (16:41:15 CEST)
Nitrate and nitrite are the most extensively used food additives in the food industry for their multifunctional properties, and they have been in the spotlight for decades for its controversial back effects. The conversion of nitrate and nitrite to various nitroso compounds, specifically N-nitrosamine raises the question of the integrity of these additives. Nitrosamine is a well-known carcinogen and mutagen. A large number of studies demonstrate the carcinogenic effects of these salts. Are these findings credible? Nonetheless, the regulatory agencies approve its usage; is it biased? Are we feeding on the carcinogens in processed foods? The current work provides an insight into the basic and toxicological findings of the food additives -nitrate and nitrite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0816.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sulphite; food additive; food toxicology.
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:05:15 CEST)
Sulphites are the most widely used food additives for their versatile applications in processing; perhaps we are negligence of its shortcomings. On account of various research studies, sulphites induce serious allergic reactions and other health alignments, but still regulatory agents permit its usage. Is it a wiser choice? The purpose of this paper is to clear up ambiguity and provide a clear view on why sulphites are employed in the food industry, why its usage is restricted, and why sulphite is a toxicant
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: engine oil; internal combustion engine; oil additive; additive degradation; mass spectrometry; antiwear additives; ZDDP
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:25:28 CEST)
Engine oil degradation and tribological properties are strongly interrelated. Hence, understanding the chemical processes resulting in additive depletion and degradation products is necessary. In this study, in-service engine oils from petrol and diesel vehicles were analyzed with conventional and advanced methods (mass spectrometry). Additionally, the effect of the utilization profile (short- vs. long-range) was studied. Petrol engine oils generally showed accelerated antioxidant and antiwear degradation and higher oxidation, especially in case of a short-range utilization profile, which can be attributed to the higher air-to-fuel ratio (more rich combustion) compared to diesel engines. A detailed overview of oxidation and nitration products, as well as degradation products resulting from zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate and boron ester antiwear additives, diphenylamine antioxidants and salicylate detergents is given. A side-reaction between oxidation products (aromatic carboxylic acids) and the boron ester antiwear is highlighted. This reaction was only detected in the petrol engine oils, where the oxidation products were measured in a high abundance. However, no side reaction was found in the samples from the diesel vehicle, since there the aromatic carboxylic acids were largely absent due to lower oxidation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Fused Deposition Modelling; Robot-based additive manufacturing; Polylactic acid (PLA) and PLA-based composite.
Online: 7 April 2021 (12:24:16 CEST)
Over the last decade, a significant literature has emerged that advocates the potential of different Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and printable polymeric materials. Nevertheless, large scale printing and complex geometric shapes, with curvatures and non-planar layer deposition, are a challenging process for the traditional gantry-based machine. The 3 degrees of freedom cartesian configuration restricted their capability to planar layered printing and restricted part dimensions. To date, many researchers have used industrial robots to overcomes this limitation. This review gives the reader a good overview of the FDM technique due to its scalability, cost efficiency and a wide range of material printability. A strong emphasis is laid on the PLA and PLA-based composites as promising materials for the FDM process applications. The second part of this paper links the successful use of these materials in the traditional printing process to large scale printing using the robot-based FDM process. This survey presents representative setups for robot-based AM and works that have been used these setups for non-planar material deposition. Finally, we conclude this paper by identifying opportunities for realizing new functional capabilities by exploiting robot-based AM, and we also present the future trends in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1154.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Nanocellulose; Biodegradability; Sustainability; Additive manufacturing; Functional materials.
Online: 20 November 2023 (14:01:39 CET)
Biocomposite membranes based on polylactic acid (PLA) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were developed using a scientific approach. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) was used as a polymerization ini-tiator, while tin octoate (Sn(Oct)2) and triphenylphosphane (P(C6H5)3) were used as catalysts. A torque rheometer was used to mix the components of the biocomposite, and thin films was prepared by solvent casting. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the coupling between the PLA and CNCs. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the CNCs were well-dispersed in the PLA matrix with an unimodal particle size distribution and a maximum particle size of around 200 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calo-rimetry (DSC) analysis demonstrated good thermal stability and improved biodegradability of the biocomposite membrane compared to pure PLA. Mechanical characterization showed a Young's modulus of 1.65 GPa, which is comparable to that of other composite materials, and a maximum tensile strength of 20.31 MPa, which is higher than that of pure PLA. These results suggest that the developed biocomposite membrane has potential applications in water filtration, food packaging, and biomedical devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Sustainability; Healthcare; Additive Manufacturing; Life Cycle Assessment
Online: 1 November 2023 (13:10:11 CET)
The study conducts a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to assess the environmental impact of two different manufacturing processes used to produce transparent dental aligners. The former method consists of thermoforming a polymeric disc over 3D printed, customized models, while the second, more innovative approach involves the direct printing of aligners using additive manufacturing (AM), specifically applying digital light processing (DLP) technology. The analysis results highlight how adopting direct printing through AM brings significant advantages in terms of environmental sustainability, thanks to the substantial reduction in raw materials and electricity consumption. These drops translate into decreased potential environmental impacts across all impact categories considered within the EF 3.1 method. Furthermore, lowering the amount of raw materials needed in the direct printing process contributes to a notable decrease in the overall volume of waste generated, emphasising the environmental benefits of this innovative technique.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0980.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Ultrasonic impact treatment; strengthening effect
Online: 14 June 2023 (07:54:18 CEST)
Metal fabrications experience complex physical metallurgical processes during additive manufacturing, leading to residual stress and coarse microstructure with directional growth. It significantly affects the comprehensive performance of the fabrications, which limits the application of additive manufacturing. Ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT), as a strengthening means to assist additive manufacturing, can effectively improve the stress state and refine the microstructure and the comprehensive performance. This paper introduces the effect of UIT on AM metal fabrications on microstructure morphology, stress distribution, surface roughness, internal defects, and comprehensive performance to gain a deeper understanding of the role of UIT on additively manufactured metal fabrications, which is based on the working principle and effect of process parameters. In addition, the strengthening mechanism of UIT in additive manufacturing is described from the perspective of surface plastic deformation and substructure formation, providing support for the shape and property control of metal fabrications in the process of additive manufacturing assisted by UIT. Finally, the issues that need to be studied in depth on UIT in additive manufacturing are summarized, and an outlook on future research directions is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0076.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: polymer solar cells; solvent additive; DIO; PCDTBT
Online: 6 May 2022 (11:44:55 CEST)
The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) are strongly depended on the bulk-heterojunction active layer. Here, the 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) additives have been added into the PCDTBT: PC70BM blend PSCs. Based on the higher boiling point than host solvent ODB and better solubility of PC71BM, the device photovoltaic properties with DIO additive were changed obviously. The investigations of EQE indicate that the DIO can influence the charge recombination and transportation process, and absorption studies demonstrate that the charge carriers generation process can also be affected by DIO. The overall impact reflected on the decreased equivalent resistant. With 3% v/v DIO, the Jsc, Voc and FF are both increased. Correspondingly, a highest PCE is achieved of 6.15%, while the reference device without DIO only has a PCE of 5.23%. Hence, adding DIO solvent additive is a effective method for the photovoltaic properties improving of PCDTBT: PC70BM blend PSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Binder Jetting; aerospace; Invar36; CTE
Online: 9 February 2021 (12:07:31 CET)
This work opens a new pathway to fabricate high dimensional stability Invar36 aerospace devices with Binder Jetting technology, for applications where temperature fluctuations directly interfere in the correct performance of high sensibility systems. Since full density part fabrication is one of the main ongoing challenges for Binder Jetting, the leading objective of this work is to study and optimise the main process parameters to increase the final density of Invar36 printed parts. Microstructural analysis and obtained density and CTE values, confirmed the feasibility to fabricate Invar36 parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0453.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: additive manufacturing; FIB; EBSD; EDS; maraging steel
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:56:45 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) is today’s buzzword—and not only in commercial production. One of the AM techniques produces 3D objects with complex geometry using a laser beam. The relationship between the morphology of individual powder particles and the printing process has not been adequately documented yet. This article presents a detailed microscopic analysis of virgin and reused powder particles of maraging steel. Metallographic observation was performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Detailed analyses of individual particles were carried out using SEM with a focused ion beam (FIB) milling capability. Analyses of elemental distribution and phase distribution were performed using EDS and EBSD, respectively. The findings have led to a better understanding and prediction of defects in additive-manufactured products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; additive manufacturing; big area additive manufacturing; BAAM; hanging printer; hangprinter; plastic waste; recycling; sustainable manufacturing; wire robot
Online: 3 August 2022 (07:17:07 CEST)
As the additive manufacturing industry grows, it is compounding the global plastic waste problem. Distributed recycling and additive manufacturing (DRAM) offers an economic solution to this challenge, but it has been relegated to either small-volume 3D printers (limiting waste recycling throughput) or expensive industrial machines (limiting accessibility and lateral scaling). To overcome these challenges, this paper provides proof-of-concept for a novel open-source hybrid 3D printer that combines a low-cost hanging printer design with a compression screw-based end-effector that allows direct extrusion of recycled plastic waste in large expandable printing volumes. Mechanical testing of the resultant prints from 100% waste plastic, however, showed that combining challenges of non-uniform feedstocks and a heavy printhead for a hangprinter reduced the strength of the parts compared to fused filament fabrication. The preliminary results are technologically promising, however, and provide opportunities to improve on the open source design to help process the volumes of waste plastic needed for DRAM to address the negative environmental impacts of global plastic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1893.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: myogenesis; skeletal muscle; myostatin; Glycyrrhiza uralensis; feed additive
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:43:12 CEST)
Skeletal muscle is a specialized tissue consisting of nondividing and multinucleated muscle fibers. Skeletal muscle-specific myostatin (MSTN) is a secreted protein that acts as a negative regulator of muscle mass by inhibiting proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. In this study, we established a screening platform to monitor myostatin promoter activity in rat L8 myoblasts. Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (GUE), an oriental herbal medicine, was identified through this screening platform and, the active fractions of GUE were identified by process-scale liquid column chromatography system. For in vivo study, the GUE as a feed additive was investigated in growth-finishing pigs. The results showed that GUE significantly increased body weight, carcass weight and lean content in pigs. Microbiota analysis indicated that GUE did not affect the composition of gut microbiota in pigs. In summary, this established rodent myoblast screening platform was used to identify a myogenesis-related phytogenic, GUE, and further demonstrated that the active fractions inhibited MSTN expression. These finding suggest a novel application for GUE in growth performance enhancement through modulation of MSTN expression. Furthermore, this established screening platform has great potential for identification and evaluation of a wide variety of phytogenics involving in myogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1914.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Tissue Engineering; DLP; Graphene Oxide; PLLA
Online: 27 June 2023 (13:03:50 CEST)
In this study, 3D printing of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) scaffolds reinforced with graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles via Digital Light Processing (DLP) was investigated to mimic bone tissue. Stereolithography is one of the most accurate additive manufacturing method, but the dominant available materials used in this method are toxic. In this research, a biocompatible resin (PLLA) was synthetized and functionalized to serve the purpose. Due to the low mechanical properties of the printed product with the neat resin, graphene oxide nanoparticles in three levels (0.5, 1, and 1.5 Wt.%) were added with the aim of enhancing the mechanical properties. At first, the optimum post cure time of the neat resin was investigated. Consequently, all the parts were post-cured for three hours after printing. Due to the temperature-dependent structure of GO, all samples were placed in an oven at 85 ° C for different time periods of 0, 6, 12, and 18 hours to increase mechanical properties. The compression test of heat treated samples reveals that the compressive strength of the printed parts containing 0.5,1, and 1.5 % of GO increased by 151,162 ad 235%, respectively. Scaffolds with the designed pore sizes of 750 microns and a porosity of 40% were printed. Surface hydrophilicity test was performed for all samples showing that the hydrophilicity of the samples increased with increasing GO percentage. The degradation behavior of the samples was evaluated in a PBS environment, and it revealed that by increasing GO, the rate of component degradation increased, but the heat treatment had the opposite effect and decreased the degradation rate. Finally, besides improving biological properties, a significant increase in mechanical properties under compression can introduce the printed scaffolds as a suitable option for bone implants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0941.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; High gravity; Numerical simulation; Material extrusion
Online: 13 June 2023 (13:50:36 CEST)
The popularity and growth of additive manufacturing(AM) in recent years are due to its ability to provide innovative solutions to complex manufacturing challenges and its potential to transform the way products are designed, developed, and produced. In this work, the numerical simulation geometry of the model extruder from nozzle is established along with the material extrusion process. The high gravity material extrusion system (HG-MEX) properties and characteristics during filament fabrication are evaluated. This work investigates the effects of gravity on the material extrusion process from nozzle extrusion. This work is unique in the incorporation of fluid surface characteristics to represent the performance and contact with the material extrusion in additive manufacturing. The use of simulation in high gravity material extrusion in additive manufacturing is a meaningful and valuable approach to improving the quality and efficiency of the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0356.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: additive manufacturing; microstructure; STEM in situ heating experiments
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:23:25 CET)
Powder and SLM additively manufactured parts of X5CrNiCuNb17-4 maraging steel were systematically investigated by electron microscopy to understand the relationship between the properties of the powder grains and the microstructure of the printed parts. We prove that satellites, irregularities and superficial oxidation of powder particles can be transformed into an advantage through the formation of nanoscale (AlMnSiTiCr)-oxides in the matrix during the printing process. The nano-oxides showed extensive stability in terms of size, spherical morphology, chemical composition and crystallographic disorder upon in situ heating up to 950°C in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Their presence thus indicates a potential for oxide-dispersive strengthening of this steel, which may be beneficial for creep resistance at elevated temperatures. The nucleation of copper clusters and their evolution into nanoparticles as well as the precipitation of Ni and Cr particles upon in situ heating have as well been systematically documented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0647.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing, STEP-NC, Boundary representation, Multi-materials
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:59:26 CEST)
The paper describes problems with the current additive manufacturing chain before considering additive manufacturing as part of a modern manufacturing chain. Additive manufacturing can be used for near net-shape for finishing, for repair or for adding special features which cannot be made with traditional manufacturing. This paper describes how STEP-NC deals with these different scenarios in terms of accuracy, multi-material and variation of slice direction. The possibilities of multi-material objects also raises questions about the design of such objects and how these need to be handled by an advanced controller. The paper also describes non-planar slicing. Curved direction and cylindrical direction are shown to improve the accuracy of curved structure additive manufacturing. STEP-NC using boundary representation has better capability of depicting complex internal structures for additive processes. By using exact model of the final product represented by STEP-NC, the paper demonstrates improvements in data size reduction, slicing accuracy, and precise manipulation of internal structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: powder bed fusion; additive manufacturing; ss316l; interface strength
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:12:58 CEST)
Metal powder bed fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) builds metal parts layer by layer upon a substrate material. The strength of this interface between substrate and printed material is important to characterize, especially in applications where the substrate is retained and included in the finished part. This paper studied the tensile and torsional strengths of wrought and additively manufactured (through PBF) SS316L and compared them to specimens composed of half wrought material and half PBF material. The PBF specimens consistently exhibited higher strength and lower ductility than the wrought specimens. The hybrid PBF/wrought specimens performed similarly to the wrought material. In no specimens did any failure appear to occur at or near the interface between wrought substrate and PBF material. In addition, most of the deformation in the PBF/wrought specimens appeared to be limited to the wrought portion of the specimens. These results are consistent with microscopy showing smaller grain size in the PBF material, which often leads to increased strength in SS316L due to the Hall-Petch relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0596.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Laser; Polishing; Additive manufacturing; Surface analysis; Identification; Topography
Online: 28 January 2021 (22:22:21 CET)
One of the challenges facing the industrial adoption of additively manufactured parts is the surface roughness on the as-built part. The surface roughness of parts is frequently characterized by metrics specified by international standards organizations. However, these standards list many surface metrics that can make it unclear which to use to best describe the surface. In this work, the ability of the various surface metrics to successfully classify the as-built and post-processed surfaces is studied using linear classification models. Laser polishing via remelting and manual grinding are the post-processing techniques used to smooth the as-built surface. The ability of the linear classifier to successfully categorize the various surfaces is demonstrated, and the various surface metrics are ranked according to the strength of their individual ability to classify the surfaces. This work promotes the method as a potential way to autonomously classify as-built and laser polished surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital construction; 3D-concrete-printing; buildabiltiy; additive manufacturing
Online: 27 August 2018 (06:37:13 CEST)
Buildability, i.e. the ability of a deposited material bulk to retain its dimmensions under increasing load, is an inherent prerequisite for formwork-free digital construction (DC). Since DC processes are relatively new, no standard methods of characterization are available yet. The paper at hand presents practice-oriented buildabilty criteria by taking various process parameters and construction costs into consideration. In doing so, direct links between laboratory buildability tests and target applications are established. A systematic basis for calculating the time interval (TI) to be followed during laboratory testing is proposed for the full-width printing (FWP) and filament printing (FP) processes. The proposed approach is validated by applying it to a high-strength, printable, fine-grained concrete. Comparative analyses of FWP and FP revealed that to test the buildability of a material for FP processes, higher velocities of the printhead should be established for laboratory tests in comparison to those needed for FWP process, providing for equal construction rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: waste mineral oil; Mn additive; engine performance; emission
Online: 31 May 2018 (13:27:48 CEST)
The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste mineral oils. as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm) improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0027.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing (AM); Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); Weld cladding; Residual stresses; Reinforcement; Hole drilling method; LS-Dyna; Numerical Simulation
Online: 5 May 2022 (08:46:31 CEST)
Cladding is typically used to protect components from wear and corrosion while also improving the aesthetic value and reliability of the substrate. The cladding process induces significant residual stresses due to the temperature difference between the substrate and the clad layer. However, these residual stresses could be effectively utilized by modifying processes and geometrical parameters. This paper introduces a novel methodology for using the weld-cladding process as a cost-effective alternative to various existing reinforcement techniques. The numerical analyses are performed to maximize the reinforcement of a cylindrical tool. The investigation of how the weld cladding develops compressive stresses on the specimen in response to a change in the weld beads and the welding sequence is presented. For the benchmark shape, experimental verification of the numerical model is performed. The impact of the distance between the weld beads and the effect of the tool diameter is numerically investigated. Furthermore, the variation in compressive stresses due to temperature fluctuations during the extrusion process has been evaluated. The results showed that adequate compressive stresses are generated on the welded parts through the cladding process after cooling. Hence, the targeted reinforcement of the substrate can be achieved by optimizing the welding sequence and process parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0202.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3-D printing; metal additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; SLM; direct metal laser sintering; DMLS; metal powder processing
Online: 4 April 2017 (07:56:07 CEST)
A useful and increasingly common additive manufacturing (AM) process is the selective laser melting (SLM) or direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. SLM/DMLS can produce full-density metal parts from difficult materials, but it tends to suffer from severe residual stresses introduced during processing. This limits the usefulness and applicability of the process, particularly in the fabrication of parts with delicate overhanging and protruding features. The purpose of this study was to examine the current insight and progress made toward understanding and eliminating the problem in overhanging and protruding structures. To accomplish this, a survey of literature was undertaken, focusing on process modeling (general, heat transfer, stress and distortion, and material models), direct process control (input and environmental control, hardware-in-the-loop monitoring, parameter optimization, and post-processing), experiment development (methods for evaluation, optical and mechanical process monitoring, imaging, and design-of-experiments), support structure optimization, and overhang feature design; approximately 140 published works were examined. The major findings of this study were that a small minority of the literature on SLM/DMLS deals explicitly with the overhanging stress problem, but some fundamental work has been done on the problem. Implications, needs, and potential future research directions are discussed in-depth in light of the present review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Chairside kit; SEM; Surface roughness; Rapid prototype
Online: 22 May 2023 (12:40:18 CEST)
A chairside polishing kit is an alternative to a laboratory polishing technique. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different polishing techniques on the surface roughness of three-dimensional (3D)-printed acrylic denture bases (ADB). One hundred twenty disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from one conventional heat-polymerized (HP) ADB resin and two 3D-printed (Asiga (AS) and NextDent (ND)) ADB resins (n=40 per ADB resin). Each group was furtherly divided based on the polishing protocol (n=10) as follows: convectional polishing protocol (C), Microdont chairside polishing kit (M), Shofu chairside polishing kit (S), and unpolished group (U). The surface roughness (surface roughness average (Ra) and average maximum profile height (Rz)) of the printed specimens were measured using an optical profilometer, and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to capture the surface at ×1000. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05) at significant levels. In unpolished groups, there was a statically significant difference between HP vs 3D-printed ADBs (p < 0.0001). For Ra values, the lowest values were presented in HP-C, AS-S, and ND-C. While the highest values were shown in all unpolished groups. Within the material, there were statistically significant differences between the three polishing protocols (C, M, and S) vs unpolished (p < 0.0001), while there was no significant between C, M, and S groups (p = 0.05). The Rz values had the same pattern as the Ra values. The two chairside polishing kits were comparable to conventional polishing technique, and it could be recommended for the clinical application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: surface properties; dry-adhesive microstructures; deep rolling; additive manufacturing
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:55:57 CEST)
Once on Mars, maintenance and repair will be crucial for humans as supply chains including Earth andMars will be very complex. Consequently, the raw material available on mars must be processed and used. Factors such as the energy available for material production play just as important a role as the quality of the material that can be produced and the quality of its surface. With the aim of developing and technically implementing a process chain that meets the challenge of producing spare parts from oxygen-reduced Mars regolith, this paper addresses the issue of low-energy handling. Expected statistically distributed high roughnesses of sintered regolith analogs are approximated in this work by parameter variation in the PBF-LB/M process. For low-energy handling, a dry-adhesive microstructure is used. Investigations are carried out to determine the extent to which the rough surface resulting from the manufacturing process can be smoothed by deep rolling in such a way that the microstructure adheres and enables samples to be transported. For the investigated AlSi10Mg samples (12 mm x 12 mm x 10 mm), the surface roughness varies in a wide range from Sa 7.7 µm to Sa 64 µm after the additive manufacturing process, pull-off stresses of up to 6.99 N/cm² could be realized after deep rolling. This represents an increase in pull-off stresses by a factor of 392.94 compared to the pull-off stresses before deep rolling, enabling handling of even larger specimens. It is noteworthy that specimens with roughness values that were previously difficult to handle can be treated post-deep rolling, indicating a potential influence of additional variables that describe roughness or ripples and are associated with the adhesion effect of the microstructure of the dry adhesive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0186.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Lattice Structures; Fatigue Strength; Aerospace System Design
Online: 10 March 2023 (08:02:59 CET)
There is evidence that Additive Manufacturing plays a crucial role in the fourth industrial revolution. The design freedom provided by this technology is disrupting limits and rules from the past enabling engineers to have new products otherwise unfeasible. Recent developments in the field of SLM have led to a renewed interest in lattice structures that can be produced non-stochastically in previously unfeasible dimensional scales. One of the primary applications is aerospace engineering where the need of lightweight and performance is urgent to reduce the carbon footprint of civil transport around the globe. Of particular concern is fatigue strength. Being able to predict fatigue life in both LCF (Low Cycle Fatigue) and HCF (High Cycle Fatigue) is crucial for a safe and reliable design in aerospace systems and structures. In the present work, an experimental evaluation of compressive-compressive fatigue behavior has been performed to evaluate the fatigue curves of different cells, varying sizes and relative density. A Design of Experiment approach has been adopted in order to maximize the information extractable in a reliable form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; wear analysis; mechanical properties; H13 tool steel
Online: 3 February 2022 (16:18:57 CET)
The paper contains the results of the 100-hour test campaign of the Additive Manufactured (AM) spare part (retainer – slipper) dedicated for an exact axial piston pump. The material of the retainer-slipper has been identified by using energy dispersive spectroscopy and replaced by other – with similar material properties as the original one. The obtained spare part had been subjected to only one postprocessing type (sandblasting) to analyze the influence of the rough part after the AM process. The whole test campaign has been divided into stages, where after each stage microscopic measurements have been made. During microscopical investigation roughness and geometrical measurements were conducted. The results revealed that it is possible to replace parts in hydraulic pumps with the use of AM. 100-hour test campaign caused about 500% increase in the surface roughness of the pump’s original part which was cooperated with the AM spare retainer-slipper, without any damages to the test system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optimization; extrusion-based additive manufacturing; 3d printer; continuous fibers
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:40:25 CEST)
In this study, a novel task of printing speed optimization for continuous fiber composites is investigated. Using continuous fibers is an innovative approach to reinforce products made by fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology. In the printing process of composites with continuous fibers, the printing speed is critical because of its significant effect on the geometric shape of the samples, especially their corners. During optimization in this research, continuous glass fiber (CGF) and polylactic acid (PLA) filaments were utilized as reinforcing phase and matrix, respectively, and were simultaneously fed into the extrusion-based polymer 3D printer to form PLA/CGF composites. The optimization was carried out by calculating the temperature changes of the deposited rasters in the presence and absence of fibers as a first step and then determining the special relationship between the printing speeds and rasters temperature changes. Finally, the optimal and the maximum printing speed was computed based on a hypothesis, which is proved by the results of high-quality printed composites with different geometric shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0492.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 316L steel; fatigue cracking; selective laser melting
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:34:49 CEST)
The effects of build orientation and heat treatment on the crack growth behavior of 316L stainless steel (SS) fabricated via a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process were investigated. Significant growth of available research results of additively manufactured metallic parts still needs to be improved. The most important issue connected with properties after additive manufacturing is properties high anisotropy, especially from the fatigue point of view. The research included crack growth behavior of additively manufactured 316L in comparison to conventionally made reference material. Both groups of samples were obtained using precipitation heat treatment. Different build orientation in additively manufactured samples and rolling direction in reference samples were taken into account as well. Precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured parts allowed to reach similar microstructure and tensile properties to elements conventionally made. The heat treatment positively affected fatigue properties. Additionally, precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured elements significantly affected the reduction of fatigue cracking velocity and changed the fatigue cracking mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0064.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Binder Jetting; Additive Manufacturing; Simulation; Powder bed; Density; Shrinkage
Online: 6 November 2019 (11:40:48 CET)
Binder jet printed components typically have low overall density in the green state and high shrinkage and deformation after heat treatment. It has previously been demonstrated that, by including nanoparticles of the same material in the binder, these properties can be improved as the nanoparticles can fill the interstices and pore throats between the bed particles. The beneficial effects from using these additive binder particles can be improved by maximising the binder particle size, enabling the space within the powder bed to be filled with a higher packing efficiency. The selection of maximum particle size for a binder requires detailed knowledge of the pores and pore throats between the powder bed particles. In this paper, a raindrop model is developed to determine the critical radius at which binder particles can pass between pores and penetrate the bed. The model is validated against helium pycnometry measurements and binder particle drop tests. It is found that the critical radius can be predicted, with acceptable accuracy, using a linear function of the mean and standard deviation of the particle radii. Percolation theory concepts have been employed in order to generalise the results for powder beds that have different mean particle sizes and size distributions. The results of this work can be employed to inform the selection of particle sizes required for binder formulations, to optimise density and reduce shrinkage in printed binder jet components.