REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0145.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: oligoprogression; NSCLC; ALK rearrangement
Online: 9 December 2021 (08:36:50 CET)
Personalized treatment based on driver molecular alterations, such as ALK rearrangement, has revolutionized the therapeutic management of advanced oncogene addicted NSCLC patients. Multiple effective ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), with the amelioration of the activity at central nervous system level, are now available, leading to substantial prognosis improvement. The exposure to TKIs triggers resistance mechanisms and the sequential administration of other TKIs and chemotherapy is, for the most part, not targeted. In this context, extending the benefit deriving from precision medicine is paramount, above all when disease progression occurs in a limited number of sites. Retrospective data indicate that, in oligoprogressive disease, targeted therapy beyond progression combined with definitive local treatment of the progressing site(s) is an effective alternative. In these cases, multidisciplinary approach becomes essential for an integrated treatment strategy, depending on the site of disease progression, in order to improve not only survival, but also quality of life. In this review we provide an updated and comprehensive overview of the main treatment strategies in case of ALK rearranged oligoprogression, including systemic treatment as well as local therapy, and report real-world clinical stories, with the final aim of identifying the most promising management for this subset of patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Crizotinib; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas ALK+; bridge therapy in NHL ALK+; ALK+ patients; anticancer therapy
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:58:38 CET)
Background: The t (2; 5) chromosomal rearrangement and resulting nucleophosmin (NPM1) -ALK fusion was first observed in 1994 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a T-cell lymphoma responsive to cyclophosphamide, abriblastine, vincristine and prednisone in approximately 80% of cases; refractory cases usually respond favorably to brentuximab-vedotin. These treatments are regarded as a bridge to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Nowadays, transplant procedures and monitoring of chemotherapy patients proceed very slowly because the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has heavily clogged the hospitals in all countries. Results: A 40-year-old Caucasian woman was first seen at our clinical center in June 2020. She had ALCL ALK +, a history of failure to two previous therapeutic lines and was in complete remission after 12 courses of Brentuximab, still pending allo-SCT after two failed donor selection. Facing of a new therapeutic failure, we requested the Italian drug regulatory agency, and obtained the authorization, to administer 250 mg twice a day of Crizotinib, a drug incomprehensibly not registered for ALCL ALK +. Conclusions: The response to Crizotinib was optimal, since no adverse event occurred, and CT-PET persisted negative; this drug has proved to be a valid bridge to allo-SCT
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ALCL; ALK; thymus; lymphoma origins
Online: 12 August 2017 (21:30:37 CEST)
T cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a heterogeneous disease ranging from malignancies arising from thymic T cells halted in development, through to mature, circulating peripheral T cells. The latter cases are diagnostically problematic with many entering the category of peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS). Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma is one of the exceptions to this whereby aberrant expression of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase and distinctive presence of cell surface CD30 places this entity in its own class. Besides expression of a well-studied oncogenic translocation, ALCL, ALK+ may also have a unique pathogenesis with a thymic origin like T lymphoblastic lymphoma but a peripheral presentation akin to PTCL. This review discusses evidence towards the potential origin of ALCL, ALK+ and mechanisms that may give rise to its unique phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas; peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL/NOS); ALK-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL/ALK-); Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL); diagnosis; prognosis; GATA3 gene expression
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:48:00 CEST)
Background: Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (nPTCLs) encompass a heterogeneous group of mature and aggressive lymphoid malignancies, including peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL/NOS), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) ALK-positive and ALK-negative. Their differential diagnosis and prognosis are an issue in the clinical practice. Accurate biomarkers to refine the different subtypes of nPTCLs and to stratify their prognosis are essential to improve their treatment approach. The aim of this study was to test the prognostic impact of GATA3 gene expression, and its capability to discriminate the different subtypes of nPTCLs. Patients and Methods: From 2000 to 2017, 80 patients with nPTCLs were eligible for GATA3 gene expression analysis that was assessed retrospectively by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) of neoplastic biopsies in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded samples (FFPE). Results: Median age was 49 years old (IqR 34-59), 43/80 (53.7%) were male. Median follow-up was 1.72 years. Of them, 36.3% were classified as PTCL/NOS, 31.2% ALK-negative ALCL, 21.2% ALK-positive ALCL and 11.3% AITL. The majority of cases had advanced stage (III/IV). Two-year estimated overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 52.2% and 39.5%, respectively. The median GATA3 gene expression level was 0.49% (range 0 – 7.07) in all cohort, it was 0.11% for ALK-positive ALCL, 0.46% for ALK-negative ALCL, 0.86% for PTCL/NOS and 0.67% for AITL. The difference of GATA3 gene expression among distinct variants of nPTCLs was statistically significant (p < 0.001). GATA3 gene expression levels ≥ 0.71% discriminate PTCL/NOS from ALK-negative ALCL and AITL with sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 80.3%. GATA3 gene expression levels ≥ median was associated with poor 2-year OS for PTCL/NOS (46.7% x 21.4%, p=0.04) and for ALK-negative ALCL (85.7% x 54.5%, p=0.04). Conclusion: Despite the relative small and heterogeneous group of patients with nPTCLs, GATA3 gene overexpression may be an important biomarker associated with poor prognosis in PTCL/NOS and ALK-negative ALCL. Moreover it may also discriminate different subtypes of nPTCLs. Further studies with larger series of patients should confirm our findings.