ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Eritrean refugees; mental wellbeing; social resilience; Germany; ADAPT model
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Mental health and social resilience play a significant role in refugees’ adaptation during the resettlement process in the host country. Maintaining good mental wellbeing helps the refugees to respond to stressful experiences with healthy life choices. This study aimed to explore the mental wellbeing and social resilience of Eritrean refugees living in Germany and to identify social conditions and enablers to foster adaptation. This study employs a qualitative approach with a semi-structured, in-depth interview data collection method. Informants were identified among mostly young adult refugees living in Heidelberg, Germany, with a migration history of 3-6 years. In total, 15 informants were recruited through snowball sampling. Data were sorted and analyzed using the five pillars of the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The findings suggest that Eritrean refugees experience psychological distress after resettlement in Germany, however with time, their mental health has improved. The study revealed conditions that were experienced as hindrances, as well as ones that were considered to be resources of positive mental wellbeing and social resilience for resettled refugees. Challenges described were the language barrier, discrimination, unemployment, insecure residence status, loss of family and friends, conflict within the diaspora community, and isolation. The main sources of mental wellbeing and social resilience include the feeling of being welcomed by local communities, access to social services, adopting new relationships, and educational opportunities. These experiences encouraged refugees to have a favorable view of their lives and futures as well as also found to facilitate better integration and adaptation. Understanding refugee mental wellbeing and social resilience require a multidimensional perspective. Eritrean refugees living in Germany have experienced and still are experiencing resettlement challenges, as for example loss of family and friends, negative perception of the German system, loss of past achievements, or unemployment. But they have developed adaptive and resilience mechanisms, too, such as seeing an opportunity for a better life, adopting new roles, and accepting Germany as a “second home”. In addressing those by the refugees as hindrances reported issues, these could be turned into sources of mental well-being and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1392.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; C57BL/6; mouse-adapt; Two-photon excitation microscopy; in vivo imaging
Online: 18 August 2023 (16:02:12 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) often causes severe viral pneumonia, especially among older individuals and those with underlying health conditions. The C57BL/6 mouse is widely used to develop mouse models of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and immune disorders, conditions that are associated with increased risk of severe COVID-19. Although many studies using these mouse models have examined the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 pathogenesis remains poorly understood. In vivo imaging analysis using two-photon excitation microscopy is useful for elucidating the pathology of COVID-19, providing pathological insights that are not available from conventional histological analysis. However, there is no reporter SARS-CoV-2 that demonstrates pathogenicity in C57BL/6 mice and emits sufficient light intensity for two-photon in vivo imaging. Here, we generated SARS-CoV-2 expressing the fluorescent protein Venus to facilitate in vivo pathological studies using C57BL/6 mouse models. We generated a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV-2, by performing sequential lung-to-lung passages in BALB/c mice, followed by in C57BL/6 mice. We observed that the C57BL/6-adapted SARS-CoV-2 (named MASCV2-p25) replicated efficiently in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice, causing fatal pneumonia. Histopathologic analysis revealed severe inflammation and infiltration of immune cells in the lungs of MASCV2-p25-infected C57BL/6J mice, not unlike that observed in COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia. Subsequently, we generated a mouse-adapted reporter SARS-CoV-2 (named MASCV-Venus-p9) by inserting the fluorescent gene Venus into MASCV2-p25, and sequential lung-to-lung passages in C57BL/6 mice. C57BL/6 mice infected with MASCV2-Venus-p9 exhibited severe pneumonia similar to that induced by MASCV2-p25. In addition, two-photon excitation microscopy of the lungs of the infected C57BL/6J mice showed that the infected cells emitted sufficient levels of fluorescence for easy observation. These findings suggest that MASCV2-Venus-p9 will be useful for two photon in vivo imaging studies of the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and for the development of therapeutic agents for severe pneumonia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1640.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ASPECTS: Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; NIHSS: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; TICI: Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction; MCA: Middle Cerebral Artery; CBF: Cerebral Blood Flow; ICP: Intracerebral Pressure; CPP: Cerebral Perfusion Pressure; ADAPT: A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique
Online: 22 June 2023 (15:24:50 CEST)
A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the likelihood of malignant stroke after mechanical thrombectomy via ASPECTS-PASS score(A-P score), a novel scoring system using ASPECT score and number of arterial-passes. This prediction score is designed to help clinicians take early measures. Malignant stroke is defined as a large MCA infarct with mass effect that develops during the first 5 days following presentation and is associated with approximately 80% mortality. Previous studies have shown an association of low ASPECTS and high number of passes with poor outcome.We performed a retrospective cohort analysis on 78 patients with anterior circulation stroke who underwent mechanical thrombectomy at our hospital. We analyzed the likelihood of developing malignant stroke post thrombectomy in the first 5 days following successful recanalization (TICI ≽ 2b). Malignant stroke is defined as severe symptoms secondary to edema as evidenced by midline shift, cistern engorgement, and hemorrhagic conversion with edema. Patients with ASPECTS of 0-5 were excluded. We used two variables to predict the outcome: ASPECT score and number-of-passes. We used the equation ASPECT score minus number-of-passes (A-P) to arrive at a single number to predict the risk of malignant stroke. A-P scoring scale ranged from 0-9. Our study showed a statistically significant inverse relationship of A-P score and risk of malignant stroke. Approximately 90% of patients with A-P score < 5 developed malignant stroke in our study. A-P score can help predict malignant stroke post thrombectomy even after successful recanalization. Thus, A-P score of ≤ 5 suggests very high risk. (A-P) Score can assist clinicians to take early measures, and thereby prevent worse outcomes.