ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: 6G; Licensed spectrum distribution; Blockchain; Fairness
Online: 18 July 2023 (14:16:00 CEST)
Spectrum distribution is a classical licensed spectrum accessing method in mobile communication networks. The licensed idle spectrum resources are authorized and distributed from spectrum owners to mobile users. However, the exponential growth of user capacity brings excessive load pressure on the traditional centralized network architecture. As lack of sufficient supervision and penalty measures, dishonest behaviors of spectrum owners and spectrum users will lead to the unfair status in the distribution process. As a result, the honest participants’ interest will be harmed. As an important supporting infrastructure of Internet of things technology, 6G cannot completely follow the existing spectrum distribution method. Towards 6G network spectrum distribution, an blockchain based licensed spectrum fair distribution method is proposed. A lightweight consensus mechanism named as proof of trust (PoT) is applied to reduce computational power consumption and consensus time overhead. We deploy the method on the Ethereum test chain, theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate the fairness, effectiveness and security of the method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1460.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: 6G; IoV; AI; edge computing; QoS; CNN; LSTM
Online: 22 May 2023 (04:41:28 CEST)
A full connected world is expected to gain in the 6th generation mobile network (6G). As a typi-cal fully connected scenario, the internet of vehicle (IoV) enables intelligent vehicle operations via artificial intelligence (AI) and edge computing technologies. In the future of vehicular net-works, wide variety of services need powerful computing resources and higher quality of ser-vice (QoS). Existing resources are insufficient to match these requirements. Aim to this problem, An intelligent service offloading framework is provided. Based on the framework, an Algorithm of Improved Gradient Descent (AIGD) is created to accelerate the speed of iteration. So, the con-vergence of convolutional neural network (CNN) based on AIGD is able to be accelerated too. Then, an Algorithm of convolutional long short-term memory (CN_LSTM) Based Traffic Predic-tion (ACLBTP) is designed to gain the predicted number of vehicles belonged to the edge node. At last, an Algorithm of Service Offloading Based on CN_LSTM (ASOBCL) is conducted to of-fload these services to the vehicles belonged to the edge node. In ASOBCL, sorting technique is adopted to speed up the offloading work. Simulation results demonstrate the fact that the pre-diction strategy designed in this paper has high accuracy. The low offloading time and main-taining stable load balance is gained via running ASOBCL. Low offloading time means short response time. And, the QoS is guaranteed. So, these strategies designed in this paper are effec-tive and valuable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Beamforming; Machine Learning; MIMO; 5G; 6G
Online: 15 March 2023 (10:20:16 CET)
The performance of modern wireless communication systems is highly dependent on the adoption of multiple antennas and the associated signal processing. In 5G and 6G networks, beamforming and beam management become challenging tasks due to aspects such as user mobility, increased number of antennas, and the adoption of higher frequencies. Artificial intelligence, and more specifically, machine learning, are efficient tools to reduce the complexity involved in generating beams and the overhead associated with beam management without sacrificing system performance. Therefore, AI-aided beamforming and beam management have received a lot of attention recently. This article presents a complete survey on this topic, emphasizing open problems and promising directions. The discussion includes architectural and signal processing aspects of modern beamforming and beam management. The article presents communication problems and respective solutions using centralized/decentralized, supervised/unsupervised, semi-supervised, active, federated, and reinforcement learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: FRET probes; rhodamine 6G; reversed micelle; surfactants; enzyme activity
Online: 6 December 2023 (10:48:42 CET)
Fluorescent labels, especially FRET probes, are promising tools for studying a number of bio-chemical processes. In this paper, we promoted 2 important applications of FRET probes (MUTMAC-R6G and FITC-R6G): i) the formation of micelles from surfactants of various natures and polymers (chitosan – fatty acid), as well as ii) monitoring of enzymatic activity with improved parameters (increased analytical signal and improved selectivity due to shift to the long-wavelength region). The formation of micelles is accompanied by the convergence of fluorophores in the hydrophobic micelle core by a distance closer than in the buffer solution, thus r/R0 (where R0 – Foerster radius) is chosen as an analytical signal of micelle formation, including critical micelle concentration (CMC) and critical pre-micelle concentration (CPMC). The CMC values calculated using FRET probes are in a good agreement with literature data. At the same time, the r/R0 function provides valuable information about the nature and mechanism of micelle formation. With the second analytical application of FRET probes, we considered the optimization of techniques for studying enzymatic activity. The enzyme catalyses the reaction with the release of a fluorescent product, the signal from which may not be enough for detection, or it may be quenched, for example, in the reverse micelles (AOT-octane). Here we have proposed a solution – a FRET probe containing a rhodamine 6G (R6G) acceptor, which allows us to monitor the enzymatic reaction selectively (in the red region, 550-600 nm), and obtain a significantly higher fluorescence yield (potentially from 10 to 250 times). Thus, we have demonstrated a high potential for the FRET probes application as indicators of micelle formation as well as for the study of the enzyme catalytic activity. In the future, the method developed has prospects for application in the visualization of the enzyme functioning in cells due to the shift of the fluorescence signal to the long-wavelength region with an increase in the signal selectivity to suppress autofluorescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: semantic information theory; semantic communications; information theory; 6G; game theory
Online: 26 October 2022 (04:08:59 CEST)
Semantic communication is not obsessed with improving the accuracy of transmitted symbols, but is concerned with expressing the desired meaning that the symbol sequence exactly carried. However, the generation and measurement of semantic messages are still an open problem. Expansion combines simple things into complex systems and even generates intelligence, which is consistent with the evolution of the human language system. We apply this idea to semantic communication system, quantifying and transmitting semantics by symbol sequences, and investigate the semantic information system in a similar way as Shannon did for digital communication systems. This work was the first to propose the concept of semantic expansion and knowledge collision, which may provide a new paradigm for semantic communications. We believe that expansion and collision will be the cornerstone of semantic information theory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: wireless communication system; sixth generation (6G); reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS); channel estimation
Online: 16 June 2023 (07:31:08 CEST)
With the dramatic increase in the number of mobile users and wireless devices accessing the network, the performance of the fifth generation (5G) wireless communication systems has been severely challenged. Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS), one of the potential technologies for the sixth generation (6G), has received a lot of attention. Since it is easier to deploy, consumes less power, and is inexpensive. RIS is an electromagnetic metamaterial that serves to reconfigure the wireless environment by adjusting the phase, amplitude and frequency of the wireless signal. To maximize channel transmission efficiency and improve the reliability of communication systems, the acquisition of channel state information (CSI) is essential. Therefore, an effective channel estimation method guarantees the achievement of excellent RIS performance. This paper conducts a comprehensive investigation of the existing channel estimation methods of RIS, analysis and comparison of channel model building and CSI acquisition schemes in different frequency bands, in addition to a comprehensive description of generic channel estimation methods, with a focus on the application of deep learning. Finally, we conclude the paper and provide an outlook in the future development of RIS channel estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0251.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large intelligent surfaces; 6G; bit error probability; Nakagami fading; Von Mises distribution
Online: 11 August 2021 (10:52:46 CEST)
In this work, we derive the spectral efficiency, secrecy outage probability, and bit error rate of a communication system assisted by a large intelligent surface (LIS). We consider a single-antenna user and an array of antennas at the transmitter side and the possibility of a direct link between transmitter and receiver. Additionally, there is a single-antenna eavesdropper with a direct link to the transmitter, which is modeled as a Nakagami-m distributed fading coefficient. The channels from transmitter to the LIS and from the LIS to the user may or may not have the line-of-sight (LoS) and are modeled by the Nakagami- m distribution. Moreover, we assume that the LIS elements perform non-ideal phase cancellation leading to a residual phase error that assumes a Von Mises distribution. We show that the resulting channel can be accurately approximated by a Gamma distribution whose parameters are analytically estimated using the moments of the equivalent signal-to-noise ratio. We also provide an upper bound for the error probability for M-QAM modulations. With the derived formulas, we analyze the effect of the strength of the LoS link by varying the Nakagami parameter, m.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0667.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: 5G and beyond/6G wireless networks; greencom; IoT; passive repeater; relaying systems; SWIPT
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:30:56 CEST)
In order to support a massive number of resource-constrained Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices and machine-type devices, it is crucial to design future beyond 5G/6G wireless networks in an energy-efficient manner while incorporating suitable network coverage expansion methodologies. To this end, this invited paper proposes a novel two-hop hybrid active-and-passive relaying scheme to facilitate simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) considering both the time-switching (TS) and power-splitting (PS) receiver architectures, while dynamically modelling the involved dual-hop time-period (TP) metric. An optimization problem is formulated to jointly optimize the throughput, harvested energy, and transmit power of a SWIPT-enabled system with the proposed hybrid scheme. In this regard, we provide two distinct ways to obtain suitable solutions based on the Lagrange dual technique and Dinkelbach method assisted convex programming, respectively, where both the approaches yield an appreciable solution within polynomial computational-time. The experimental results are obtained by directly solving the primal problem using a non-linear optimizer. Our numerical results in terms of weighted utility function show the superior performance of proposed hybrid scheme over passive repeater-only and active relay-only schemes, while also depicting their individual performance benefits over the corresponding benchmark SWIPT systems with the fixed-TP.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: intent-based networking; network management; 6G; industry 4.0; supply chain; ICT; AI; ML; Access Control
Online: 13 May 2021 (14:01:35 CEST)
The evolution towards Industry 4.0 is driving the need for innovative solutions in the area of network management, considering the complex, dynamic and heterogeneous nature of ICT supply chains. To this end, Intent-Based networking (IBN) which is already proven to evolve how network management is driven today, can be implemented as a solution to facilitate the management of large ICT supply chains. In this paper, we first present a comparison of the main architectural components of typical IBN systems and, then, we study the key engineering requirements when integrating IBN with ICT supply chain network systems while considering AI methods. We also propose a general architecture design that enables intent translation of ICT supply chain specifications into lower level policies, to finally show an example of how the access control is performed in a modelled ICT supply chain system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0006.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces; 6G; Cascade Channel Decoupling; RIS Regulatory Constraint; RIS System Architecture; True Time Delay.
Online: 26 December 2022 (01:45:18 CET)
It is expected that scholars will continue to strengthen the depth and breadth of theoretical research on RIS, so as to provide a higher theoretical upper bound for the engineering application of RIS. While making breakthroughs in academic research, great progress has been made in engineering application research and industrialization promotion. This article will provide an overview of RIS engineering applications, mainly including the typical features, typical classifications, and typical deployment scenarios of RIS. Then the challenges and candidate solutions of the RIS are systematically and deeply analyzed, involving the cascade channel decoupling for solving the RIS beamforming, the influences and solutions of RIS regulation constraints, RIS system architecture of network controlled mode, the integrated channel regulation and information modulation, TDD mechanism used for RIS. Future trends and challenges are also provided.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: surface-enhanced fluorescence; quenching; Rhodamine 6G; hot spot; separation layer; high reproducibility; finite difference time domain
Online: 22 December 2019 (13:45:00 CET)
The surface enhanced fluorescence（SEF）detection bases by plasmonic nanopillars array with nanoparticles has opened up a new gate in the application of biological imaging and sensing. The fluorescence enhancement of the probe molecule depends on its position in equilibrium, which is close to the hot spot leading to the electromagnetic field enhancement, but not too close to the metal surface resulting in quenching. Here, a large scale SiO2-Ag-cicada wing SEF substrate was fabricated by magnetron sputtering with correction enhancement factor of 797.6. Thereinto the cicada wing provides the skeleton of the nanopillars array structure, the deposited Ag constructs two kinds of hot spots, and SiO2 forms a separation layer to prevent quenching. Moreover, the substrate exhibited good reproducibility, high sensitivity with low limits of detection (LOD) and high stability for oxidation resistance. We propose that SEF substrate with modification of SiO2 can not only improve the enhancement performance, but also expanding its application in the biological investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1208.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Semantic information theory; semantic communication; semantic distortion; 6G; goal-oriented communications; joint source-channel coding; deep learning; information bottleneck
Online: 19 October 2023 (11:49:20 CEST)
In recent years, semantic communication has received significant attention from both academia and industry, driven by the growing demands for ultra-low latency and high-throughput capabilities in emerging intelligent services. Nonetheless, a comprehensive and effective theoretical framework for semantic communication has yet to be established. In particular, finding the fundamental limits of semantic communication, exploring the capabilities of semantic-aware networks, or utilizing theoretical guidance for deep learning in semantic communication are very important but yet still unresolved issues. In this paper, we delve into the pertinent advancements in semantic information theory. Grounded in the foundational work of Claude Shannon, we present the latest developments in semantic entropy, semantic rate distortion, and semantic channel capacity. Additionally, we will analyze some open problems in semantic information measurement and semantic coding, providing a theoretical basis for the design of a semantic communication system. Furthermore, we carefully review several mathematical theories and tools and evaluate their applicability in the context of semantic communication. Finally, we shed light on the challenges encountered in both semantic communication and semantic information theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0564.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Beyond 5G; 6G communications; Autonomous systems; Control systems; Real-time systems; Industry 4.0; Aversrial Machine Learning
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:12:36 CEST)
Background:As cyber-physical systems (CPS) continue to grow, it is progressively crucial to address the challenges of data protection using artificial intelligence (AI). Objective:The goal of this research is to provide an up-to-date overview of the security and privacy issues of CPS that incorporate AI techniques. Method:To achieve this, the author conducted a systematic literature review, focusing on 35 relevant articles. Results:The data collected from these studies was then categorized into three main areas: 1) different security and privacy issues, 2) application areas and vulnerabilities, and 3) the AI techniques used to address security and privacy concerns. The literature review highlights that intrusion detection and cyberattacks are the most commonly studied areas in CPS, while Machine Learnning (ML)-based attacks and vessel trajectory are less explored. The review identifies various CPS applications such as water treatment, energy, healthcare, and transportation that address security and privacy concerns. However, a relatively small proportion of studies focused on the manufacturing domain. The review also notes that while supervised machine learning algorithms under the classification category are commonly used to address data protection issues, there are comparatively fewer studies that have implemented automation processes using robots and deep learning. Limitations:The articles related to blockchain-based research were not included in this review to focus solely on AI techniques. Conclusion:The results of this analysis indicate that there is a significant need for innovative AI/ML techniques to protect intelligent systems and networks from ML-based security threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0051.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Quantum K-Means; Quantum Machine Learning; Quantum Computing; K-Means Clustering; 6G Communication; Quadrature Amplitude Modulation; Quantum-Classical Hybrid Algorithms; Quantum-Inspired Algorithms
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:33:13 CEST)
Nearest-neighbour clustering is a simple yet powerful machine learning algorithm that finds natural application in the decoding of signals in classical optical-fibre communication systems. Quantum k-means clustering promises a speed-up over the classical k-means algorithm; however, it has been shown to currently not provide this speed-up for decoding optical-fibre signals due to the embedding of classical data, which introduces inaccuracies and slowdowns. Although still not achieving an exponential speed-up for NISQ implementations, this work proposes the generalised inverse stereographic projection as an improved embedding into the Bloch sphere for quantum distance estimation in k-nearest-neighbour clustering, which allows us to get closer to the classical performance. We also use the generalised inverse stereographic projection to develop an analogous classical clustering algorithm and benchmark its accuracy, runtime and convergence for decoding real-world experimental optical-fibre communication data. This proposed `quantum-inspired' algorithm provides an improvement in both the accuracy and convergence rate with respect to the k-means algorithm. Hence, this work presents two main contributions. Firstly, we propose the general inverse stereographic projection into the Bloch sphere as a better embedding for quantum machine learning algorithms; here, we use the problem of clustering quadrature amplitude modulated optical-fibre signals as an example. Secondly, as a purely classical contribution inspired by the first contribution, we propose and benchmark the use of the general inverse stereographic projection and spherical centroid for clustering optical-fibre signals, showing that optimizing the radius yields a consistent improvement in accuracy and convergence rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Floquet analysis; MoM method; Almost periodic antenna arrays; Fourier analysis; strong mutual coupling; Dense massive MIMO; MM and THz waves; 5G and 6G applications
Online: 22 November 2021 (15:11:58 CET)
In this paper, we introduce a new formulation based on Floquet (Fourier) spectral analysis combined with a spectral modulation technique (and its spatial form) to study strongly coupled sublattices predefined in the infinite and large finite extent of almost periodic antenna arrays (e.g metasurfaces). This analysis is very relevant for dense massive MIMO, intelligent surfaces, 5G, and 6G applications (used for very small areas with a large number of elements such as millimeter and terahertz waves applications). The numerical method that is adopted to model the structure is the method of moments simplified by equivalent circuits MoM GEC. Other numerical methods (as the ASM array scanning method and windowing Fourier method) used this analysis in their kernel that to treat periodic and pseudo-periodic (or quasi-periodic) arrays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0034.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS); silver nanoparticle (AgNP); rhodamine 6G (R6G); dc magnetron sputtering; SERS substrate; hotspot; analytical enhancement factor (AEF); limit of detection (LOD); relative standard deviation (RSD)
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:23:31 CEST)
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is commonly used for super-selective analysis through nanostructured silver layers in the environment, food quality, biomedicine, and materials science. To fabricate a high-sensitivity but more accessible device of SERS, dc magnetron sputtering technology was used to realize high sensitivity, low cost, stable deposition rate, and rapid mass production. This study investigated various thicknesses of a silver film ranging from 3.0 to 12.1 nm by field-emission-scanning-electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In the rhodamine 6G (R6G) testing irradiated by a He-Ne laser beam, the analytical enhancement factor (AEF) of 9.35x108, the limit of detection (LOD) of 10-8 M, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.61% were better than other SERS substrates fabricated by the same dc sputtering process because the results show that the 6 nm thickness silver layer has the highest sensitivity, stability, and lifetime. The paraquat and acetylcholine analytes were further investigated and high sensitivity was also achievable. The proposed SERS samples were evaluated and stored in a low humidity environment for up to forty weeks, and no spectrum attenuation could be detected. Soon, the proposed technology to fabricate high sensitivity, repeatability, and robust SERS substrate will be an optimized process technology in multiple applications.