ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0384.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep Learning; Smartphone Image; Acne Grading; Acne Object DetectionDeep Learning, Smartphone Image, Acne Grading, Acne Object Detection
Online: 28 June 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
Skin image analysis using artificial intelligence (AI) has recently attracted significant research interest, particularly for analyzing skin images captured by mobile devices. Acne is one of the most common skin conditions with profound effects in severe cases. In this study, we developed an AI system called AcneDet for automatic acne object detection and acne severity grading using facial images captured by smartphones. AcneDet includes two models for conducting two tasks: (1) a Faster R-CNN-based deep learning model for the detection of acne lesion objects of four types including blackheads/whiteheads, papules/pustules, nodules/cysts, and acne scars; and (2) a LightGBM machine learning model for grading acne severity using the Investigator’s Global Assessment (IGA) scale. The output of the Faster R-CNN model, i.e., the counts of each acne type, were used as input for the LightGBM model for acne severity grading. A dataset consisting of 1,572 labeled facial images captured by both iOS and Android smartphones was used for training. The results show that the Faster R-CNN model achieves a mAP of 0.54 for acne object detection. The mean accuracy of acne severity grading by the LightGBM model is 0.85. With this study, we hope to contribute to the development of artificial intelligent systems that are able to help acne patients understand more about their conditions and support doctors in acne diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0998.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: acne vulgaris; insulin resistance; HOMA-IR; resistant acne
Online: 14 July 2023 (11:12:45 CEST)
Acne vulgaris has multifactorial pathogenesis which may include insulin resistance. To investigate whether insulin resistance is a causative factor in acne vulgaris development, this study and a systematic review were conducted. 41 acne vulgaris patients and 47 healthy BMI-matched controls were involved. Glucose and insulin fasting serum levels were obtained, HOMA-IR was calculated, insulin resistance was diagnosed in cases with HOMA-IR value over 2.1. The mean±SD values for glucose fasting serum level were as follows: 94.88±7.731 [mg/dl] in study group and 79.51±7.175 [mg/dl] in controls (p<0.001). The mean±SD insulin fasting serum levels were 14.47±6.394 [µIU/mL and 11.83±4.309 [µIU/mL](p=0.059), respectively. The HOMA-IR mean±SD value calculated for the study group was 3.4±1.49 and in the control group 2.34±0.909 (p<0.001).Out of 41 patients 32 were diagnosed with insulin resistance (78%) and 26 of the 47 controls 26 were diagnosed with IR (55%) (p=0.026). Insulin resistance diagnosis was statistically more common among the acne patients compared to the controls. In the articles reviewed insulin resistance was found to be more frequent in acne vulgaris patients. Both our study and the papers analysed indicate that insulin resistance might be an independent factor in acne vulgaris development and should be considered when diagnosing and treating acne.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: acne; polymorphism; genetics; CYP17; ethnicity
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:30:43 CET)
Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases and genetic relationships have been documented. The aim was to evaluate the association of CYP17 (T-34C) polymorphism related to the risk of acne in a meta-analysis study. The databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched until September 2018 to check the relationship between acne risk and CYP17 (T-34C) polymorphism and impact of this polymorphism on severity of acne. We used Review Manager 5.3 software to analyze the data using OR and 95% CI to check this relationship. Four studies were included and analyzed in the meta-analysis. The OR in analysis of C versus T in acne patients compared to the healthy controls was 1.42 (P=0.02), in CC vs. TT was 1.54 (P=0.04), in TC vs. TT was 1.46 (P=0.12), in TC + CC vs. TT was 1.55 (P=0.04), and in CC vs. TT + TC was 1.39 (P=0.06). There was no acne risk related to CYP17 (T-34C) in none of genetic models in Caucasian ethnicity, whereas in Asian ethnicity, there was higher acne risk related to CYP17 (T-34C) without heterogeneity. The results of the present meta-analysis showed the presence of C allele and CC genotype of CYP17 polymorphism can be risk factors for acne, mainly in the Asian ethnicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0166.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: Acne Vulgaris; Hair tissue samples; Discrimination; FTIR-ATR
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:21:22 CEST)
Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease, which occurs due to inflammation of the hair follicles and sebum producing (sebaceous) glands of the skin called pilosebaceous unit and the anaerobic propionic acne bacterium, P.acne. Human sebum is dominantly made up of 57.5% of triglycerides and fatty acids, 26%wax esters, 12% Squalene and 4.5% Cholesterol. The increased level Androgen hormone, sebum lipid composition, P.acne over growth which induces monocytes and pro inflammatory cytokines attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T cells to the pilosebaceous unit and drive epithelial hyper proliferation i.e., Acne vulgaris. The actual biomolecular changes due to acne vulgaris disease are present in the blood, in the sebum, and in the noninvasive sample of human scalp hair follicles. The main objectives of the present study are to analyze human scalp hair follicles samples using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy to compare and discriminate the spectral signatures of acne vulgaris and healthy scalp hair tissue samples through acne biomarkers Protein, Amide I, Amide II and Squalene (LDL), using the method of internal ratio parameters. This work represents a first step in the development of an analytical tool for future drug development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0472.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: acne; apoptosis; FoxO1; FoxO3; isotretinoin; mTORC1; p53; pathogenesis; therapy; transcriptomics
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:48:02 CEST)
This review provides information on acne transcriptomics allowing deeper insights into acne pathogenesis and isotretinoin´s mode of action. Puberty-induced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin and androgen signaling activate the kinase AKT and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Western diet (hyperglycemic carbohydrates, milk/dairy products) as well co-stimulate AKT/mTORC1 signaling. AKT-mediated phosphorylation of nuclear FoxO1 and FoxO3 results in their extrusion into the cytoplasm, a critical switch, which enhances the transactivation of lipogenic and proinflammatory transcription factors including androgen receptor (AR), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) but reduces FoxO1-dependent expression of GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6), the key transcription factor of infundibular keratinocyte homeostasis. AKT-mediated phosphorylation of the p53-binding protein MDM2 promotes the degradation of p53. In contrast, isotretinoin enhances the expression of p53, FoxO1 and FoxO3 in sebaceous glands of acne patients. Overexpression of these proapoptotic transcription factors explains isotretinoin´s desired sebum-suppressive effect via induction of sebocyte apoptosis but also its adverse effects including teratogenicity (neural crest cell apoptosis), reduced ovarian reserve (granulosa cell apoptosis), risk of depression (apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons), VLDL hyperlipidemia, intracranial hypertension and dry skin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1827.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Encapsulated nanofibers,; Acne treatment; Skincare products; Cosmetic industry; Functional nanofibers,
Online: 26 July 2023 (13:29:52 CEST)
Encapsulated nanofibers have emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of acne, owing to their ability to provide controlled release, targeted delivery, increased efficacy, and improved stability. Electrospinning is a well-established method for producing encapsulated nanofibers and has been shown to be effective for encapsulating various active ingredients. However, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed in the development of encapsulated nanofibers for acne treatment. One major challenge is the need for comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these treatments. The cost and scalability of production also need to be considered to make these treatments accessible and affordable for patients. In addition, the long-term stability of encapsulated active ingredients is another challenge in the development of encapsulated nanofibers for acne treatment. Regulatory frameworks need to be developed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these treatments. Future research may focus on developing multifunctional nanofibers that combine active ingredients with other properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties, to provide a comprehensive approach to acne treatment. Moreover, the development of nanofiber-based skincare products may have a significant impact on the cosmetic industry. Overall, while there are still challenges to overcome, the potential benefits of encapsulated nanofibers for acne treatment make them an exciting and promising area of research for the future. In particular, the integration of smart drug delivery systems and responsive materials may enable the development of more personalized and effective treatments for acne. The development of new materials and encapsulation techniques, as well as the exploration of combination therapies that target multiple aspects of acne pathogenesis, are also future perspectives for encapsulated nanofibers in acne treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: acne vulgaris; antibiotic resistance; chitosan-phytochemical conjugates; synergistic antibacterial effect
Online: 13 April 2017 (11:19:33 CEST)
The object of this study was to discover an alternative therapeutic agent with fewer side effects against acne vulgaris, which is one of the most common skin diseases. Acne vulgaris often associates with acne-related bacteria such as <i>Propionibacterium acnes</i>, <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i>, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, some of which exhibit a resistant against commercial antibiotics used in the treatment of acne vulgaris (tetracycline, erythromycin, and lincomycin). In the current study, we evaluated <i>in vitro</i> antibacterial activity of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates against acne-related bacteria. Three of chitosan-phytochemical conjugates used in this study showed stronger antibacterial activity than that of chitosan (unmodified control). Chitosan-caffeic acid conjugate (CCA) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against acne-related bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 8 μg/mL to 256 μg/mL. In addition, the MICs of antibiotics against antibiotic resistant <i>P. acnes</i> and <i>P. aeruginosa</i> strains were dramatically reduced in the combination with CCA, suggesting that CCA would restore the antibacterial activity of the antibiotics. The analysis of fractional inhibitory concentration indices clearly revealed a synergistic antibacterial effect between CCA and the antibiotics. Thus, the median ∑FIC values against the antibiotic resistant bacterial strains were ranged from 0.375 to 0.533 in the combination mode of CCA and antibiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: acetylcholine; acne vulgaris; botulinum toxins; cholinergic receptors; non-neuronal cholinergic system; oily skin; sebaceous glands; sebum
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:26:33 CET)
Intradermal injection of botulinum neurotoxin is a frequently performed procedure in aesthetic dermatology to improve facial skin tone, texture, fine wrinkles, and enlarged pores. In practice, botulinum neurotoxin type A is also used to reduce skin oiliness of the face. There is increasing evidence that acetylcholine plays specific roles in sebum production, suggesting that botulinum neurotoxin type A may reduce sebum production by interfering with cholinergic transmission between sebaceous glands and autonomic nerve terminals. Botulinum neurotoxins can also inhibit several pathogenetic components of acne development, suggesting that botulinum neurotoxins can be used as a safe and effective treatment modality for acne and other skin disorders related to the overactivity of sebaceous glands. This review aims to explore the current evidence behind the treatment of oily skin and acne with botulinum neurotoxin type A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Acne vulgaris; hydroxy acids; alpha-hydroxy acids; beta-hydroxy acids; pullulan-collagen nanofibers; electrospinning; biocompatibility, topical treatment
Online: 2 November 2023 (04:09:05 CET)
Acne vulgaris is a prevalent skin condition that affects people of all ages and can have significant physical and psychological impacts. Hydroxy acids, such as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA) and beta-hydroxy acids (BHA), have demonstrated potential as effective ingredients for topical acne treatments due to their exfoliating and skin-rejuvenating properties. This study assessed the effectiveness of encapsulating AHA and BHA in pullulan-collagen nanofibers as a novel approach to acne treatment. The study involved preparing Pullulan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solutions combined with sodium chloride (NaCl) to create a stable mixture. Collagen and Pullulan were then dissolved in deionized water and mixed to form a collagen-pullulan solution. Various weight ratios of Collagen to Pullulan were tested to optimize nanofiber formation. This research achieved electrospinning of nanofibers, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, which revealed well-formed and continuous nanofiber structures in acidic solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided insights into the chemical composition of the nanofibers, indicating the presence of ester, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and phenolic groups. Contact angle measurements demonstrated that the pullulan-collagen nanocomposite exhibited hydrophilic properties, albeit less hydrophilic than pure Collagen. Biocompatibility assays using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) revealed that the pullulan-collagen nanocomposite promoted higher cell viability compared to pure Collagen, suggesting its potential as a supportive matrix for cell growth and tissue regeneration. AHA-BHA-infused nanofiber skin masks hold promise as effective topical treatments for acne vulgaris. The successful encapsulation of hydroxy acids within pullulan-collagen nanofibers, in conjunction with their favourable chemical composition, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, positions them as promising candidates for delivering active ingredients and enhancing skin health. Further nanofiber formulation optimisation is necessary to exploit their therapeutic potential in skincare applications.