ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Abstract; Narrativity; Scientific Publishing
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:51:58 CEST)
We have previously reported on the diachronical changes in the narrative structure of research articles (RAs) and review manuscripts, using corpora of abstracts from MEDLINE. The present study investigates 5 linguistic dimensions (D1-5) of the text, following Biber’s well established Multimensional Analysis, on the same corpora, to assess how writing practices have changed in these two biomedical literature sub-genres over the years. Our analysis encompassed a sample of more than 1.2 million subtracts from manuscripts that were published over the course of more than 30 years. Both RAs and reviews have reinforced their informational, emotionally detached tone (D1), and have progressively refrained from the use of narrative devices (D2), while increasing their context-independent content (D3). Both RAs and reviews have displayed low levels of overt persuasion (D4), while steering away from abstract content to focus on a more marked author agency and identity adfirmation. When the linguistic features that underly these 5 dimensions are compared, it becomes apparent that RAs and review papers have often changed quite independently, both usually converging to standardized stylistic canons.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body; action; abstract concepts; metacognition; sociality
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:19:08 CEST)
Recent research has shown that the sensorimotor system plays a significant role in a variety of cognitive processes. In this paper, we will review recent studies performed in our lab (Body Action Language Lab, BALLAB) or in labs with which we collaborate, showing the involvement of the sensorimotor system at different levels. With the purpose of expounding on this aspect, we focus on studies that highlight two main characteristics of the involvement of the sensorimotor systems. First, we concentrate on the flexibility of sensorimotor grounding during interaction with objects. We report evidence showing how social context and current situations influence affordance activation. We then focus on the tactile and kinesthetic involvement in body-object interaction. Second, we illustrate flexible sensorimotor grounding in word use. We review studies showing that not only concrete words, like “bottle,” but also abstract words, like “freedom,” “thinking,” and “perhaps,” are grounded in the sensorimotor system. We report evidence showing that abstract words activate sensory modalities and involve the mouth effector more than concrete words due to their privileged relationship with language, both outer and inner speech. We discuss the activation of the mouth sensorimotor system in light of studies on adults (e.g., studies employing articulatory suppression), children (e.g., studies on the effects of pacifier use on word acquisition and processing), and infants (e.g. studies on emergence of new words). Finally, we pinpoint possible mechanisms at play in the acquisition and use of abstract concepts. We argue that with abstract concepts, we rely more on other people to learn or negotiate the meaning of words; we have called this mechanism social metacognition.Social metacognition is bidirectionally linked to our sensorimotor system. On the one hand, linguistic explanations constitute a primary source of grounding that may be re-enacted when retrieving a concept, for example through inner speech. On the other hand, it leads us to feel closer and be more synchronous in movement with others, who can help us understand the meaning of very complex words. Overall, we show that the sensorimotor system provides a grounding basis not only for objects and concrete words but also for more abstract and concrete ones. We conclude by arguing that future research should address and deepen two different and interrelated aspects concerning the involvement of the sensorimotor system during object and word processing. First, the sensorimotor system is flexibly modulated by the context, as studies on affordances reveal. Second, the sensorimotor system can be involved at different levels, and its role can be integrated and flanked by that of other systems, like the linguistic one, as studies on abstract concepts clearly show. We urge future research aimed at unravelling the role of the sensorimotor system in cognition to fully explore the complexity of this intricate-and sometimes slippery-relation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0195.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: biology; mathematics; computational biology; linear algebra; abstract algebra
Online: 14 February 2020 (10:54:57 CET)
This dissertation is a rigorous study of ecology and macrocellular biology as a subfield of abstract algebra. We begin with the creation of an axiomatic paradigm, then move onto constructing a universal genetic code of biology. We use this to define increasingly complex algebraic structures (ecosystem, evolving populations, etc.). We prove a variety of theorems regarding to the members of the previous mathematical constructs, notably the following three: 1. There is one unique phenotypic representation of each organism. For example, if you subdivide any piece of genetic code into its phenotypic components, then two identical organisms have identical decomposed DNA 2. There are a finite number of indivisible phenotypic traits. 3. The three sophioid-definitions are equivalent: (a) dynamical evolutionary enlargement of the medial temporal lobe and frontal lobe, (b) reliance upon intelligence, (c) the existence of an intellectually- or socially-hierarchical society. Much has yet to be done on this work, but as a first draft, it stands as a jumping point for future exploits; I am working on an entirely revised second draft.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0331.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Alien Tiles; Coding Theory; Lights Out; Recreational Mathematics; Abstract Algebra
Online: 24 June 2022 (05:13:05 CEST)
The switching game Lights Out and its variants were studied extensively as recreational mathematics problems. The game board of the ordinary Lights Out is a rectangular grid of lights, where each light is either on or off. By clicking a light, the clicked light and its adjacent rectilinear neighbors are toggled. Given an arbitrary initial configuration of lights, the final mission is to “solve” this game by switching off all the lights. Most studies on Lights Out and its variants focused on the solvability of given games or the number of solvable games, but when the game is viewed in a coding-theoretical perspective, more interesting questions with special meanings in coding theory will naturally pop up, such as finding the minimal number of lit lights among all solvable games except the solved game, or finding the minimal number of lit lights that the player can achieve from a given unsolvable game, etc. However, these problems are usually hard to be solved in general in terms of algorithmic complexity. This study considers a natural extension of the Lights Out game, which enlarges the toggle pattern in a way that all the lights in the same row and those in the same column of the clicked light are toggled. This variant of Lights Out is a two-state version of a switching game called Alien Tiles. In this paper, we investigate the properties of the two-state Alien Tiles, and discuss several coding-theoretical problems about this game. Then, we apply this game as an error correction code and investigate its optimality. We also give a brief overview on algorithmic complexity and coding theory for readers who are not familiar with these topics. The purpose of this paper is to propose ways of playing switching games in a think-outside-the-box manner, which benefit the recreational mathematics community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0374.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: deep learning; transfer learning; zero-shot; vulnerability detection; abstract syntax tree
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:20:03 CEST)
In the broad context of vulnerability detection, deep learning has achieved considerable progress but faces generalization challenges in multilingual environments . We introduce a novel approach named AST-FMVD, which leverages transfer learning and abstract syntax trees. By employing semantic similarity clustering and context-aware technology, the method constructs node mapping relationships between different languages, enabling zero-shot learning in vulnerability detection. The method was validated by applying Java's vulnerability detection model in the Python domain, successfully demonstrating that AST-FMVD retains the original model's detection capabilities in the target domain. In conclusion, the proposed method offers a promising solution to the inherent problems in multi-language vulnerability detection, signifying a potential leap in the application of deep learning, transfer learning, and abstract syntax trees for improved cross-domain performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0208.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: cryptography; abstract algebra; RSA; computer science education; cryptography education; number theory; factorization
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:40:43 CEST)
We explore the class of positive integers n that admit idempotent factorizations n=pq such that lambda(n) divides (p-1)(q-1), where lambda(n) is the Carmichael lambda function. Idempotent factorizations with p and q prime have received the most attention due to their cryptographic advantages, but there are an infinite number of n with idempotent factorizations containing composite p and/or q. Idempotent factorizations are exactly those p and q that generate correctly functioning keys in the RSA 2-prime protocol with n as the modulus. While the resulting p and q have no cryptographic utility and therefore should never be employed in that capacity, idempotent factorizations warrant study in their own right as they live at the intersection of multiple hard problems in computer science and number theory. We present some analytical results here. We also demonstrate the existence of maximally idempotent integers, those n for which all bipartite factorizations are idempotent. We show how to construct them, and present preliminary results on their distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1761.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE); Partial Differential Equations (PDE); Object Oriented Programming (OOP); Abstract Calculus Pattern (ACP); Fortran
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:44:17 CEST)
The (numerical) solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) problems is of paramount relevance, ODEs system being an ubiquitous mathematical formulation of many physical phenomena (such as those involved in fluid dynamics, chemistry, biology, evolutionary-anthropology, ...): almost every dynamici phenomenon can be modeled by means of an ODEs system. The present paper is the first manifesto of FOODIE, a library aimed to numerically solve ODEs problems by means of a clear, concise and efficient abstract interface. FOODIE, meaning Fortran Object oriented Ordinary Differential Equations integration library, has manifolds aims: to provide a set to built-in numerical schemes that are accurate, robust, validated and efficient and to allow easy application of these schemes to (almost) all ODEs problems by means of an effective Abstract Calculus Pattern. The key idea is to allow the same solver-implementation to be applied to all ODEs problems thus avoiding the re-implementation of the ODEs solver for each different ODEs problem: code re-usability is consequently maximized, FOODIE being a general robust framework. Besides, the same framework also allows rapid development of new ODEs solvers due to the high abstraction level of the library itself. The present paper is the first announcement of FOODIE project: the current implementation is extensively discussed and its capabilities are proved by means of tests and examples.