ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0544.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ASD; fibronectin; hAMSCs; PTFE patch; VSD
Online: 23 July 2021 (12:30:21 CEST)
Background. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch is commonly used during surgical closure for atrial septal defect (ASD) and/or ventricular septal defect (VSD). It has several limitations such as inability to grow, repair, and remodel. Aneurysm formation, thrombosis, and the inability of patches to grow or remodel are usual, especially in children and young adults. To tackle these limitations, we try to use fibronectin and human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) in PTFE patch. Objective. To understanding positive impact of fibronectin to enhance hAMSCs cell-to-cell adherence and cell-to-patch surface attachment into PTFE patch for future ASD or VSD closure. Methods. Cultured of hAMSCs cells were fixated with 15 mL methanol and CD90+, CD105+, CD45- antibodies were labeled FITC, rinsed with PBS and analyzed under fluorescence microscope for 15 minutes. Fibronectin solution 0.1% were used to soak patch scaffolds for approximately 2 hours duration, and then dried for 20 minutes for treatment group. As for control group, Fibronectin solution was not added on the culture. The samples were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results. SEM examination showed incomplete attachment of the cells even after 10 days on control group at 1.14 ±1.13 (Figure 2). In contrast, treatment group showed more cells attached to the patch surface at 31.25 ±13.28 (p 0.000) (Figure 3). Observation at 5 days was 17.67 ± 20.21, at 7 days was 12.11 ± 10.94, at 10 days was 18.83 ± 23.25. No significant statistical difference of mean cell per view among each treatment group (p 0.802). Conclusion. Fibronectin has a positive impact on hAMSCs attachment seeded onto PTFE patch. These properties, in combination with their developmental plasticity, have generated tremendous interest because of the potential use of hAMSCs in regenerative medicine to replace damaged tissues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0960.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: keyword ASD, autism, Asperger syndrome, molecular sequencing
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:51:45 CEST)
The etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not yet been completely elucidated. Through time, multiple attempts have been made to uncover the causes of ASD. Different theories have been proposed, such as that it is caused by “Gods Wrath,” alternations in the gut–brain axis with an emphasis on gut dysbiosis, post vaccine complications, and genetic or even autoimmune causes. In this review we present data covering over 170 000 participants at age ranging from 2 to 14 years focusing on human cell changes rather than using animal models found in previous studies. The male/female ratio was 4:1. Data collection occurred in many countries covering ethnically diversified subjects. Moreover, we aim to show how the progress in genetic techniques influence the explanation found in medical White Papers based on the human genetic samples we have observed from our studies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0340.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: savouring; affect; anxiety; mothers; autism spectrum disorder; ASD
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:22:26 CEST)
Savouring is an emotion regulation strategy and intervention that focuses on the process of attending, intensifying and prolonging positive experiences and positive affect associated with these memories. Personal savouring involves a reflection on positive memories that are specific to the individual and do not involve others. In contrast, relational savouring entails reflecting on instances when people were responsive to the needs of their significant others. Such interventions hold potential to benefit parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers of children with ASD tend to experience higher anxiety, lower positive affect (PA) and more negative affect (NA) compared to mothers of neurotypical children, leading to a diminished overall well-being. Moreover, ASD has multiplied by up to four times in the recent decade. Thus, this paper investigates whether savouring may enhance the overall well-being of mothers of young children with ASD by increasing positive affect and decreasing negative affect. 52 mothers of neurotypical children and 26 mothers of children with ASD aged 3-7 years old were given a series of questionnaires and randomly assigned to either relational savouring or personal savouring conditions. In relational savouring, mothers were asked to reflect upon a shared positive experience with their child while in the personal savouring condition, a personal positive experience was recalled. Across mothers of children with ASD and neurotypical children, findings suggest that savouring leads to a decrease in NA (p < .01) but not increases in PA. Similarly, mothers with higher levels of anxiety experience a greater decrease in NA (p < .001) compared to mothers with lower levels of anxiety post-savouring. This study proposes that a brief savouring intervention may be effective among mothers of preschoolers. As lower levels of negative affect is linked to healthier psychological well-being, mothers might be able to engage in more effective and warm parenting after savouring exercises, which would cultivate positive mother-child relationships that benefit their children in the long-term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0280.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: autism; ASD; epigenetics; DNA methylation; genetics; oxytocin; social experience
Online: 21 June 2022 (04:16:24 CEST)
The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased substantially over the past two decades with current research unable to fully account for this dramatic increase in prevalence. One explanation proposes that both intrinsic (e.g., genetic) and extrinsic (e.g., environmental) risk factors may be involved in the etiology of ASD. The goal of this review paper is to explore modifiable pathways for intervention in children at risk for ASD, specifically examining how early social experience may be correlated with epigenetic change in genes associated with autism. We present an innovative model which proposes that polygenic risk and social experience (via epigenetic mechanisms) may both contribute to the observed ASD phenotype. Previous research on genetic, environmental, and epigenetic mechanisms implicated in the etiology of ASD will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the oxytocin receptor gene, which is epigenetically altered by early social experience, plays a crucial role in mammalian social and cognitive development, and is associated with both genetic and epigenetic risk for ASD. Identifying intrinsic (e.g., genetic) and extrinsic (e.g., social experience) risk markers for ASD, a combination of which has not previously been examined, would transform our understanding of this condition, facilitate earlier identification of ASD risk, and guide early intervention efforts. This may have a far-reaching impact on individuals with ASD, their families, and society.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: symbiosis; speciation; humans; polio; CD155; PVR; evolution; ASD; autism
Online: 4 December 2019 (11:09:42 CET)
No single evolutionary event has been identified as the cause for the final emergence of our species. I propose that a mutation on CD155 receptor gene occurred to establish a symbiosis with poliovirus, which exerted its beneficial impact via RNA dependent non-genetic transgenerational inheritance, which caused a qualitative enhancement of cognitive functions. I posit that this mutation occurred in what we call, Anatomically Modern Humans, our immediate ancestor species and that the disruption of this symbiosis causes autism spectrum disorder. Positive selection of CD155 to the extent of becoming a species defining characteristic, the chronology of autism spectrum disorder prevalence increase and continued increase, the multigenerational nature of RNA inheritance, the universal infection of humans by poliovirus and a very low associated mortality rate, and several other factors support this hypothesis. Specific genetic, epidemiological and sperm miRNA content studies are suggested to test this hypothesis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0561.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Potocki–Lupski syndrome; 17p11.2; PTLS; autism; ASD; EEG; language; speech
Online: 29 December 2022 (13:00:18 CET)
Potocki-Lupski Syndrome (PTLS) is a rare condition associated with a duplication of 17p11.2 that may underlie a wide range of congenital abnormalities and heterogeneous behavioral phenotypes. Along with developmental delay and intellectual disability, autism-specific traits are often reported to be the most common among patients with PTLS. To contribute to the discussion of the role of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the PTLS phenotype, we present a case of a female adolescent with a de novo dup(17)(p11.2p11.2) without ASD features, focusing on in-depth clinical, behavioral, and electrophysiological (EEG) evaluations. Among EEG features, we found the atypical peak-slow wave patterns and a unique saw-like sharp wave of 13 Hz that was not previously described in any other patient. The power spectral density of the resting state EEG was typical in our patient with only the values of non-linear EEG dynamics: Hjorth complexity and Fractal dimension were drastically attenuated compared with the patient’s neurotypical peers. Here we also summarize results from previously published reports of PTLS that point to the about 21% occurrence of ASD in PTLS that might be biased, taking into account methodological limitations. More consistent among PTLS patients were intellectual disability and speech and language disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: heterogeneity; autism models; subgroups in autism; ASD-questionnaires; analysis tools
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:51:15 CET)
The goal of this paper is to review the relevant literature on autism questionnaires, models, analytic tools, and subgrouping, focusing on the opportunities and limitations. We examined how the size and nature of the database and the number and type of parameters measured determine the use of analytic tools and the expected type of results. To support our position about the examined aspects, we rely on various parts of the reviewed articles. We emphasize that the individual results in each article can only be interpreted in the light of the methods that brought about the conclusions. The reviewed literature suggests a heterogeneous palette in autism subtypes instead of distinct, well-characterized subgroups, or a single-dimensional continuous spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0692.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Emotion Recognition; smart bracelet; heart rate; wearable; Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:38:45 CEST)
This paper presents a framework to recognize the affective state of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in an in-the-wild setting using Heart Rate (HR) information. Our algorithm classifies a child’s emotion into positive, negative, or neutral states by analyzing the heart rate signal. The HR signal is obtained from a smartwatch in real-time using our smartwatch application. The heart rate data is acquired when the child learns to code a robot while interacting with an avatar that assists the child in communications skills and programming the robot. In this paper, we also present a comparison of using HR data for the classification of emotions with classification based on features extracted from HR signals using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Our experimental results show that the proposed method produces a comparable performance with the state-of-the-art HR-based emotion recognition techniques, despite the fact that our experiments are performed in an uncontrolled setting as opposed to a lab environment. This work contributes to real-world affect analysis of children with ASD using HR information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: proteomics; transcriptomics; DNA methylation; mitochondria; metabolism; OXPHOS; ASD; neurogenesis; gliosis; neurodevelopment
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:14:37 CEST)
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with extensive genetic and aetiological heterogeneity. While the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear, significant progress has been facilitated by recent advances in high-throughput transcriptomic, epigenomic and proteomic technologies. Here, we review recently published ASD proteomic data and compare proteomic func-tional enrichment signatures to those of transcriptomic and epigenomic data. We iden-tify canonical pathways that are consistently implicated in ASD molecular data and find an enrichment of pathways involved in mitochondrial metabolism and neurogenesis. We identify a subset of differentially expressed proteins that are supported by ASD tran-scriptomic and DNA methylation data. Furthermore, these differentially expressed proteins are enriched for disease phenotype pathways associated with ASD aetiology. These proteins converge on protein-protein interaction networks that regulate cell pro-liferation and differentiation, metabolism and inflammation which demonstrates a link between canonical pathways, biological processes and the ASD phenotype. This review highlights how proteomics can uncover potential molecular mechanisms to explain a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodevelopmental pathology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0171.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Autism, ASD, microbiota, gut-brain-axis, microbiota-gut-brain-axis, therapy
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:45:10 CET)
New research points to a possible link between Autism Spectrum Disorder and the gut microbiota as many autistic children have co-occurring gastrointestinal problems. This review focuses on specific alterations of gut microbiota mostly observed in autistic patients. Particularly, the mechanisms through which such alterations may trigger the production of the bacterial metabolites or leaky gut in autistic people are described. Various altered metabolite levels were observed in autistic children, many of those were of bacterial origin such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), indoles and lipopolysaccharides. A less integrative gut-blood-barrier is abundant in autistic individuals. This explains the leakage of bacterial metabolites into the patients triggering new body responses or altered metabolism. Some other co-occurring symptoms such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress in the cells, altered tight junctions in the blood brain barrier and structural changes in cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and cerebellum were detected. Moreover, this paper suggests that autism is associated with an unbalanced gut microbiota (dysbiosis). Although the cause-effect relationship between autism and gut microbiota is not yet well established, consumption of specific probiotics may represent a powerful tool to re-establish gut homeostasis and promote gut health. Diagnostic and therapeutic value of new biomarkers leading to the perturbation in the phenylalanine metabolism will be discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD); antibiotics; penicillin; tetracycline; microbiome; gut-brain axis (GBA)
Online: 23 August 2023 (07:15:02 CEST)
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, lifelong, neurodevelopmental conditions of largely unknown cause. The global prevalence of autism has increased twentyfold to thirtyfold since the earliest epidemiologic studies were conducted in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Recent reports agree on the association of ASD with the alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis), which raises the possible role of external factors. Our study aimed at identifying antibiotic classes that might be associated with the development of ASD-related dysbiosis either promoting or inhibiting the process. Statistical comparison was made between the average yearly consumption of different antibiotic classes (1997-2020) and the number of individuals living with ASD estimated for 2023/100000 population in 30 European countries and the results were statistically analyzed. Tetracycline (J01A) showed significant positive (promoting) association with the prevalence of ASD (Pearson r: 0.373, p: 0.043. OR: 1.312, CI95%: 0.995-1.791, p: 0.065) and narrow-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CF) (Pearson r: 0.524, p: 0.003, OR: 3.240, CI95%: 1.710-8.853, p: 0.004, Kruskal-Wallis p: 0.032). Mild, negative (inhibitory) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (J01CA) (Pearson r: -0.278, p: 0.157, OR: 0.808, CI95%: 0649-0957, p: 0.028) and narrow-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CE) (Pearson p: -0.032, r: 0.865, OR: 0.725, CI95%: 0.543-0.885, p: 0,009). Our findings strongly support the animal experiments when penicillin-exposed newborn mice developed "autism-like" behavior.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1033.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); microbiota; epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG); inflammation; oxidative stress
Online: 20 July 2023 (07:02:00 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by varying degrees of difficulty in social interaction and communication. These deficits are often associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, indicating alterations in both intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activities. The intestinal microbiota influences the function and development of the nervous system. In individuals with ASD, there is an increase in bacterial genera such as Clostridium, as well as species involved in the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) like Prevotella copri. Conversely, decreased amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila, and Bifidobacterium spp. are observed. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is one of the polyphenols with the greatest beneficial activity on microbial growth and its consumption is associated with reduced psychological distress. Therefore, the objective of this review is to analyze how EGCG and its metabolites can improve the microbial dysbiosis present in ASD and its impact on the pathology. The analysis reveals that EGCG inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria like Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile. Moreover, it increases the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. and Akkermansia spp. As a result, EGCG demonstrates efficacy in increasing the production of metabolites involved in maintaining epithelial integrity and improving brain function. This identifies EGCG as highly promising for complementary treatment in ASD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Microbiome-Gut-Brain axis; ASD; dysbiosis; gastrointestinal functions; Immune System; and Neuroimmunogastroenterology
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:11:01 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by poor social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and stereotyped interests. Due of the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in individuals with ASD, researchers have investigated the gut microbiota as a potential contributor to its aetiology. The relationship between the microbiome, gut, and brain (microbiome-gut-brain axis) has been acknowledged as a key factor in modulating brain function and social behaviour, but its connection to the aetiology of ASD is not well understood. Recently, there has been increasing attention on the relationship between the immune system, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurological issues in ASD, particularly in relation to the loss of specific species or a decrease in microbial diversity. It focuses on how gut microbiota dysbiosis can affect gut permeability, immune function, and microbiota metabolites in ASD. Although a very complete study suggests that dysbiosis is a consequence of the disease and that it has practically no effect on autistic manifestations. This is a review of the relationship between the immune system, microbial diversity, and the microbiome-gut-brain axis in the development of autistic symptoms severity and, a proposal of a novel role of gut microbiome in ASD, where dysbiosis is a consequence of ASD-related behaviour and where dysbiosis in turn accentuates the autistic manifestations of the patients via microbiome-gut-brain axis in a feedback circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Havighurst developmental tasks; life histories methodology; young people; adults
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:53:11 CEST)
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by persistent deficits in communication/social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. It is usually identified in childhood, despite late diagnoses in cases of greater functionality. Havighurst proposes a set of fundamental tasks throughout the life cycle, whose achievement is probably compromised in the ASD, even though it lacks scientific evidence. This study innovates, as it is based on Havighurst's theoretical model for understanding the development process of three adults and one young person, diagnosed with ASD level I, at different life stages. Through the methodology of life histories, interviews were subject to content analysis. Results pointed out the early detection and interventions importance, minimizing adversities, above all by those who had late diagnoses. Self-perceived success, not expected, was found in some development tasks (e.g. conscience and morality development). Also were noticed expected limitations related to ASD (e.g. difficulties in relationships with peers and in the labor market inclusion). Probably, in cases of greater severity and less functionality/autonomy, there would be greater failure in development tasks. It is crucial to improve research on this developmental model and on the factors that delay the diagnosis, including cases of different levels of severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0227.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: global myocardial injury; BMSCs; active cardiac support device (ASD); stem cell treatment; epicardial delivery
Online: 7 September 2020 (07:30:47 CEST)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been considered a promising therapeutic approach to cardiovascular disease. This study intends to compare the effect of BMSCs through a standard active cardiac support device (ASD) and intravenous injection on global myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol. BMSCs were cultured in vitro, and the transplanted cells were labeled with a fluorescent dye CM-Dil. Isoproterenol (ISO) was injected into the rats; two weeks later, the labeled cells were transplanted into ISO-induced heart-injury rats through the tail vein or ASD device for five days. The rats were sacrificed on the first day, the third day, and the fifth day after transplantation to observe the distribution of cells in the myocardium by fluorescence microscopy. The hemodynamic indexes of the left ventricle were measured before sacrificing. H&E staining and Masson’s trichrome staining were used to evaluate the cardiac histopathology. In the ASD groups, after three days of transplantation, there were many BMSCs on the epicardial surface, and after five days of transplantation, BMSCs were widely distributed in the ventricular muscle. But in the intravenous injection group, there were no labeled-BMSCs distributed. In the ASD+BMSCs-three days treated group and ASD+BMSCs -five days-treated group, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt), the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure decline (-dP/dt) increased compared with model group and intravenous injection group (P<0.05). By giving BMSCs through ASD device, cells can rapidly and widely distribute in the myocardium and significantly improve heart function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ASD; autism; autistic spectrum disease; NSE; Neuron-specific enolase; autism biomarker; neuroinflammation; neuronal apoptosis; mTOR
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:30:35 CEST)
Autistic spectrum disease (ASD) is an increasingly common diagnosis nowadays with a prevalence of 1-2% in most countries. Its complex causality – a combination of genetic, immune, metabolic and environmental factors - is translated into pleiomorphic developmental disorders of various severity, which have in common two main aspects: repetitive, restrictive behaviors, and difficulties in social interaction varying from awkward habits and verbalization to complete lack of interest from the ASD child for the outside world. The wide variety of ASD causes also makes it very difficult to find a common denominator – a disease biomarker and medication – and currently there is no commonly used diagnostic and therapeutic strategy besides clinical evaluation and psychotherapy.It is known that inflammation is present in a majority of ASD children, and blood inflammatory markers, together with metabolic, electrophysiological markers and imagistics are useful for ASD diagnostic validation and treatment; however, they tend to leave out a sizeable proportion of ASD kids who do not have such modifications. Genetic testing – whole exome sequencing or targeted profiling on about 500 ASD-linked genes- may also provide good insight into pathophysiology, however many times its results are more restrictive rather than offering additional therapeutic options.Here we describe a new biomarker for ASD - the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) - which was elevated above the normal clinical range (less than 16.3 ng/mL) in the vast majority of ASD kids tested in our study (40 of 41, or 97.5%). This finding opens up a new direction for diagnostic confirmation, dynamic evaluation and therapeutic intervention for ASD kids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: autism, ASD, psychological evaluations, ATEC, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist, MSEC, language delay, developmental disorder, language therapy
Online: 16 April 2018 (16:27:16 CEST)
Background: Mental synthesis is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing a novel mental image from objects stored in memory. In our everyday use of language, we rely on mental synthesis to communicate an infinite number of images with a finite number of words. In typical children, the timeline of mental synthesis acquisition is highly correlated with an increasing vocabulary. Children with ASD, on the other hand, may learn hundreds of words but never acquire mental synthesis. In these individuals, tests assessing vocabulary comprehension may fail to demonstrate the profound deficit in mental synthesis and the resulting inability to understand flexible syntax and spatial prepositions. Objective: We developed a 20-question parent-reported evaluation tool designed to quantitatively assess mental synthesis ability and to serve as a complimentary scale for Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC). Results: Internal reliability was good (Cronbach’s alpha > .9), and the MSEC exhibited adequate test-retest reliability after a three- and nine-months follow up period. The MSEC results positively correlated with the ATEC communication subscale, providing support for construct validity. Moreover, MSEC scores were significantly different for children of different ASD severity levels confirming the known groups validity. Conclusions: This study represents the first step toward the development of an instrument to measure mental synthesis in children with ASD. Although the current empirical evaluation demonstrated strong evidence of excellent psychometric properties, such as validity and reliability, additional studies should be performed to replicate these findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Pervasive developmental disorder; Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); brain network; Theory of Mind (ToM); Music Therapy (MT); therapeutic effect
Online: 6 September 2016 (11:53:58 CEST)
Music has the innate potential to reach all parts of the brain, stimulates certain brain areas which are not achievable through other modalities. Music Therapy (MT) is being used for more than a century to treat individuals who needs personalized care. MT optimizes motor, speech and language responsibilities of the brain and improves cognitive performance. Pervasive developmentdisorder (PDD) is a multifaceted, neuro developmental disorder and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comes under PDD, which is defined by deficiencies in three principal spheres: social connection with others, communicative and normal movement skills. The conventional imaging studies illustrate reduced brain area connectivity in people with ASD, involving selected parts of the brain cortex. People with ASD express much interest in musical activities which engages the brain network areas and improves communication and social skills.The main objective of this review is to analyze the potential role of MT in treating the neurological conditions, particularly ASD. Evidence based studies have reported the extensive therapeutic application of music on various part of the brain in a nonverbal child with autism through hearing or making music.Hence we hypothesized that MT intervention can improve the communication capacity in people with ASD, than customary neurorestoration therapy alone.