ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0046.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: growth regulator; ABA; NDGA; Prunus avium; fruit color
Online: 2 September 2021 (15:39:00 CEST)
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in promoting ripening in sweet cherry, a non-climateric fruit. Exogenous application of ABA has been performed to study fruit ripening and cracking, but this growth regulator is not used for commercial production. To determine the potential of this growth regulator to improve sweet cherry fruit quality, ABA canopy spraying was assayed in four cultivars. Canopy spraying of S-ABA significantly: 1) enhanced sweet cherry fruit color in ‘Glenred’, ‘Lapins’ and 'Bing' cultivars, but not in ‘Royal Rainier’ (a bi-colored cultivar), and 2) decreased fruit size and firmness in ‘Lapins’, ‘Bing’ and ‘Royal Rainier’. Seasonally reproducible effects were seen in ‘Lapins’ (mid/late-maturing) but not in ‘Glenred’ (early-maturing). Canopy spraying of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) decreased color and increased fruit size in ‘Lapins’, but not in ‘Glenred’. Direct application of ABA on fruits attached to the tree, without application to the foliage, increased Lapins' fruit color without reducing size. These results suggest a localized fruit response to exogenous ABA application on fruit color development, but that a decrease in fruit size may be due to the effects of exogenous ABA on the tree canopy foliage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0189.v1
Online: 18 August 2019 (03:19:48 CEST)
The onset of leaf senescence is triggered by external cues and internal factors such as phytohormones and signaling pathways involving transcription factors (TFs). Abscisic acid (ABA) strongly induces senescence and endogenous ABA levels are finely tuned by many senescence-associated TFs. Here, we report on the regulatory function of the senescence-induced TF OsWRKY5 TF in rice (Oryza sativa). OsWRKY5 expression was rapidly upregulated in senescing leaves, especially in yellowing sectors initiated by aging or dark treatment. A T-DNA insertion activation-tagged OsWRKY5-overexpressing mutant (termed oswrky5-D) promoted leaf senescence under natural and dark-induced senescence (DIS) conditions. By contrast, a T-DNA insertion oswrky5-knockdown mutant (termed oswrky5) retained leaf greenness during DIS. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that OsWRKY5 upregulates the expression of genes controlling chlorophyll degradation and leaf senescence. Furthermore, RT-qPCR and yeast one-hybrid analysis demonstrated that OsWRKY5 indirectly upregulates the expression of senescence-associated NAC genes including OsNAP and OsNAC2. Precocious leaf yellowing in the oswrky5-D mutant might be caused by elevated endogenous ABA concentrations resulting from upregulated expression of ABA biosynthesis genes OsNCED3, OsNCED4, and OsNCED5, indicating that OsWRKY is a positive regulator of ABA biosynthesis during leaf senescence. Furthermore, OsWRKY5 expression was significantly suppressed by ABA treatment, indicating negative feedback regulation of OsWRKY5 expression by ABA. OsWRKY5 is a positive regulator of leaf senescence that upregulates senescence-induced NAC genes leading to expression of ABA biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0527.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; nodulation; in vitro nodule development; phytohormones; ABA; JA; auxins; cytokinins; GA; BR
Online: 27 September 2018 (03:59:07 CEST)
Legumes develop root nodules that harbour endosymbiotic bacteria, rhizobia. These rhizobia convert nitrogen to ammonia by biological nitrogen fixation. A thorough understanding of the biological nitrogen fixation in legumes and its regulation is key to develop sustainable agriculture. It is well known that plant hormones affect nodule formation; however, most studies are limited to model legumes due to their suitability for in vitro, plate-based assays. Specifically, it is almost impossible to measure the effects of exogenous hormones or other additives during nodule development in crop legumes such as soybean as they have huge root system in soil. To circumvent this issue, the present research develops suitable media and growth conditions for efficient nodule development under in vitro, soil free conditions in an important legume crop, soybean. Moreover, we also evaluate the effects of all major phytohormones during soybean nodulation under identical conditions. This versatile, inexpensive, scalable and simple protocol provides several advantages over previously established methods. It is extremely time-and resource-efficient, does not require special training or equipment, and produces highly reproducible results. The approach is expandable to other large legumes as well as for other exogenous additives.