REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0123.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: cnn; ann; robotics; machine learning; ann; artificial intelligence
Online: 10 October 2023 (12:28:06 CEST)
Autonomous Driving (AD) has become a prominent research area in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) in recent years. This opens the door wider for self-driving cars to surpass conventional vehicles in the current market share. Despite its apparent simplicity, AD is composed of complex and heterogeneous systems, which are in need of a high level of coordination and alignment to ensure both full automation and safety. Therefore, numerous research studies have been conducted over the last few years to facilitate such coordination and accelerate the capacity of these types of vehicles to be self-managed in complex situations. The paper summarises these approaches that led to building what is known nowadays as the autonomous driving pipeline. Moreover, although skepticism exists regarding the practicality of AD as a viable alternative to traditional vehicles, extensive research suggests the multiple benefits of relying on them for mobility. While challenges remain in implementing AD in the real world, including regulation and technical issues, substantial progress in recent years indicates a growing acceptance of AD in the near future. This paper further explores the advantages and opportunities of the conducted such systems in facilitating the practicality of Autonomous Driving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0336.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: combine harvester; hybrid machine learning; artificial neural networks (ANN); particle swarm optimization (PSO); ANN-PSO
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:52:19 CET)
Novel applications of artificial intelligence for tuning the parameters of industrial machines for optimal performance are emerging at a fast pace. Tuning the combine harvesters and improving the machine performance can dramatically minimize the wastes during harvesting, and it is also beneficial to machine maintenance. Literature includes several soft computing, machine learning and optimization methods that had been used to model the function of harvesters of various crops. Due to the complexity of the problem, machine learning methods had been recently proposed to predict the optimal performance with promising results. In this paper, through proposing a novel hybrid machine learning model based on artificial neural networks integrated with particle swarm optimization (ANN-PSO), the performance analysis of a common combine harvester is presented. The hybridization of machine learning methods with soft computing techniques has recently shown promising results to improve the performance of the combine harvesters. This research aims at improving the results further by providing more stable models with higher accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0501.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: wind speed; ANN model; hybrid model
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:22:14 CEST)
The predictability of wind information in a given location is essential for the evaluation of a wind power project. Predicting wind speed accurately improves the planning of wind power generation, reducing costs and improving the use of resources. This paper seeks to predict the mean hourly wind speed in anemometric towers (at a height of 50 meters) at two locations: a coastal region and one with complex terrain characteristics. To this end, the Holt-Winters (HW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Hybrid time-series models were used. Observational data evaluated by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Version 2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis at the same height of the towers. The results show that the hybrid model had a better performance in relation to the others, including when compared to the evaluation with MERRA-2. For example, in terms of statistical residuals, RMSE and MAE were 0.91 and 0.62 m/s, respectively. As such, the hybrid models are a good method to forecast wind speed data for wind generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network(ANN); Particle Swarm; Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO); Parallel PSO-ANN; Optimization; Solar Electricity Estimation
Online: 7 October 2021 (10:29:25 CEST)
Based on collected power generation data associated with solar irradiance, PV system conversion efficiency and cell temperature, an hourly solar PV power estimation model by a parallel artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. Weight matrices related to different seasons and geographic areas for estimation power generations have been trained by real measured operation data. The parallel PSO algorithm with heuristic global optimization technique assists the ANN training process to get near optimal solutions precisely. The accuracy and reliability of estimation is audited by actual details of photovoltaic power stations in various regions and scales. The results of estimation model can not only assist the electricity dispatcher to explicitly monitor the trend of solar power generation in different areas, but also coordinate with traditional power plants to meet load demand more accurately. The presented model will bring benefits to power dispatching for larger scales of intermittent and unstable solar power generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1206.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: AFPMSM; Fuzzy Logic Controller; ANN; NFC; FOC.
Online: 16 June 2023 (09:51:11 CEST)
This paper will present the torque control design of an AFPMSM, one stator, and one rotor, using an FLC and ANFIS in-wheels fed by a three-level T-type inverter. The Surgeon ambiguous inference file of the FLC controller is built by two input vectors, the stator current error and the derivative of the stator error. These input variables include five membership functions, Negative big (NB), Negative small (NS), Equal zero (ZE), Positive small (PS), and Positive big (PB). The FLC controller is implemented with a 5x5 matrix so that the output stator voltage of the controller is required. The ANFIS controller for the neural network-based feature set and the fuzzy system. The neural network develops the dataset on the stator current error (e) and error integral (∆e). Then, the generated dataset is fed to the fuzzy logic method, and the control rules are developed. This ANFIS controller is caused by the training and testing phases. Finally, the FLC and ANFIS torque controllers are compared with the PI controller. The correctness of the proposed control structured solution is demonstrated by the simulation results of MATLAB/SIMULINK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0156.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: ANN; NN; Speech Recognition; interaction; hybrid method
Online: 5 February 2021 (10:58:40 CET)
Human and Computer interaction has been a part of our day-to-day life. Speech is one of the essential and comfortable ways of interacting through devices as well as a human being. The device, particularly smartphones have multiple sensors in camera and microphone, etc. speech recognition is the process of converting the acoustic signal to a smartphone as a set of words. The efficient performance of the speech recognition system highly enhances the interaction between humans and machines by making the latter more receptive to user needs. The recognized words can be applied for many applications such as Commands & Control, Data entry, and Document preparation. This research paper highlights speech recognition through ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Also, a hybrid model is proposed for audio-visual speech recognition of the Tamil and Malay language through SOM (Self-organizing map0 and MLP (Multilayer Perceptron). The Effectiveness of the different models of NN (Neural Network) utilized in speech recognition will be examined.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Local Scour; Sediment; Bridge Design; Pier Geometry; ANN
Online: 2 September 2019 (10:29:42 CEST)
Scouring is the most common cause of bridge failure. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in determining scour depth around composite bridge piers. The experimental data, attained in different conditions and various pile cap locations, were used to obtain the ANN model and to compare the results of the model with most well-known empirical, HEC-18 and FDOT, methods. The data were divided into training and evaluation sets. The ANN models were trained using the experimental data, and their efficiency was evaluated using statistical test. The results showed that to estimate scour at the composite piers, feedforward propagation network with three neurons in the hidden layer and hyperbolic sigmoid tangent transfer function was with the highest accuracy. The results also indicated a better estimation of the scour depth by the proposed ANN than the empirical methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electricity Demand; ANN; PSO; GA; Hybrid Optimization; Forecasting
Online: 23 January 2018 (15:30:10 CET)
In the present study, a hybrid optimizing algorithm has been proposed using Genetic Algorithm (GA)and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the estimation of electricity demand of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The GA-PSO model optimizes the coefficients of factors of gross state domestic product (GSDP) , electricity consumption per capita, income growth rate and consumer price index (CPI) that affect the electricity demand. Based on historical data of 25 years from 1991 till 2015 , the simulation results of GA-PSO models are having greater accuracy and reliability than single optimization methods based on either PSO or GA. The forecasting results of ANN-GA-PSO are better than models based on single optimization such as ANN-BP, ANN-GA, ANN-PSO models. Further the paper also forecasts the electricity demand of Tamil Nadu based on two scenarios. First scenario is the "as-it-is" scenario , the second scenario is based on milestones set for achieving goals of "Vision 2023" document for the state. The present research also explores the causality between the economic growth and electricity demand in case of Tamil Nadu. The research indicates that a direct causality exists between GSDP and the electricity demand of the state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0190.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electricity demand; ANN; PSO; GA; hybrid optimization; forecasting
Online: 16 January 2018 (07:44:04 CET)
In the present study, a hybrid optimizing algorithm has been proposed using Genetic Algorithm (GA)and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to improve the estimation of electricity demand of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The GA-PSO model optimizes the coefficients of factors of gross state domestic product (GSDP) , electricity consumption per capita, income growth rate and consumer price index (CPI) that affect the electricity demand. Based on historical data of 25 years from 1991 till 2015, the simulation results of GA-PSO models are having greater accuracy and reliability than single optimization methods based on either PSO or GA. The forecasting results of ANN-GA-PSO are better than models based on single optimization such as ANN-BP, ANN-GA, ANN-PSO models. Further the paper also forecasts the electricity demand of Tamil Nadu based on two scenarios. First scenario is the “as-it-is” scenario, the second scenario is based on milestones set for achieving goals of “Vision 2023” document for the state. The present research also explores the causality between the economic growth and electricity demand in case of Tamil Nadu. The research indicates that a direct causality exists between GSDP and the electricity demand of the state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: ANN; energy consumption; optimization; direct fired absorption chiller; validation
Online: 5 September 2023 (11:28:53 CEST)
With an increasing concern for global warming, there have been many attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About 30 % of total energy has been consumed by buildings and much attention has been paid to reducing building energy consumption. While there are many ways of reducing building energy consumption, accurate energy consumption prediction becomes more significant. As mechanical systems are the most energy-consuming components in the building, the present study developed the energy consumption prediction model for a direct-fired absorption chiller by using the ANN technique for the short term. The ANN model was optimized and validated with the actual data collected through a BAS. For the optimization, the numbers of input variables and neurons, and the data size of training were applied. By changing these parameters, the predictive performance was analyzed. In sum, the outcome of the present study can used to predict the energy consumption of the chiller as well as improve the efficiency of the energy management. The outcome of the present study can be used to develop a more accurate prediction model with a few datasets in that it can improve the efficiency of building energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0054.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: ELM; ANN; compressor; turbine; degradation; microturbine; engine health management
Online: 12 September 2022 (10:12:33 CEST)
Micro turbojets are used for propelling radio-controlled aircraft, aerial targets and personal air vehicles. When compared to full-scale engines, they are characterized by relatively low efficiency and durability. In this context, the degraded performance of gas path components could lead to an unacceptable reduction in the overall engine performance. In this work, a data-driven model based on a conventional Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and an extreme learning machine (ELM) was used for estimating the performance degradation of the micro turbojet. The training datasets containing the performance data of the engine with degraded components were generated using the validated GSP model and the Monte Carlo approach. In particular, compressor and turbine performance degradation were simulated for three different flight regimes. It was confirmed that component degradation had a similar impact in flight than at sea level. Finally, the datasets were used in the training and testing process of the ELM algorithm with four different input vectors. Two vectors had an extensive number of virtual sensors, and the other two were reduced to just fuel flow and Exhaust Gas Temperature. Even with the small number of sensors, the high prediction accuracy of ELM was maintained for takeoff and cruise but was slightly worse for variable flight conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0147.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: SARIMA; Artificial Neural Networks (ANN); LSTM; hybrid methodologies; prediction
Online: 11 May 2022 (05:50:41 CEST)
The choice of holiday destinations is highly depended on climate considerations. Nowadays, since the effects of climate crisis are being increasingly felt, the need of accurate weather and climate services for hotels is crucial. Such a service could be beneficial for both the future planning of tourists’ activities and destinations and for hotel managers as it could help in decision making about the planning and expansion of the touristic season, due to a prediction of higher temperatures for a longer time span, thus causing increased revenue for companies in the local touristic sector. The aim of this work is to calculate predictions on climatic variables using statistical techniques as well as Artificial Intelligence (AI) for a specific area of interest utilising data from in situ meteorological station, and produce valuable and reliable localised predictions with the most cost-effective method possible. This investigation will answer the question of the most suitable prediction method for time series data from a single meteorological station that is deployed in a specific location. As a result, an accurate representation of the microclimate in a specific are is achieved. To achieve this high accuracy in situ measurements and prediction techniques are used. As prediction techniques, Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), AI techniques like the Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) Neural Network and hybrid combinations of the two are used. Variables of interest are divided in the easier to predict temperature and humidity that are more periodic and less chaotic, and the wind speed as an example of a more stochastic variable with no known seasonality and patterns. Our results show that the examined Hybrid methodology performs the best at temperature and wind speed forecasts, closely followed by the SARIMA whereas LSTM perform better overall at the humidity forecast, even after the correction of the Hybrid to the SARIMA model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: COVID-19; vibraimage; behavioral parameters; diagnosis accuracy; ANN; AI
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:28:12 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic spreads in waves for a year and a half, despite significant worldwide efforts, the development of biochemical diagnostic methods and population vaccination. One of the reasons for the infection spread is the impossibility of early disease detection through biochemical diagnostics, since biochemical processes slowly develop in a body. At the same time, well known that behavioral characteristics of a person, measured based on reflex movements, are capable for inertialess assessment of psychophysiological parameters. Vibraimage technology is the method of head micromovements video processing by inter-frame difference accumulation and converting spatial and temporal characteristics of the inter-frame difference into behavioral and psychophysiological parameters. Here we shown that behavioral parameters measured by vibraimage changed during COVID-19 infection. The identification of changes signs in behavioral parameters detected by AI trained on patients and controls. The best diagnostic accuracy (higher 94%) obtained using instantaneous values of behavioral parameters measured with the following vibraimage settings: 10Hz frequency of basic measurements; 25 inter-frame difference accumulations and averaging the diagnostic results over period of at least 5 seconds. COVID-19 diagnoses by behavioral parameters showed earlier (5-7 days) detection of the disease compared to symptoms and positive results of biochemical RT-PCR testing. Proposed method for COVID-19 diagnosis indicates infected persons within 5 seconds video processing using standard television cameras (web, IP) and computers, allows mass testing/selftesting and will stop the pandemic spread. We assume that head micromovements analysis for diagnosis of various diseases is possible not only with the help of vibraimage technology. Further research of human head micromovement analysis will help stop the COVID-19 pandemic and will contribute to the development of new contactless and environmentally friendly methods for early diagnosis of diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: streamflow; dynamic land-use change; ANN; SWAT; Dabus river
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:40:27 CEST)
Based on the recorded watershed characteristics, the future conditions on the basin system can be predicted using a different method. In this study, dynamic land-use change and its impacts on the streamflow for the Dabus watershed were predicted using ANN-CA based method. The model performance for accurate prediction of the future land-use change on the Dabus River watershed has been checked by validation of the simulated value with the actual value, hence the overall kappa value (k) = 0.83 for the simulated 2016-LULC validated with actual 2016-LULC. Then, 2026-LULC was predicted based on the 2004 and 2009-LULC. The streamflow for the case of 2004 and 2009-LULC has been simulated using the SWAT model. The value of NSE = 0.87 and 0.90 was attained during validation of simulated streamflow for 2004 and 2009-LULC data cases, respectively. The agreement of simulated value of streamflow with the observed data is indicated as R2 = 0.91 and 0.96 for 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC. The effects of the dynamic land-use change on streamflow for the predicted land use(2026-LULC) catchment were evaluated by T-test analysis. Hence, T-stat =0.04 and -0.002 in the case of simulated streamflow used 2004-LULC and 2009-LULC, respectively compared with simulated value using 2026-LULC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ANN; continual learning; machine intelligence; prediction; vandalism; security; SDR
Online: 9 August 2018 (15:02:06 CEST)
Oil and gas pipeline vandalism is a recurrent problem in oil rich zones of Nigeria and its West African neighbors and remains a challenge for multinationals to set ahead control measures to avert possible damages to operations both in infrastructure and business profit margins. In this paper, an integrative systems model comprising of a machine intelligence technique called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) and a sequence learning neural network called the Online-Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is proposed for monitoring and prediction of pipeline pressure data. The system models the continual prediction of pipeline oil/gas pressure signals useful for secure monitoring and control to avert acts of vandalism in oil and gas installations. The HTM uses a spatial pooler operated in temporal aggregated fashion and is defined as HTM-SP. The OS-ELM technique uses an explicit hierarchical training scheme so that the best cost estimates may be found after a stipulated number of trial runs. We study the performance of three OS-ELM neural activations: the sigmoid (sig), sinusoidal (sin) and radial basis function (rbf) activations. The results indicate improvement factors of 1.297, 1.297 and 1.300 of the HTM-SP over the OS-ELM sigmoid, sinusoidal and radial basis activations respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: chemometrics model; PAT; NIR; DoE; dissolution analysis; ANN; PLS; SVM
Online: 10 November 2023 (10:20:01 CET)
The pharmaceutical industry is making significant strides in enhancing process comprehension through the development of concepts like Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT). This shift has moved from traditional offline testing methods to real-time estimation of product quality. The dissolution characteristics of pharmaceutical tablets play a crucial role in maximizing the release of medications and their bioavailability. One factor that can affect dissolution is the blending procedure. Inadequate mixing can lead to patches of concentrated active components or excipients within the tablet, resulting in inconsistent dissolution behavior. A study investigated the impact of blending time and speed on the dissolution behavior of Amlodipine tablets using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate modeling. NIR spectra were collected for Amlodipine tablets produced under various blending conditions using a 2-level central composite design. Dissolving profiles were analyzed using a USP dissolution device. Multivariate analysis techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), were applied to the collected NIR spectra. The findings demonstrated that blending speed and time had a significant influence on the dissolving properties of Amlodipine tablets. Blending at faster speeds and for shorter durations resulted in excessive shear and insufficient mixing, ultimately reduced drug release. The multivariate models constructed using ANN outperformed SVM and PLS in predicting dissolution profiles based on NIR spectra. This research highlights the effectiveness of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate modeling in optimizing tablet dissolution. These advancements enable continuous manufacturing of high-quality pharmaceutical products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ANN; FEM; damage assessment; structural health monitoring; steel truss bridge
Online: 1 June 2023 (04:38:41 CEST)
Damage assessment is one of the most crucial issues for bridge engineers, especially for existing steel bridges. Among several methodologies, the vibration measurement test is a typical approach in which the natural frequency variation of the structure is monitored to detect the existence of damage. However, locating and quantifying the damage is still a big challenge. In this regard, the artificial intelligence (AI)-based approach seems a potential way to accomplish those obstacles. This study deploys a comprehensive campaign to determine all dynamic parameters of a pre-damage steel truss bridge structure. Based on the results of mode shape, natural frequency, and damping ratio, a finite element model (FEM) is created and keeps updating. The artificial intelligence network's input data will be analyzed and evaluation from damage cases. The trained artificial neural network model will be curated and evaluated to confirm the approach's feasibility. During the actual operational stage of the steel truss bridge, this damage assessment system is showing good performance in terms of monitoring the structural behavior of the bridge under some unexpected accidents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ANN Offshore; Dynamic Positioning; Spread Mooring; Decision Making; Offshore Vessel
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:44:02 CEST)
Offshore vessels (OVs) often requires precise station-keeping and some vessels, for example, vessel involves in geotechnical drilling generally use Spread Mooring (SM) or Dynamic Positioning (DP) systems. Most of these vessels are equipped with both systems to cover all ranges of water depths. However, determining which systems to use for a particular operational scenario depends on many factors and requires significant balancing in terms of cost-benefit. Therefore, this research aims to develop a platform that will determine the cost factors for both the SM and DP station keeping systems. Operational information and cost data are collected for several field operations, and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is trained using those data samples. After that, the trained ANN is used to predict the components of cost for any given environmental situation, fieldwork duration and water depth. Later, the total cost is investigated against water depth for both DP and SM systems to determine the most cost-effective option. The results are validated using two operational scenarios for a specific geotechnical vessel. This decision-making algorithm can be further developed by adding up more operational data for various vessels and can be applied in the development of sustainable decision-making business models for OVs operators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1149.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neural networks; machine learning; convolutional neural networks; computational complexity; ANN performance
Online: 9 November 2023 (13:37:31 CET)
In recent years, Neural networks are increasingly deployed in various fields to learn complex patterns and make accurate predictions. However, designing an effective neural network model is a challenging task that requires careful consideration of various factors, including architecture, optimization method, and regularization technique. This paper aims to comprehensively overview the state-of-the-art artificial neural network (ANN) generation and highlight key challenges and opportunities in machine learning applications. It provides a critical analysis of current neural network model design methodologies, focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. Also, it explores the use of different learning approaches, including convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep neural networks (DNN), and recurrent neural networks (RNN) in image recognition, natural language processing, and time series analysis. Besides, it discusses the benefits of choosing the ideal values for the different components of ANN, such as the number of Input/output layers, hidden layers number, activation function type, epochs number, and model type selection, which help improve the model performance and generalization. Furthermore, it identifies some common pitfalls and limitations of existing design methodologies, such as overfitting, lack of interpretability, and computational complexity. Finally, it proposes some directions for future research, such as developing more efficient and interpretable neural network architectures, improving the scalability of training algorithms, and exploring the potential of new paradigms, such as Spiking Neural Networks, quantum neural networks, and neuromorphic computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical insulation; lifetime; life span; HV cable; electrical stresses; ANN application
Online: 8 February 2022 (15:42:05 CET)
This article discuss the estimation of electrical stresses input that is required to determine lifetime degradation of the HV cables installed within overhead transmission lines (OHTL’s). Abort from lightning effects, these electrical stresses are mainly generated due to repetitive switching operation of the transmission line that produces transient overvoltage (TOV) stress and high frequency stress. The transient overvoltage (TOV) due to switching-off the transmission line at the interface points between the cable and OHTL is estimated using artificial neural network (ANN). PSCAD software is used to build the transmission line model for 749 different case in order to build the required database for ANN training. Two different algorithm input to train ANN with one hidden layer and one output layer using different number of nodes are modeled in MATLAB. The results performance is continuously compared and evaluated till acceptable Regression is achieved to insure the error is less than +/-1.5%. The high frequency due to switching-on the transmission line is also recorded and analyzed. The results show that this new method is efficient, accurate and useful as there is no cable monitoring system is available for each HV cable installed within the transmission line.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0247.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Policy; Corruption; Artificial neural networks (ANN); Nonlinear autoregressive exogenous models (NARX)
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:34:36 CEST)
Any effort to combat corruption can benefit from an examination of past and projected worldwide trends. In this paper, we forecast the level of corruption in countries by integrating an artificial neural network modeling and time series analysis. The data were obtained from 113 countries from 2007 to 2017. The study is carried out at two levels: (a) global level where all countries are considered as a monolithic group; and (b) cluster level, where countries are placed into groups based on their development-related attributes. For each cluster, we use the findings from our previous study on the cluster analysis of global corruption using machine learning methods that identified the four most influential corruption factors, and we use those as independent variables. Then, using the identified influential factors, we forecast the level of corruption in each cluster using a nonlinear autoregressive recurrent neural network with exogenous inputs (NARX), an artificial neural network technique. The NARX models were developed for each cluster, with the objective function in terms of the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). For each model, the optimal neural network is determined by finetuning the hyperparameters. The analysis was repeated for all countries as a single group. The accuracy of the models is assessed by comparing the mean square errors (MSE) of the time series models. The results suggest that the NARX artificial neural network technique yields reliable future values of CPI globally or for each cluster of countries. This can assist policymakers and organizations in assessing the expected efficacies of their current or future corruption control policies from a global perspective as well as for groups of countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: biomass gasification; process simulation; thermodynamic equilibrium; kinetic model; ANN; multivariate data analysis
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:17:33 CEST)
Biomass gasification acquired great interest over the past decades as an effective and trustable technology to produce energy and fuels with net-zero carbon emissions. Moreover, using biomass waste as feedstock enables to recycle organic wastes and to fit the circular economy goals thus reducing the environmental impacts of waste management. Even if many studies have been already carried on, this kind of process must still be investigated and optimized with the final aim to develop industrial plants for different applications, from the hydrogen production to net-negative emission strategies. Modeling and developing of process simulations became an important tool to investigate the chemical and physical behavior of the plant, allowing to make a first raw optimization of the process and to define heat and material balances of the plant as well as to define optimal geometrical parameters with cost and time effective approaches. The present review paper focuses on the main literature models developed until now to describe biomass gasification process, and in particular on kinetic models, thermodynamic models, and computational fluid dynamic models. The aim of this study is to point out the strengths and the weakness of those models, comparing them and indicating in which situation is better to use an approach instead of another. Moreover, theoretical shortcut models and software simulations, not explicitly addressed by prior reviews, are taken into account. For researchers and designers this review provides a detailed methodology characterization as a guide to develop innovative study or project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Soil dynamic; Cyclic simple shear; Damping ratio; Sand particle shape; ANN; SVM
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:56:01 CET)
This paper reports on a series of dynamic simple shear tests conducted to investigate the influence of particle shape on the damping ratio of dry sand. The tests were conducted on sand samples subjected to simple cyclic shear tests to evaluate their cyclic behavior. The particle shape was quantified using three shape parameters: roundness, sphericity, and regularity. The sand samples were subjected to twelve different scenarios with varying vertical stresses and cyclic stress ratios (CSR), in both constant and controlled stress states. Each scenario involved five cyclic tests, using the same sand that was reconstructed from its previous cyclic test. After each cyclic test, hysteresis loops were created to determine the damping ratio. The results showed that the shape of the sand particles changed during cyclic loading, becoming more rounded and spherical, which resulted in an increase in damping ratio. Moreover, the paper presents two artificial intelligence models, an artificial neural network (ANN) and a support vector machine (SVM), which were developed to predict the effect of grain shape on the damping ratio. The models were found to be effective in predicting the damping ratio based on the shape of the grain, vertical stress, CSR, and number of loading cycles. Furthermore, a parameter analysis was conducted to identify the most important shape parameter, which was found to be vertical stress and regularity, while parameter CSR was the least important. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between particle shape and damping ratio, which could have practical implications for geotechnical engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0548.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ANN; COVID-19; CT; mRNA; MRI; RT-PCR; SARS-CoV-2; XCR
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:02:40 CEST)
Accurate early diagnosis of COVID-19 viral pneumonia, primarily in asymptomatic people is essential to reduce the spread of the disease, the burden on healthcare capacity, and the overall death rate. It is essential to design affordable and accessible solutions to distinguish pneumonia caused by COVID-19 from other types of pneumonia. In this work, we propose a reliable approach based on deep transfer learning that requires few computations and converges faster. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed framework for transfer learning is a potential and effective approach to detect and diagnose types of pneumonia from chest X-ray images with a test accuracy of 94.0%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN); classification; image analysis; chokeberry powder; colors; spray-drying
Online: 16 September 2019 (11:04:14 CEST)
The study concentrates on researching possibilities of using computer image analysis and neural modeling in order to assess selected quality discriminants of spray-dried chokeberry powder. The aim of the paper is quality identification of chokeberry powders on account of their highest dying power, the highest bioactivity as well as technologically satisfying looseness of powder. The article presents neural models with vision technique backed up by devices such as digital camera as well as electron microscope. Reduction in size of input variables with PCA has influence on improving the processes of learning data sets, thus increasing effectiveness of identifying chokeberry fruit powders included in digital pictures, which is shown in the results of the conducted research. The effectiveness of image recognition are presented by classifying abilities as well as low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), for which the best results are achieved with typology of network type Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The selected networks type MLP are characterized by the highest degree of classification at 0.99 and RMSE at 0.11 at most at the same time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0083.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Multilinear Regression; Dissolve Oxygen; Modeling; Machine Learning; Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm; ANN; Urban Lake
Online: 27 February 2023 (07:25:06 CET)
The paper portrays predictive models for dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in an urban lake using common water quality parameters like Temperature, pH, Conductivity and ORP at a time. Data were sampled using three real-time, industry-standard sensors, OPTOD, CTZN, and PHEHT, and then interpolated using the ArcGIS kriging technique. Correlation studies were analyzed through the ML algorithm, the correlation study signified a highly positive correlation between DO and other water parameters and the model was corroborated by R-score in order to create the linear regression model. In addition, an artificial neural network- a machine learning method using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was developed to build a model to predict the do as well. Then, the performance of the models was validated and also the R2 accuracy was checked of the predicted data against the actual data. Thus, the appropriateness of the ANN model for the forecasting of investigated attributes is indicated by the fact that the discrepancy between the forecasted and real ANN model is significantly lesser than that of the regression model. However, the model can be used to reveal DO data from unknown urban lake water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: collaborative optimization algorithm; artificial neural network (ANN); low noise; low resistance; maneuvering performance
Online: 5 June 2017 (05:27:31 CEST)
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) is the most active field in the design of current complex system engineering, which is possessed with such two difficulties as subsystem information exchange and analytical and computational complexity of systems. Therefore, an improved collaborative optimization algorithm based on ANN (artificial neural network) response surface was proposed dependent on the consistency constraint algorithm and concurrent subspace algorithm. As an optimization method with secondary structure, it satisfied only local constraints in discipline layer, but provided a coordinated mechanism for interdisciplinary conflict in system layer. Finally, it was applied in the multidisciplinary design optimization of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). As shown from the result, the MDO convergence stability and reliability of low resistance, low noise and high maneuvering performance of the AUV shape can be ensured by the improved collaborative optimization algorithm, thus verifying the effectiveness of the algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Machine learning; SVM; ANN; Fracture porosity prediction; Anisotropy; Well logging; Shear waves; Image logs.
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:15:56 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to compare two fracture prediction models with real-world data. The pure Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model emphasizes regression analysis, while the hybrid model (SVM-ANN) focuses on the combination of regression and classification analysis or Support Vector Machine. The results were subsequently tested against logging data by combining the Machine Learning approach with advanced logging tools. In this context, we used electrical image logs and the dipole acoustic tool which together allowed the distinction of 404 open fractures and 231 closed fractures and, consequently the estimation of fracture porosity. The results are then fed into two machine-learning algorithms. Pure Artificial Neural Networks and hybrid models are used to establish comprehensive results, which are subsequently tested to check the accuracy of the models. The outputs obtained from the two methods demonstrate that the hybridized model has a lower Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) than pure ANN. The results of our approach strongly suggest that incorporating hybridized machine learning algorithms in fracture porosity estimations can contribute to the development of more trustworthy static reservoir models in simulation programs. Finally, the combination of Machine Learning (ML) and well-log analysis do permit reliable estimation of fracture porosity in the Ahnet field in Algeria, where, in many places, advanced logging data is absent and costly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ANN; biometric; crime-scene; fuzzy logic; gait; human footprint; Hidden Markov Model; PCA; Recognition
Online: 6 April 2018 (08:54:28 CEST)
Human footprint is having a unique set of ridges unmatched by any other human being, and therefore it can be used in different identity documents for example birth certificate, Indian biometric identification system AADHAR card, driving license, PAN card, and passport. There are many instances of the crime scene where an accused must walk around and left the footwear impressions as well as barefoot prints and therefore it is very crucial to recovering the footprints to identify the criminals. Footprint-based biometric is a considerably newer technique for personal identification. Fingerprints, retina, iris and face recognition are the methods most useful for attendance record of the person. This time world is facing the problem of global terrorism. It is challenging to identify the terrorist because they are living as regular as the citizens do. Their soft target includes the industries of special interests such as defense, silicon and nanotechnology chip manufacturing units, pharmacy sectors. They pretend themselves as religious persons, so temples and other holy places, even in markets is in their targets. These are the places where one can obtain their footprints easily. The gait itself is sufficient to predict the behaviour of the suspects. The present research is driven to identify the usefulness of footprint and gait as an alternative to personal identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1310.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cold-formed steel; blast load; stud wall; strain energy; artificial neural network (ANN); energy absorption
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:44:01 CEST)
This paper focused on the finite element analysis of structural system in extreme loading condition. Two different stud shape and thicknesses were analyzed under blast. The stud thickness such as 1.19 mm and 1.5 mm were modelled and analyzed using ABAQUS 6.14. FEM is a tool which predicts the engineering physics of the real structure. To validate the finite element modelling performed by authors, a reference work published by earlier researchers on cold-formed steel stud wall is considered and examined in the present study. The novelty of this study was web corrugation and influence of flange width on stud. The models mimic like an air bag in a car to delay the pressure timing inside the stud wall. The mass of explosive used as 1.56 kg at a standard scaled distance. Time versus displacement was captured out at four locations in the stud wall. One of the objectives is to develop mathematical model to validate the deformation of stud under blast loading. Two mathematical models were validated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The results captured in ANN model was error histogram, regression plot, best performance fit and training data. The models were capable of resisting the moderate blast load. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to evaluate model performance Regression equations are useful for predicting future trends and outcomes, which is crucial for planning and decision-making. The primary goal of this work is to evaluate cold-formed steel stud walls with varying stud sizes under blast loading using finite element analysis and validated by ANN and RSM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: smart building; artificial neural network (ANN); indoor; temperature; façade; outdoor; forecasting; relevance; sensors; recorded data
Online: 8 January 2018 (08:58:09 CET)
Smart buildings concept aims at the use of the smart technology to reduce energy consumption as well as improvement of the comfort conditions and users’ satisfaction. It is based on the use of smart sensors to follow both outdoor and indoor conditions as well as software for the control of comfort and security devices. The optimal control of the energy devices requires software for indoor temperature forecasting. This paper presents an ANN – based model for the indoor temperature forecasting. The model is developed using data recoded in an old building of the engineering school Polytech’Lille. Data covered both indoor and outdoor conditions. Analysis of the relevance of the input parameters allowed to develop a simplified forecasting model of the indoor temperature that uses only the outdoor temperature as well as the history of the façade temperature as input parameters. The paper presents successively, data collection, the ANN concept used in the temperature forecasting, and finally the ANN model developed for the façade and indoor forecasting. It shows that an ANN-based model using outdoor and façade temperature sensors provides a good forecasting of the indoor temperature. This model could be used for the optimal control of buildings energy devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ANN controller; Fuzzy logic controller; Lighting control; Smart lighting control; Green buildings; Building automation; Daylight harvesting
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:53:32 CEST)
This article is a continuity of prevouse two reserch in daylight harvastion control that were deigned using classical control apoproach and then fuzzy logic technique, In this article ANN controller is designed and its response is compared with the performance of the other two controllers. Detailed compression for the different error type is illustrated, however, the results show that the three controller operate with satisfactory accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Radiation pattern synthesis; Almost periodic structures; Mutual coupling effects; Artificial neural network ANN algorithm; Early stoping method.
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:30:59 CET)
This paper proposes a radiation pattern synthesis of the almost periodic antenna arrays including mutual coupling effects (that extracted by the Floquet analysis according to our previous work), which principally has a high directivity and large bandwidth. For modeling the given structures, the moment method combined with the Generalized Equivalent Circuit (MoM-GEC) is proposed. The artificial neural network (ANN) as a powerful computational model has been successfully applied to the antenna array pattern synthesis. The results showed that the multilayer feedforward neural networks are rugged and can successfully and efficiently resolve various distinctive complex almost periodic antenna patterns (with different source amplitudes) (in particular, both periodic and randomly aperiodic structures are taken into account). However, the artificial neural network (ANN) is capable of quickly producing the synthesis results using generalization with the early stopping (ES) method. A significant time gain and memory consumption are achieved by using this given method to improve the generalization (called early stopping). To justify this work, several examples are developed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0519.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; Machine learning (ML); Grey wolf optimizer (GWO); artificial neural network (ANN); time-series; outbreak prediction
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:57:14 CET)
An accurate outbreak prediction of COVID-19 can successfully help to get insight into the spread and consequences of infectious diseases. Recently, machine learning (ML) based prediction models have been successfully employed for the prediction of the disease outbreak. The present study aimed to engage an artificial neural network-integrated by grey wolf optimizer for COVID-19 outbreak predictions by employing the Global dataset. Training and testing processes have been performed by time-series data related to January 22 to September 15, 2020 and validation has been performed by time-series data related to September 16 to October 15, 2020. Results have been evaluated by employing mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and correlation coefficient (r) values. ANN-GWO provided a MAPE of 6.23, 13.15 and 11.4% for training, testing and validating phases, respectively. According to the results, the developed model could successfully cope with the prediction task.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart Home (SH); Prediction; Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG); occupancy; number of person recognition; Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG)
Online: 4 January 2020 (08:32:18 CET)
This article introduces a new way of using a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor for detecting the presence and number of occupants in the monitored space in a Smart Home (SH). CO2 sensors are used to determine the CO2 concentration of the monitored rooms in an SH. CO2 sensors can also be used for occupancy recognition of the monitored spaces in SH. To determine the presence of occupants in the monitored rooms of the SH, the newly devised method of CO2 prediction, by means of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with a Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) algorithm using measurements of typical operational technical quantities (indoor temperature, relative humidity indoor and CO2 concentration in the SH) is used. The goal of the experiments is to verify the possibility of using the FBG sensor in order to unambiguously detect the number of occupants in the selected room (R104) and, at the same time, to harness the newly proposed method of CO2 prediction with ANN SCG for recognition of the SH occupancy status and the SH spatial location (rooms R104, R203, and R204) of an occupant. The designed experiments will verify the possibility of using a minimum number of sensors for measuring the non-electric quantities of indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity and the possibility of monitoring the presence of occupants in the SH using CO2 prediction by means of the ANN SCG method with ANN learning for the data obtained from only one room (R203). The prediction accuracy exceeded 90% in certain experiments. The uniqueness and innovativeness of the described solution lie in the integrated multidisciplinary application of technological procedures (the BACnet technology control SH, FBG sensors) and mathematical methods (ANN prediction with SCG algorithm, the Adaptive Filtration with of LMS algorithm) employed for the recognition of number persons and occupancy recognition of selected monitored rooms of SH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: artificial neural network (ANN); Support Vector Machine (SVM); Support Vector Regression (SVR); Lightweight Gradient Boosting Machines (Light GBM); Machine Learning; Solar Irradiance (SI); solar forecasting
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:30:45 CET)
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Support Vector Regression (SVR), Lightweight Gradient Boosting Machines (Light GBM), Machine Learning, Solar Irradiance (SI), Solar forecasting
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1441.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: DSC melting profile; Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA); Artificial neural networks (ANN); Multiple Linear Regression (MLR); MARS; SVM; Food fraud; Oils adulteration
Online: 20 July 2023 (13:56:40 CEST)
Flaxseed oil is one of the best sources of n-3 fatty acids, thus its adulteration with refined oils can lead to a reduction in its nutritional value and overall quality. The purpose of this study was to use the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique to detect adulterations of cold-pressed flaxseed oil with refined rapeseed oil (RP). Based on the melting phase transition curve, parameters such as peak temperature (T), peak height (h), and percentage of area (P) were determined for pure and adulterated flaxseed oils with a RP concentration of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50% (w/w). Significant linear correlations (p ≤ 0.05) between the RP concentration and all DSC parameters were observed, except for h1. In order to assess the usefulness of the DSC technique for detecting adulterations, three chemometric approaches were compared: 1) classification models (Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA Adaptive Regression Splines, MARS, Support Vector Machine, SVM, Artificial Neural Networks, ANNs); 2) regression models (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR, MARS, SVM, ANNs, PLS) and 3) a combined model of Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). With the LDA model, the highest accuracy of 99.5% in classifying the samples, followed by ANN> SVM > MARS was achieved. Among the regression models, the ANN model showed the highest correlation between observed and predicted values (R= 0.996), while other models showed goodness of fit as following MARS> SVM> MLR. Comparing OPLS-DA and PLS methods, higher values of R2X(cum) =0.986 and Q2 =0.973 were observed with the PLS model than OPLS-DA. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the DSC technique combined with chemometrics for predicting the adulteration of cold-pressed flaxseed oil with refined rapeseed oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0395.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polymeric composite drilling; GFRP reinforced with Ti interlayers; hole drilling quality; delaminations; defect severity prediction; ANN based prognosis of the quality; tool geometry and machining conditions.
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:32:05 CET)
The main purpose of this study was to develop a model for predicting the quality of holes drilled in the root part of a spar of helicopter main rotor blades made of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP)-Ti multilayer polymer composite. As the main quality criterion, delaminations at the entry and exit of the drill from the hole were taken. In the experimental study a conventional drill and two modified geometry drills: a double-point angle drill and a dagger drill were used. Preliminary experiments showed the best hole quality when using modified drills, which allowed further detailed study only with both modified drills at different drilling speeds and feed rates. Its results in the form of training sets were used to build the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict delamination at the entry and exit of drilled holes. The analysis of the fitted response functions, presented as 3D surfaces plots and superimposed contour plots, made it possible to choose the better tool - a double-point angle drill and determine the optimal area for drilling speed and feed rates, confirming that the prediction of the quality and productivity of machining composites based on ANN is an effective tool to search and quantify the quality criteria of such technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: machine Learning (ML); artificial neutral network (ANN); bagging decision tree (BDT); SUpport Vector Machines (SVM); no free lunch theorem (NFLT); hyperparameter optimisation; model comparison; heat meter
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:41:07 CET)
Heat metres are used to calculate the consumed energy in central heating systems. The subject of this article is to prepare a method of predicting a failure of a heat meter in the next settlement period. Predicting failures is essential to coordinate the process of exchanging the heat metres and to avoid inaccurate readings, incorrect billing and additional costs. The reliability analysis of heat metres was based on historical data collected over many years. Three independent models of machine learning were proposed, and they were applied to predict failures of metres. The efficiency of the models was confirmed and compared using the selected metrics. The optimisation of hyperparameters characteristics for each of models was successfully applied. The article shows that the diagnostics of devices does not have to rely only on newly collected information, but it is also possible to use the existing big data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1826.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: architectural design; digital design; digital fabrication; additive manufacturing (AM); 3D printing (3DP); artificial intelligence (AI); machine learning (ML); deep learning (DL); artificial neural networks (ANN); computer vision
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:07:16 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) and 3D printing (3DP) play critical roles in what is known as the 4th Industrial Revolution by developing data- and machine-intelligence-based integrated production technologies. This shift has led to increasingly complex design requirements and fabrication methods, posing several challenges for implementing design, fabrication process, and architectural quality standardization. This paper systematically reviews AI techniques applied in diverse stages of 3DP production in architecture. The research goals are to (1) offer a comprehensive critical analysis of the body of literature; (2) identify and categorize approaches to integrating AI in the production of 3D-printed structures; (3) identify and discuss challenges and opportunities of AI integration in architectural production of 3DP structures; and (4) identify gap and provide recommendations for future research. The findings indicate that topics related to AI applications are current and trending, receiving increasing attention from researchers in general and particularly those working in machine and deep learning, artificial neural networks, and pattern recognition. However, the potential of the application of AI in architectural production using additive manufacturing still needs to be explored. Considering this, the paper emphasizes the necessity of redefining traditional field boundaries and opening new opportunities in the sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0201.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: agricultural production; environmental parameters; mushroom growth pre-diction; machine learning; artificial neural networks (ANN); food produc-tion; food security; multi-layered perceptron (MLP); radial basis function (RBF)
Online: 20 August 2019 (06:20:32 CEST)
Recent advancements of computer and electronic systems have motivated the extensive use of intelligent systems for automation of agricultural industries. In this study, the temperature variation of the mushroom growing room is modeled through using a multi-layered perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function networks. Modeling has been done based on the independent parameters including ambient temperature, water temperature, fresh air and circulation air dampers, and water tap. According to the obtained results from the networks, the best network for MLP is found to be the second repetition with 12 neurons in the hidden layer and 20 neurons in the hidden layer for radial basis function networks. The obtained results from comparative parameters for two networks showed the highest correlation coefficient (0.966), the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) (0.787) and the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) (0.02746) for radial basis function. Therefore, the neural networks with radial basis function was selected as the optimal predictor for the behavior of the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heat meter; district heating; fault detection; predictive maintenance; Machine Learning (ML); Artificial Neural Network (ANN); Bagging Decision Tree (BDT); Support Vector Machines (SVM); hyperparameter optimisation; ensemble model
Online: 28 July 2019 (16:26:47 CEST)
The need to increase the energy efficiency of buildings as well as the use of local renewable heat sources has caused that heat meters are used not only to calculate the consumed energy but also for the active management of central heating systems. Increasing the reading frequency and the use of measurement data to control the heating system expands the requirements for the reliability of heat meters. The aim of the research is to analyse a large set of meters in the real network and predict their faults to avoid inaccurate readings, incorrect billing, heating system disruption and unnecessary maintenance. The reliability analysis of heat metres, based on historical data collected over several years, shows some regularities which cannot be easily described by physics-based models. The failure rate is almost constant and does depend on the past but is a non-linear combination of state variables. To predict meters' failures in the next settlement period, three independent machine learning models are implemented and compared with selected metrics because even the high performance of a single model (87\% True Positive for Neural Network) may be insufficient to make a maintenance decision. Additionally, performing hyperparameters optimisation boosts models' performance by a few percent. Finally, three improved models are used to build an ensemble classifier which outperforms the individual models. The proposed procedure ensures the high efficiency of fault detection (>95\%), while maintaining overfitting at the minimum level. The methodology is universal and can be utilised to study the reliability and predict faults of other types of meters and different objects with the constant failure rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Time Series Prediction; ANN forecasting; New Coronavirus; COVID19 prediction cases; COVID19 prediction deaths; COVID19 prediction ICU, COVID19 Vaccination; COVID19 in Europe; COVID19 in Israel; COVID19 use of face mask.
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:58:01 CEST)
The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is a great contribution to medical studies since the application of forecasting concepts allows the analysis of future diseases propagations. In this context, this paper presents a study of the new coronavirus SARS-COV-2 with a focus on verifying the virus propagation associated with mitigation procedures and massive vaccination campaigns. There were proposed two methodologies to predict 28 days ahead the number of new cases, deaths, and ICU patients of five European countries: Portugal, France, Italy, United Kingdom, and Germany, and a case study of the results of massive immunization in Israel. The data input of cases, deaths, and daily ICU patients was normalized to reduce discrepant numbers due to the countries size, and the cumulative vaccination values by the percentage of population immunized, at least with one dose of vaccine. As a comparative criterion, the calculation of the mean absolute error (MAE) of all predictions presents the best methodology and targets other possibilities of use for the proposed method. The best architecture achieved a general MAE for the 1 to 28 days ahead forecast lower than 30 cases, 0,6 deaths and 2,5 ICU patients by million people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0066.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR); Machine Learning (ML); Precision Agriculture; Space Vector Machine (SVM); Artificial Neural Network (ANN); k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN); Fuzzy Classification; Global Navigation and Satellite System (GNSS)
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:28:23 CET)
The globe and more particularly the economically developed regions of the world are currently in the era of the fourth Industrial revolution (4IR). Conversely; the economically developing regions in the world and more particularly the African continent have not yet even fully passed through the Third Industrial Revolution (3IR) wave and its economy is still heavily dependent on the agricultural field. On the other hand, the state of global food insecurity is worsening on an annual basis thanks to the exponential growth of the global human population which continuously heightens the food demand in both quantity and quality. This justifies the significance of the focus on digitizing agricultural practices to improve the farm yield to meet up with the steep food demand and stabilize the economy of the African continent and countries like India whose economy is mainly dependent on Agriculture. The tools we have at our disposal to utilize in the digitization of farming practices include space technology and Global Navigation and Satellite System (GNSS) in particular, Machine learning (ML), precision agriculture and communication systems such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Information And Communication Technologies (ICT). The most pressing challenges in the farming field include the monitoring of diseases, pests, weeds and nutrient deficiencies in the crops as early detection translates to swift and timely correction actions and hence more yield at the end of a farming cycle. Vast opportunities in the field of precision agriculture still exist that can amount to further research studies such as the lack of real-time monitoring and real-time corrective action focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0055.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide; machine learning modeling; acid; artificial intelligence; solubility; artificial neural networks (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least-squares support-vector machine (LSSVM); multi-layer perceptron (MLP); engineering applications of artificial intelligence
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:35:26 CEST)
In the present work, a novel and the robust computational investigation is carried out to estimate solubility of different acids in supercritical carbon dioxide. Four different algorithms such as radial basis function artificial neural network, Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN), Least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are developed to predict the solubility of different acids in carbon dioxide based on the temperature, pressure, hydrogen number, carbon number, molecular weight, and acid dissociation constant of acid. In the purpose of best evaluation of proposed models, different graphical and statistical analyses and also a novel sensitivity analysis are carried out. The present study proposed the great manners for best acid solubility estimation in supercritical carbon dioxide, which can be helpful for engineers and chemists to predict operational conditions in industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0033.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: PV/T collector; electrical efficiency; renewable energy; intelligent models; optimization; machine learning; multilayer perceptron (MLP), artificial neural network (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least squares support vector machine (LSSVM); photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T)
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:10:59 CEST)
Solar energy is a renewable resources of energy which is broadly utilized and have the least pollution impact between the available alternatives of fossil fuels. In this investigation, machine leaening approaches of neural networks (NN), neuro-fuzzy and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) are used to build the models for prediction of the thermal performance of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector (PV/T) by estimating its efficiency as an output of the model while inlet temperature, flow rate, heat, solar radiation, and heat of sun are input of the designed model. Experimental measurements was prepared by designing a solar collector system and 100 data extracted. Different analyses are also performed to examine the credibility of the introduced approaches revealing great performance. The suggested LSSVM model represented the best performance regarding the mean squared error (MSE) of 0.003 and correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.99, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart home care (SHC); monitoring; prediction; trend detection; artificial neural network (ANN), Bayesian regulation method (BRM), wavelet transformation (WT), SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) IBM; IoT (internet of things), activities of daily living (ADL)
Online: 3 December 2018 (07:05:04 CET)
This article describes the use of the PI ProcessBook software tool for visualization and indirect monitoring of occupancy of SHC rooms from the measured operational and technical quantities for monitoring of daily living activities for support of independent life of elderly persons. The proposed method for data processing (predicting the CO2 course using neural networks from the measured temperature indoor Ti (°C), temperature outdoor To (°C) and the relative humidity indoor rHi (%)) was implemented, verified and compared in MATLAB SW tool and IBM SPSS SW tool with IoT platform connectivity. Within the proposed method, the Stationary Wavelet Transform de noising algorithm was used to remove the noise of the resulting predicted course. In order to verify the method, two long-term experiments were performed, (specifically from February 8 to February 15, 2015, from June 8 to June 15, 2015) and two short-term experiments (from February 8, 2015 and from June 8, 2015). For the best results of the trained ANN BRM within the prediction of CO2, the correlation coefficient R for the proposed method was up to 90%. The verification of the proposed method confirmed the possibility to use the presence of persons of the monitored SHC premises for rooms ADL monitoring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0175.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: demand prediction, energy systems; machine learning; artificial neural network (ANN); support vector machines (SVM); neuro-fuzzy; ANFIS; wavelet neural network (WNN); big data; decision tree (DT); ensemble learning; hybrid models; data science; deep learning; renewable energies; energy informatics; prediction; forecasting; energy demand
Online: 14 May 2019 (14:00:40 CEST)
Electricity demand prediction is vital for energy production management and proper exploitation of the present resources. Recently, several novel machine learning (ML) models have been employed for electricity demand prediction to estimate the future prospects of the energy requirements. The main objective of this study is to review the various ML models applied for electricity demand prediction. Through a novel search and taxonomy, the most relevant original research articles in the field are identified and further classified according to the ML modeling technique, perdition type, and the application area. A comprehensive review of the literature identifies the major ML models, their applications and a discussion on the evaluation of their performance. This paper further makes a discussion on the trend and the performance of the ML models. As the result, this research reports an outstanding rise in the accuracy, robustness, precision and the generalization ability of the prediction models using the hybrid and ensemble ML algorithms.