ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0321.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid; loquat; low-temperature stress; glutathione
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:33:22 CEST)
Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an antioxidant in plants and is one of the important ways for plants to combat low-temperature stress. In this paper, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. cv. Zaozhong No. 6 seedlings were used to study the effects of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) application on glutathione synthesis and cyclic metabolism of loquat seedlings under low-temperature stress and to explore the regulatory mechanism of ALA on loquat cold tolerance. The results showed that ALA treatment could increase the content of GSH and the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in loquat leaf slices under low-temperature stress; reduce the electrolyte leakage rate and GSSG, H2O2 and MDA contents in leaf tissues; and alleviate the peroxidation damage caused by low temperature. ALA treatment increased the activity of γ-glutamine synthetase (γ-ECS) in loquat leaf slices under low-temperature stress and promoted the biosynthesis of reduced glutathione, thereby increasing the GSH content in leaf tissues. On the other hand, ALA treatment could also improve the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and promote the cyclic regeneration of GSH, accordingly maintaining a high GSH/GSSG ratio, promoting the removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhancing the antioxidant capacity of leaves. The regulatory effect of ALA on enhancing the antioxidant capacity of loquat seedlings under low-temperature stress can be inhibited by L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, GSH biosynthesis inhibitor). The results showed that ALA improved the antioxidant capacity of loquat seedlings under low-temperature stress, and GSH was involved in the regulation of the antioxidant effect of ALA on loquat seedlings under low-temperature stress.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0689.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, ciprofloxacin, deferiprone, fluorescence, 5-fluorouracil, febuxostat, glioblastoma, photodynamic treatment, temozolomide,
Online: 29 October 2018 (14:12:07 CET)
The CAALA (Complex Augmentation of ALA) regimen was developed with the goal of redressing some of the weaknesses of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) use in glioblastoma treatment as it now stands. 5-ALA is approved for use prior to glioblastoma surgery to better demarcate tumor from brain tissue. 5-ALA is also used in intraoperative photodynamic treatment of glioblastoma by virtue of uptake of 5-ALA and its selective conversion to protoporphyrin IX in glioblastoma cells. Protoporphyrin IX becomes cytotoxic after exposure to 410 nm or 635 nm light. CAALA uses four currently marketed drugs - the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, the iron chelator deferiprone, the antimetabolite 5-FU, and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat - that all have evidence of ability to both increase 5-ALA mediated intraoperative glioblastoma demarcation and photodynamic cytotoxicity of in situ glioblastoma cells. Data from testing the full CAALA on living minipigs xenotransplanted with human glioblastoma cells will determine safety and potential for benefit in advancing CAALA to a clinical trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0371.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Blood Lead levels1; d-aminolevulenic acid dehydratase enzyme activity; d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene polymorphism.
Online: 22 December 2021 (14:36:31 CET)
Rapid industrialization, urbanization, and population explosion in sub-Saharan Africa escalate environmental Lead levels with subsequent elevation of blood Lead levels in children. Nutrition status, age, and genetics govern one’s susceptibility to Lead toxicity. This study expounded this susceptibility by relating blood Lead levels, d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme activity (ALAD), and genetic variations of proteins that code for ALAD enzyme in urban children of Uganda. Spectrophotometric analysis for blood Lead (BL), hemoglobin levels, and determination d-levels aminolevulinic acid dehydratase enzyme activity of the blood samples from 198 children were performed prior to a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length digestion for ALAD polymorphism was done. Up to 99.5% of samples coded for the ALAD1 allele whereas 0.05% coded for ALAD2. Genotypes ALAD2-2 members had elevated BLL (mean 14.1 µg/dL) and reduced ALAD enzyme activity compared to others. This, therefore, implies that the majority of children hoard BL which may affect them later in life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0066.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Mesoporous silica; Polyacrylic acid; Calcium ion; 5-Fluorouracil; Drug delivery
Online: 2 August 2022 (12:15:03 CEST)
In this work, polyacrylic acid-functionalized MCM-41 was synthesized, which was further interacted with calcium ions, to realize enhanced pH-responsive nanocarrier for sustained drug release. First, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were prepared by the sol-gel method. Afterward, (3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) modified surface was prepared by using the post-grafting method, then polymerization of acrylic acid was proceeded. After adding calcium chloride solution, polyacrylic acid-functionalized MSNs with calcium-carboxyl ionic bonds in the polymeric layer, which can prevent the cargo from leaking out of the mesopore, were prepared. The structure and morphology of the modified nanoparticles (PAA-MSNs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, etc. The controlled release of guest molecules was studied by using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The drug molecules-incorporated nanoparticles showed different releasing rates under different pH conditions. It is considered that our current materials have the potential as pH-responsive targeted nanocarriers in the field of medical treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: aluminum ion; blue color development; 5-O-caffeoylquicnic acid; 3-O-glucosyldelphinidin; Hydrangea macrophylla; ESI-mass; metal complex
Online: 11 May 2018 (10:15:49 CEST)
The blue sepal color of hydrangea is due to a metal complex anthocyanin composed of 3-O-glucosyldelphinidin (1) and an aluminum ion with the co-pigments 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2) and/or 5-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid (3). The three components, namely, anthocyanin, Al3+ and 5-O-acylquinic acids, are essential for blue color development, but the complex is unstable and only exists in aqueous solution. Furthermore, the complex did not give analyzable NMR spectra or crystals. Therefore, many trials to determine the detailed chemical structure of the hydrangea-blue complex have failed to date. Instead, via experiments mixing 1, Al3+ and 2 or 3 in a buffered solution at pH 4.0, we obtained the same blue solution derived from the sepals. However, the ratio was not stoichiometric but fluctuated. To determine the composition of the complex, we tried direct observation of the molecular ion of the complex using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. In a very low-concentration buffer solution (2.0 mM) at pH 4.0, we reproduced the hydrangea-blue color by mixing 1, 2 and Al3+ in ratios of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:3:1. All solution gave the same molecular ion peak at m/z = 843, indicating that the blue solution has a ratio of 1:1:1 for the complex. By using 3, the observed mass number was m/z = 827 and the ratio of 1, 3 and Al3+ was also 1:1:1. A mixture of 1, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4) and Al3+ did not give any blue color but instead was purple, and the intensity of the molecular ion peak at m/z = 843 was very low. These results strongly indicate that the hydrangea blue-complex is composed of a ratio of 1:1:1 for 1, Al3+ and 2 or 3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0176.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: ALP (alkaline phosphatase); OA (osteoarthritis); 5-aza dC (5-aza-2’deoxycytidine); epigenetics
Online: 27 December 2016 (09:36:54 CET)
DNA methylation is one of the epigenetic mechanisms which have been implicated in cellular differentiation, ageing and disease development. The effect of hypomethylating drug 5-aza-2´deoxycytidine (5-aza dC) on the biosynthetic profile of caudal region chondrocytes from chick sternum was studied in detail. The chondrocytes in culture were treated with varying doses of 5-aza dC for 48h and maintained subsequently without the treatment and harvested at selected time points for analysis of growth and differentiation status. 15µg/ml of 5-aza dC showed optimum Concentration at which there was a significant increase in DNA synthesis and RNA synthesis as per cell basis. There was also a significant increase in total protein synthesis and collagen synthesis as per cell basis at this concentration. This optimal concentration also showed to up regulate the gene expression of Type X collagen and alkaline phosphatase, which are the marker of hypertrophic chondrocyte expression. These results further support the notion that methylation is the major epigenetic factor controlling the differentiation and maturation of chondrocytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: constitutive androstene receptor; cytochrome P450, fibrosis; gender difference; high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet; necrosis; stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats; sulfotransferase, pregnane X receptor; UGP-glucuronosyltransferase
Online: 23 May 2017 (07:54:46 CEST)
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics. However, the BA detoxification-related enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and sulfotransferase (SULT) 2A1, and the nuclear receptors constitutive androstene receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR), were strongly suppressed in HFC fed males, and were only slightly changed in HFC-diet fed females. Expression levels of the farnesoid X receptor and its small heterodimer partner were similarly regulated in a gender-dependent fashion following HFC feeding. Hence, the pronounced female resistance to HFC-induced liver damage likely reflects sustained expression of the nuclear receptors CAR and PXR and the BA detoxification enzymes UGT and SULT.
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:58:18 CEST)
Abstract: Turmeric is a plant with multiple medicinal attributes. One of them being its analgesic effect. In this project the analgesic effect of the plant was evaluated with an inflammatory pain model: the 5% formalin model. Turmeric was administered to 250 g male Wistar rats (6 ± 2) provided by the Health Science department’s vivarium. The dose-response curve of the plant was per-formed observing the analgesic effect. Once the dose was selected, they were administrated within different turmeric protocols. 400 mg orally every 24 h for two weeks, another group with turmeric ad libitum for two weeks, the control group with 0.9% saline solution for two weeks, and a group with administration of metamizole prior to evaluation with 5% formalin. Subsequently, each rat was evaluated by 5% formalin intraplantarly and the number of rat paw twitches per 1 h was observed. The analysis of the data generated through the obtained results was carried out. The dose of 400 mg of oral turmeric was administered for two weeks without observing any collateral effects. An excellent analgesic effect was found in this protocol, as well as, in the ad libitum administration for two weeks compared to the control group. Likewise, turmeric presents a milder effect than metamizole, a well-known analgesic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0170.v1
Online: 15 August 2019 (16:17:46 CEST)
As mental health problems tend to increase during adolescence and is a serious public health issue in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Early detection is necessary and monitoring at the population level can be used to evaluate the progress of national programmes promoting positive well-being. Physical activity (PA) can be protective whereas increased screen time behaviours (STB) can be a risk for low levels of well-being. A national representative sample (n=4,731) of young adolescents aged 11y, 13y, and 15y from the Republic of Kazakhstan took part in the WHO collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Respondents completed the WHO-5 Well-being scale, and items in on PA and STB. Internationally recognised, recommended cut-offs were used for analyses. Two models of binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations with PA (Model 1) and PA with STB (Model 2) after stratification by gender and controlling for age, locality and family affluence. Three quarters of young adolescents in the Republic of Kazakhstan have good overall well-being, despite the proportion reduces as adolescents age from 11y to 15y (boys, OR=0.66 CI=0.49-0.80; girls, OR=0.55, CI=0.43-0.71). The odds ratio for positive well-being were more than twice for boys and more than 3.5 for girls who reported daily PA than not being active daily. Spending less time on STB for girls was associated with positive well-being than spending more STB time (OR=1.28, CI=1.04-1.59). Well-being among young adolescents drops dramatically between the ages of 11y and 15y and is higher among rural schools attendees than in urban schools. The recommended amounts of PA can be protective of low well-being for both boys and girls. However, meeting reporting STB recommendations was only protective for girls and not boys. Designing and implementing positive well-being programmes require consideration of locality and amounts of PA and STB
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0055.v1
Online: 8 May 2017 (09:27:58 CEST)
The string of bacteria, Vibrio. sp. QD-5 utilizing alginate, was separated from rotten kelp. The results of genome sequencing showed that the strain QD-5 contained four alginate lyase genes.One of the alginate genes Aly-IV was cloned and linked to the plasmid pET-22b (+). The heterologous expressed alginate lyase aly-IVwas characterized，which possessed the theoretical molecular mass of 62 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.12. - The enzyme aly-IV was purified and the activity reached 1256.78 U/mg, with optimal temperature of 35 oC and pH value of 8.9. Nurtured in the temperature below 25 oC for 30 minutes, the activity was almost stable. The result also suggested that the activity of enzyme was strongly affected by - NaCl whose optimal concentration was 15 mM in a lab environment The TLC and ESI-TOF-MS analysis suggested that the enzyme aly-IV could degrade sodium alginate and polyG in endo-lytic type, producing monomer, dimer and trimmer. So, aly-IV can also be widely applied to make large scale preparation of alginate oligosaccharides with low degree of polymerization (DP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0376.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Desipramine; Autophagy; Apoptosis; Death receptor-5; TRAIL
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:09:09 CET)
Autophagy, an alternative cell death mechanism, is also termed programmed cell death type II. Autophagy in cancer treatment needs to be regulated. In our study, autophagy inhibition by desipramine or the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) enhanced tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-2 [death receptor (DR5)] expression and subsequently TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant A549 lung cancer cells. Genetic inhibition of DR5 substantially reduced desipramine-enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, proving that DR5 was required to increase TRAIL sensitivity in TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. Desipramine treatment upregulated p62 expression and promoted conversion of light chain 3 (LC3)-I to its lipid-conjugated form, LC3-II, indicating that autophagy inhibition occurred at the final stages of autophagic flux. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the presence of condensed autophagosomes, which resulted from the late stages of autophagy inhibition by desipramine. TRAIL, in combination with desipramine or CQ, augmented the expression of apoptosis-related proteins cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3. Our results contributed to the understanding of the mechanism underlying the synergistic anti-cancer effect of desipramine and TRAIL and presented a novel mechanism of DR5 upregulation. These findings demonstrated that autophagic flux inhibition by desipramine potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that appropriate regulation of autophagy is required for sensitizing TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0082.v1
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:57:16 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) is a G protein-coupled receptor that belongs to the TAARs family (TAAR1-TAAR9). TAAR5 is expressed in the olfactory epithelium and is responsible for sensing 3-methylamine (TMA). However, recent studies showed that TAAR5 is also expressed in the limbic brain regions and is involved in the regulation of emotional behaviour and adult neurogenesis, suggesting that TAAR5 antagonism may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for anxiety and depression. We used the AtomNet® model, the first deep learning neural network for structure-based drug discovery, to identify putative TAAR5 ligands and tested them in an in vitro BRET assay. We found two mTAAR5 antagonists with low to submicromolar activity that are able to inhibit the cAMP production induced by TMA. Moreover, these two compounds also inhibited the mTAAR5 downstream signalling, such as the phosphorylation of CREB and ERK. These two hits exhibit drug-like properties and could be used to develop further more potent TAAR5 ligands with putative anxiolytic and antidepressant activity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0679.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Sildenafil; phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors; drug repurposing; cancer; chemoadjuvant
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:02:08 CEST)
Enhanced permeation retention (EPR) was a significant milestone discovery by Maeda et al. paving the road for the emerging nanomedicine as a powerful tool in the fight against cancer. Sildenafil is a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) used for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) through the relaxation of smooth muscles and the modulation of vascular endothelial permeability. Overexpression of PDE-5 was reported in lung, colon, metastatic breast cancers and bladder squamous carcinoma. Accordingly, there has been a growing interest in using sildenafil as monotherapy or chemoadjuvant in EPR augmentation and management of different types of cancer. Sildenafil had been reported to increase the sensitivity of tumor cells of different origins to the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic agents with augmented apoptosis mediated through inducing the expression of Bad and Bax proapoptotic proteins. It was also reported that the use of sildenafil prior to the administration of Doxorubicin (DOX) increased its EPR-related concentration in breast cancer tissues by 2 folds. Further, a substantial reason of anticancer chemotherapeutic failure is due to multidrug resistance (MDR), exacerbated by the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters such as ABCB1 and ABCCs. Sildenafil has demonstrated inhibitory effects on the efflux activity of ABCC4, ABCC5, ABCB1, and ABCG2, ultimately reversing MDR caused by these transporters. In this review, we critically examine the overall potential of sildenafil in enhancing EPR-based anticancer drug delivery pointing up the outcome of the most important related preclinical and clinical studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0622.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GPS; TGF; ERA-5; lightning; geostationary; water vapour
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:22:37 CET)
In this article we report the first investigation over time of the atmospheric conditions around TGFs occurrence, using GPS sensors in combination with geostationary satellite observations and ERA5 reanalyses data. The goal is to understand which characteristics are favourable to the development of these events and to investigate if any precursor signals can be expected. A total of 9 TGFs, occurred at a distance lower than 45 km from a GPS sensor, were analysed and two of them are shown here as an example analysis. Moreover, the lightning activity, collected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) was used in order to identify any links and correlations with TGF occurrence and PWV trends. The combined use of GPS and the stroke rate trends identified, for all cases, a recurred pattern in which an increase of PWV is observed on a timescale of about two hours before the TGF occurrence that can be placed within the lightning peak. The temporal relation between the PWV trend and TGF occurrence is strictly related to the position of GPS sensors in relation to TGF coordinates. The life cycle of these storms observed by geostationary sensors, described TGFs producing clouds as intense with a wide range of extensions and, in all cases, the TGF is located at the edge of the convective cell. Furthermore, the satellite data give an added value in associating the GPS water vapor trend to the convective cell generating the TGF. The investigation with ERA5 reanalyses data showed that TGFs mainly occur in convective environment with not exceptional values with respect to the monthly average value of parameters measured in the same location. Moreover the analysis showed the strong potential of the use of GPS data for the troposphere characterization in areas with complex territorial morphology. This study provided indications on the dynamics of convective systems linked to TGFs and will certainly help refine our understanding on their production highlights a potential approach through the use of GPS data to explore the lightning activity trend and the TGFs occurrence.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 5-hmC; ELISA; TET; HNSCC; disease-free survival
Online: 22 July 2019 (08:55:04 CEST)
Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes are implicated in DNA demethylation through dioxygenase activity, which converts 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). However, the specific roles of TET enzymes and 5-hmC levels in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have not yet been evaluated. In this study, we analyzed 5-hmC levels and TET mRNA expression in a well-characterized dataset of 117 matched pairs of HNSCC tissues and normal tissues. 5-hmC levels and TET mRNA expression were examined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. 5-hmC levels were evaluated according to various clinical characteristics and prognostic implications. Notably, we found that 5-hmC levels were significantly correlated with tumor stage (P = 0.032) and recurrence (P = 0.018). Univariate analysis revealed that low levels of 5-hmC were correlated with poor disease-free survival (DFS; log-rank test, P = 0.038). The expression of TET family genes was not associated with outcomes. In multivariate analysis, low levels of 5-hmC were evaluated as a significant independent prognostic factor of DFS (hazard ratio: 2.352, 95% confidence interval: 1.136–4.896; P = 0.021). Taken together, our findings showed that reduction of TET family gene expression and subsequent low levels of 5-hmC may affect the development of HNSCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0003.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: coffee; acrylamide; furfuryl alcohol; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; risk assessment
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:35:15 CET)
The three heat-induced coffee contaminants acrylamide, furfuryl alcohol (FA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were analyzed in a collective of commercial samples as well as in Coffea arabica seeds roasted under controlled conditions from very light Scandinavian style to very dark Neapolitan style profiles. Regarding acrylamide, average contents in commercial samples were lower than in a previous study in 2002 (196 compared to 303 µg/kg). The roasting experiment confirmed the inverse relationship between roasting degree and acrylamide content, i.e. the lighter the coffee the higher the acrylamide content. However, FA and HMF were inversely related to acrylamide and found in higher contents in darker roasts. Therefore, mitigation measures must consider all contaminants and not be focused isolatedly on acrylamide, specifically since FA and HMF are contained in much higher contents with lower margins of exposure compared to acrylamide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0525.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: DNA Damage; Base Excision Repair; SMUG1; 5-hmdU; Cancer
Online: 26 January 2021 (08:17:11 CET)
Single-stand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase 1 (SMUG1) works to remove uracil and certain oxidized bases from DNA during base excision repair (BER). This review provides a historical characterization of SMUG1 and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-hmdU) one important substrate of this enzyme. Biochemical and structural analyses provide remarkable insight into the mechanism of this glycosylase revealing SMUG1 has a unique helical wedge which influences damage recognition during repair. Rodent studies suggest that, while SMUG1 shares substrate specificity with another uracil glycosylase UNG2, loss of SMUG1 can have unique cellular phenotypes. This review highlights the multiple roles SMUG1 may play in preserving genome stability, and how the loss of SMUG1 activity may promote cancer. Finally, we discuss recent studies indicating SMUG1 has moonlighting functions beyond BER, playing a critical role in RNA processing including the RNA component of telomerase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0084.v1
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:37:10 CEST)
Multiple studies have shown that hospital settings are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. The adequacy of these cleaning methods has been undermined by presence of multi drug resistant bacteria on hospital surfaces. This case is even more serious in developing countries leading to health care- associated infections that pose a great threat to patients, visitors and health care providers in hospital settings.This study used various microbiological techniques to test for antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria present at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya. A simple random cross sectional study was performed, with a total of 85 samples being collected from five different sites. The sites included male and female wards, health care personnel offices, latrine, and kitchen surfaces. Samples were collected using sterile swabs, dipped in normal saline, and transported to the laboratory within 2Hours for processing.Of the 85 plates cultured, 47 plates showed bacterial growth (55%) on selective media with a significant P value of 0.0357. Seven different species of bacteria were identified biochemically from all sites, Escherichia coli was the most abundant species (28%), and the least was Salmonella typhii (5%). Multiple drug resistance was common in the different bacteria identified. All isolates were resistant to chloramphenical and susceptible to gentamycin. The most resistant microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (50%), and the least resistant microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.5%). The antimicrobial resistant bacterial species identified in this study have been documented to cause serious health care associated infections. These results present a significant public health concern because there is a possibility of patients, staff and visitors contacting nosocomial infections when they come into contact with surfaces at Thika Level 5 Hospital surfaces, Kenya.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0487.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: sex; anxiety disorders; 5-HT; tryptophan; immune system; inflammation
Online: 29 August 2018 (08:58:26 CEST)
Anxiety disorders manifest in women more than in men by almost twofold. This narrative review aims to summarize the sex-related biological factors, which underpin anxiety, focusing on the interactions of sex and tryptophan/serotonin with anxiety.A literature search was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE databases from inception until December 31, 2017. This review shows that sex may interact with many serotonin functions thereby modulating anxiety, including 5-HT1A and 5-HT2C receptors, 5-HT transporter and central 5-HT concentrations and metabolism. Sex-steroids modulate the expression of serotonin transporter genes, creating a difference in serotonin availability. Sex and estrous cycle phases lead to varying anxiety responses to tryptophan depletion. Testosterone, progesterone and estrogen are important factors in mediating sex differences in serotonin responses to anxiety-generating behavioral tests. At prenatal levels, there are sex-related differences in the reciprocal relationships between serotonin and the HPA-axis, which modulate anxiety-like behaviors. Activated immune-inflammatory pathways induce indoleamine-2,3-dioxynease (IDO) and the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway thereby increasing tryptophan degradation and increasing the production of TRYCATs including kynurenine and quinolinic acid, which may create an overall anxiogenic effect. The effects of immune activation on IDO are significantly more pronounced in women than men and therefore females may show increased levels of anxiogenic TRYCAT following immune challenge. Aberrations in the IDO-activated TRYCAT pathway are found in pregnant females and parturients and are associated with increased anxiety levels in the postnatal period. The results of this review underscore the necessity of studying the associations between serotonin and anxiety in both sexes taking into account the effects of immune activation on IDO and production of anxiogenic TRYCATs. Future anxiety research should focus on the interactions between serotonin/tryptophan and sex, sex hormones, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, the HPA axis and the immune system through production of anxiogenic TRYCATs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: sildenafil; phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors; chronic heart failure; meta-analysis
Online: 22 March 2017 (18:12:47 CET)
Background: In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, substantial clinical benefits have been reported with the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors(PDE5i) . Moreover, some studies would have proven useful effects of PDE5i also on the clinical picture of the pulmonary hypertension(PH) secondary to left-sided chronic heart failure(CHF). Methods: We performed a meta-analysis comprising randomized controlled trials ( RCTs) which had compared PDE5i ( mostly sildenafil) with placebo in CHF patients. Results: 14 studies, including 928 patients overall , were admitted to the meta-analysis. In heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction(HFREF), PDE5i, compared to placebo, significantly improved the composite of death and hospitalization (OR= 0.28; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.74). They also improved peak VO2 (difference in means[MD]: 3.76; 95% CI: 3.27 to 4.25), six-minutes walk distance ( (6MWD)( MD, 22.7 meters ; 95% CI, 8.19 to 37.21) and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (MD: -11.52 mmHg; 95% CI: -15.56 to -7.49). Conversely, in CHF with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction ( HFpEF), PDE5i were shown not to yield any beneficial effect concerning the investigated endpoints. Conclusions: In HFREF, PDE5i were shown to improve the composite of death and hospitalization, as well as exercise capacity and pulmonary hemodynamics. Conversely, in HFpEF, no significant clinical, ergospirometric or hemodynamic betterment was achieved using PDE5i treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0589.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: serotonin transporter (SERT); thiadiazines; serotonin receptors 3 and 1A (5-HT3 and 5-HT1A); docking energy; binding affinity; binding mechanisms; electrophysiology in vivo
Online: 25 February 2021 (15:23:26 CET)
L-17 is a thiadiazine derivative with putative anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like properties. In this study, we applied combined in silico and in vivo electrophysiology techniques to reveal the potential mechanism of action of L-17. PASS 10.4 Professional Extended software suggested that L-17 might have pro-cognitive, antidepressant, and antipsychotic effects. Docking energy assessment with AutoDockVina predicted that the binding affinities of L-17 to the serotonin transporter (SERT) and serotonin receptors 3 and 1A (5-HT3 and 5-HT1A) are compatible to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and selective antagonists of 5-HT3 and 5-HT1A receptors, granisetron and WAY100135, respectively. However, while the binding mechanisms of L-17 to the SERT and 5-HT1A receptor were similar to fluoxetine and WAY100135, its interacting with 5-HT3 receptor might be substantially different from this of granisetron. Acute administration of L-17 led to dose-dependent inhibition of firing activity of 5-HT neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus. This inhibition was partially reversed by subsequent administration of WAY100135. Based on both in silico and in vivo electrophysiology assessments, we suggest that L-17 is a potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitor and a putative partial agonist of 5-HT1A receptors. As such, L-17 in particular and thiadiazine derivatives, in general, might be a representative of a new class of antidepressant drugs. Since L-17 also possesses neuro- and cardioprotective properties, it can be useful in affective illness developing due to the general medical condition, such as post-stroke and post-myocardial infarction (MI) depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0385.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: Trace amine-associated receptor 5; cognition; decision-making; switch task
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:49:51 CET)
Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors present in mammals in the brain and in several peripheral organs. Apart from its olfactory role, TAAR5 is expressed in the major limbic brain areas and regulates brain serotonin functions and emotional behaviors. However, most of its functions remain undiscovered. Given the role of serotonin and limbic regions in some aspects of cognition, we used a temporal decision-making task to unveil a possible role of TAAR5 in cognitive processes. We found that TAAR5 knock-out (KO) mice showed a generally better performance due to a reduced number of errors and displayed a greater rate of improvement at the task than WT littermates. However, task-related parameters, such as time accuracy and uncertainty have not changed significantly. Overall, we show that TAAR5 modulates specific domains of cognition, highlighting a new role in brain physiology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0191.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: retinal pigmented epithelium, exocyst complex component 5, photoreceptor, visual function.
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:15:10 CEST)
To characterize the mechanisms by which the highly-conserved exocyst trafficking complex regulates eye physiology in zebrafish and mice, we focused on exoc5 (aka sec10), a central exocyst component. We analyzed both exoc5 zebrafish mutants and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE)-specific Exoc5 knockout mice. Exoc5 is present in both the non-pigmented epithelium of the ciliary body and in the RPE. In this study we set out to establish an animal model to study the mechanisms underlying the ocular phenotype and to establish if loss of visual function is induced by postnatal RPE Exoc5-deficiency. Exoc5-/- zebrafish showed smaller eyes, with decreased number of melanocytes in the RPE and shorter photoreceptor outer segments. At 3.5 days post fertilization, loss of rod and cone opsins were observed in zebrafish Tg:exoc5 mutants. Mice with postnatal RPE-specific loss of Exoc5 showed retinal thinning associated with compromised visual function, and loss of visual photoreceptor pigments. This retinal phenotype in Exoc5-/- mice was present at 20-weeks, and the phenotype was more severe at 27-weeks, indicating progressive disease phenotype. We previously showed that the exocyst is necessary for photoreceptor ciliogenesis and retinal development. Here, we report that exoc5 mutant zebrafish and mice with RPE-specific genetic ablation of Exoc5 develop abnormal RPE pigmentation, resulting in retinal cell dystrophy and loss of visual pigments associated with compromised vision. As RPE cells are “downstream” of photoreceptor cells in the visual process, these data suggest exocyst-mediated retrograde communication and dependence between the RPE and photoreceptors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Maytenus procumbens; Erectile dysfunction; Phosphodiesterase-5; cyclic guanosine monophos-phate
Online: 12 February 2021 (12:15:08 CET)
Erectile dysfunction (ED) due to diabetes mellitus remains difficult to treat despite advances in pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the field. Therefore, this study investigated the erectogenic effect of the methanolic extract of Maytenus procumbens roots on type 2 diabetes in rats. The fructose-streptozotocin model was used to induce type 2 diabetes-linked ED in male rats. The sexually active male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two major groups; normal group and high fructose fed group for 120 days. After 120 days, the high fructose fed group rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of a freshly prepared streptozotocin solution (30 mg/kg). The diabetic ED rats were orally administered with the extract at 250 mg/kg, daily for 28 days. The serum, brain and penile tissues were removed for biochemical analysis and protein expression. Increased testosterone level, mounting frequency, reduced blood glucose level and serum fructosamine content was observed after 28 days of treatment in diabetic rats. Methanolic extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on arginase, AChE, and ACE activities. The crude extract further downregulated proteins PDE-5, RhoA and increased expression of eNOS in the diabetic ED treated rats. The results obtained indicate that the methanolic extract of Maytenus procumbens roots ameliorates erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction in rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0276.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: liver receptor homolog-1; perilipin 5; triglyceride; fasting; lipid droplet
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:36:17 CET)
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has emerged as a regulator of hepatic glucose, bile acid, and mitochondrial metabolism. However, the functional mechanism underlying the effect of LRH-1 on lipid mobilization has not been addressed. This study investigated the regulatory function of LRH-1 in lipid metabolism during fasting. The wild-type (WT) and LRH-1 liver-specific knockout (LKO) mice were either fed or fasted for 24 h, and the liver and serum were isolated. During fasting, the LRH-1 LKO mice showed greater accumulation of triglycerides in the liver compared to that in WT mice. Interestingly, LRH-1 LKO liver decreased the perilipin 5 (PLIN5) expression and genes involved in β-oxidation. Additionally, the LRH-1 agonist dialauroylphosphatidylcholine also enhanced PLIN5 expression in human cultured HepG2 cells. To identify new target genes of LRH-1, these findings directed to analyze the PLIN5 promoter sequence, which revealed −1620/−1614 to be a putative binding site for LRH-1. This was confirmed by promoter activity and chromatin immuno-precipitation assays. Moreover, fasted WT primary hepatocytes showed increased co-localization of PLIN5 in lipid droplets (LDs) compared to that in fasted LRH-1 LKO primary hepatocytes. Overall, these findings suggest that PLIN5 might be a novel target of LRH-1 to mobilize LDs and manage the cellular needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0742.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Psilocybin; psychedelics; neuroplasticity; SV2A; 5-HT2A; depression; autoradiography; functional-selectivity
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:30:03 CET)
A single dose of psilocybin, a psychedelic and serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) agonist, may be associated with antidepressant effects. The mechanism behind its antidepressive action is unknown but could be linked to increased synaptogenesis and down-regulation of cerebral 5-HT2AR. Here, we investigate if a single psychedelic dose of psilocybin changes synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) and 5-HT2AR density in the pig brain. Twenty-four awake pigs received either 0.08 mg/kg psilocybin or saline intravenously. Twelve pigs (n=6/intervention) were euthanized one day post-injection, while the remaining twelve pigs were euthanized seven days post-injection (n=6/intervention). We performed autoradiography on hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) sections with [3H]UCB-J (SV2A), [3H]MDL100907 (5-HT2AR antagonist) and [3H]Cimbi-36 (5-HT2AR agonist). One day post psilocybin injection, we observed 4.4% higher hippocampal SV2A density and lowered hippocampal and PFC 5-HT2AR density (-15.21% to -50.19%). These differences were statistically significant in the hippocampus for all radioligands and in PFC for [3H]Cimbi-36 only. Seven days post-intervention, there was still significantly higher SV2A density in hippocampus (+9.24%) and PFC (+6.1%) whereas there were no longer any differences in 5-HT2AR density. Our findings suggest that psilocybin’s antidepressive actions are linked to increased persistent synaptogenesis and possibly also to an acute decrease in 5-HT2AR density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; 5’UTR; miRNAs; RNAi; GapmeRs
Online: 24 April 2020 (04:16:20 CEST)
After the increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections all over the world, researchers and clinicians are struggling to find a vaccine or innovative therapeutic strategies to treat this viral infection. The SARS-CoV infection that occurred in 2002, MERS and other more common infectious diseases such as HCV, led to the discovery of many RNA-based drugs. Among them, siRNAs and antisense LNAs have been demonstrated to have effective antiviral effects both in animal models and humans. Owing to the high genomic homology of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV (80-82%) the use of these molecules could be employed successfully also to target this emerging coronavirus. Trying to translate this approach to treat COVID-19, we analyzed the common structural features of viral 5’UTR regions that can be targeted by non-coding RNAs and we also identified miRNAs binding sites suitable for designing RNA-based drugs to be employed successfully against SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: electric field; oxidative dehydrogenation; LPG, Cr-/HZSM-5; electrical properties
Online: 21 May 2018 (11:32:11 CEST)
CrHZSM-5 was placed in an electric field with appropriate strength in a quartz packed bed reactor with CO2 as oxidant to analyze its catalytic activity. Olefin yield increases with decrease in band gap since lattice oxygen mobility increases by reducing band gap. Fermi level change at the catalyst surface affects the catalytic activity. One way to change Fermi level is use electric field. In high voltage electric field, energy band was curved, bending of the energy band promoted the activity and Fermi level position is increasing. The CCD experiments were carried out with Design-Expert 7.3 software to determine the interaction between four operating variables, namely: temperature, electrical current, gap distance and metal loading. The levels of the independent variables were: temperature (550-700 °C), electrical current (0-12 mA), gap distance (6-14 mm), metal loading (0.5-7.5 %wt.). The conversion of LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) was greatly increased by weak and effective application of an electric field to the catalyst bed. The obtained results indicated that the maximum yield value (46.94%) can be achieved under 673.66 °C, input electrical current of 11.01 mA, gap distance of 6.55 mm and metal loading of 3.98 wt.%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Kalanchoe tubiflora; bufadienolide; CL1-5 human lung cancer cells; autophagy
Online: 16 January 2018 (06:38:11 CET)
Lung cancer is almost the most common cause of cancer death in the world. Clinically, the conventional therapy to eradicate the cancer cells is chemotherapy but a better drug remains required. In this study, the effects of three bufadienolides, kalantuboside B, kalantuboside A and bryotoxin C, isolated from Kalanchoe tubiflora (Harvey) were evaluated and characterized in CL1-5 highly metastatic human lung cancer cells. Contrary to the apoptosis-promoting activity in other cancer cells, these three bufadienolides did not induce apoptosis in CL1-5 cancer cells. Instead, they activated an autophagy pathway, as indicated by the increase of autophagosomes formation. The induction of autophagy by these three bufadienolides was demonstrated to link to down-regulation of p-mTOR as well as up-regulation of LC3-II, ATG5, ATG7, Beclin-1. Moreover, among these three compounds, kalantuboside B in which a monosaccharide is attached at the bufadienolide aglycon, exhibited a better autophagy induction. Our findings revealed an alternative mechanism of drug action by bufadienolides in lung cancer cells and provided evidence for the possibility of treating highly metastatic human lung cancer through an autophagy pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); oxidative stress; cytokines; inflammation; 5-Azacitidine; somatic alterations
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:36:28 CET)
This study focused on the impact of the treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-Azacitidine on the redox status and inflammation in 24 MDS patients. Clinical and genetic features of MDS patients were recorded and peripheral blood samples were used to determine the activity of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase, SOD, catalase, CAT, glutathion peroxidase, GPx, and reductase, GRd, activities), markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, LPO, and advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP). Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasma nitrite plus nitrate levels as markers of inflammation, and CoQ10 plasma levels, were also measured. Globally, MDS patients showed less redox status in terms of a reduction in the GSSG/GSH ratio and in the LPO levels, and increased CAT activity compared with healthy subjects, with not changes in SOD, GPx and GRd activities, and AOPP levels. When analyzed the evolution from early- to advanced stages of the disease, the GPx activity, GSSG/GSH ratio, LPO and AOPP increased, with a reduction in CAT. GPx changes were related with the presence of risk factors such as high-risk IPSS-R or mutational score. Besides, there was an increase in IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α plasma levels, with further increase of IL-2 and IL-10 from early to advanced stage of the disease. However, we did not observe any association between inflammation and oxidative stress. Finally, 5-azacitidine treatment generates oxidative stress in MDS patients, without affecting inflammation levels, suggesting that oxidative status and inflammation are two independent processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0646.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: WHO-5 Well-being; COVID-19; social distancing; preventive measures; Vietnam
Online: 25 March 2021 (16:35:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures implemented may considerably affect people’s lives. This study aimed to assess the well-being of Vietnamese people after COVID-19 lockdown measures were lifted and life gradually returned to normal. An online survey was organized from 21st to 25th April 2020 among Vietnamese residents aged 18 and over. Besides collecting socio-demographic and COVID-19-related data, the WHO-5 Well-Being Index (scored 0–25) was used to score participants’ well-being. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of well-being. A total of 1922 responses were analyzed (mean age: 31 years; 30.5% male). Mean well-being score was 17.35±4.97. Determinants of high well-being score (≥13) included older age, eating healthy food, practising physical exercise, working from home, and adhering to the COVID-19 preventive measures. Female participants, persons worried about their relatives’ health, and smokers were more likely to have a low well-being score. In conclusion, after the lockdown measures were lifted, the Vietnamese people continued to follow COVID-19 preventive measures and most of them scored high on the well-being scale. Waiting to achieve large scale COVID-19 vaccine coverage, promoting preventive COVID-19 measures remains important, together with strategies to guarantee the well-being of the Vietnamese people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chemotherapy; cachexia; 5-fluorouracil; skeletal muscle; p38; NF-κB; dystrophin; desmin
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:12:15 CET)
Skeletal myopathy encompasses both atrophy and dysfunction and is a prominent event in cancer and chemotherapy-induced cachexia. Here, we investigate the effects of chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), on skeletal muscle mass and function, and whether small molecule therapeutic candidate, BGP-15, could be protective against the chemotoxic challenge exerted by 5FU. Additionally, we explore the molecular signature of 5FU treatment. Male Balb/c mice received metronomic tri-weekly intraperitoneal delivery of 5FU (23 mg/kg), with and without BGP-15 (15 mg/kg), 6 times in total over a 15-day treatment period. We demonstrated that neither 5FU, nor 5FU combined with BGP-15, affected body composition indices, skeletal muscle mass or function. Adjuvant BGP-15 treatment did, however, prevent the 5FU-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and p65 NF-κB subunit, signalling pathways involved in cell stress and inflammatory signalling, respectively. This as associated with mitoprotection. 5FU reduced the expression of the key cytoskeletal proteins, desmin and dystrophin, which was not prevented by BGP-15. Combined, these data show that metronomic delivery of 5FU does not elicit physiological consequences to skeletal muscle mass and function but is implicit in priming skeletal muscle with a molecular signature for myopathy. BGP-15 has modest protective efficacy against the molecular changes induced by 5FU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0235.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Sea turtles; tumour; fibropapillomatosis; Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5; Chelonia mydas papillomavirus 1
Online: 9 February 2021 (11:07:04 CET)
Characterised by the growth of benign tumours, fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a debilitating disease that predominantly afflicts the endangered green turtle (Chelonia mydas). A growing body of histological and molecular evidence has consistently associated FP tumours with Chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), leading this virus to be considered the most likely aetiological agent of FP. However, a recent study which detected both ChHV5 and Chelonia mydas papillomavirus 1 (CmPV1) DNA in FP tumour tissues has challenged this hypothesis. The present study aimed to establish the wider prevalence of CmPV1 and co-occurrence with ChHV5 in marine turtles in waters adjacent to the east coast of Queensland, Australia. This comprehensive molecular survey screened a total of 353 samples from 275 foraging turtles using probe-based qPCR. Three sample categories were used in this study: Group A (FP tumours), Group B (non-tumoured skin from turtles with FP tumours) and Group C (non-tumoured skin from turtles without FP tumours). Concurrent detection of ChHV5 and CmPV1 DNA is reported for all three categories, with the highest rate of concurrent detection reported for Group A samples (43.5%). Collectively, these results pivot the way we think about FP; as an infectious disease where two separate viruses may be at play.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: liver failure 1; encephalopathy 2; delirium 3; coma 4; cirrhosis 5
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:00:51 CET)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a form of brain dysfunction that is specifically caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal-systemic shunt. The exact nature of HE is debated, so that conflicting uses of the term HE may cause inconsistencies in its detection and, in turn, issues with its management. This review highlights the meaning of the term HE on the basis of both its historical origins and current consensus. It also provides criteria for the diagnosis of the condition, on the basis of its phenotypes and the risk factors for its occurrence. The procedure for differential diagnosis from other conditions which result in similar phenotypes is considered, together with precipitants and confounders. Finally, the current multidimensional approach for the correct clinical recording of HE episodes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0573.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cationic pillararenes; host–guest recognition; Au nanoparticles; L-carnitine
Online: 24 October 2018 (11:35:05 CEST)
A supramolecular host-guest interaction and sensing between cationic pillararenes (CP5) and L-carnitine were developed by the competitive host-guest recognition for the first time. The fluorescence sensing platform was constructed by CP5 functionalized Au nanoparticles (PP5@Au-NPs) as receptor and probe (rhodamine 123, R123), which shown a high sensitivity and selectivity to L-carnitine detection. Due to the property of the negative charge and molecular size of L-carnitine, it can be highly captured by the CP5 via electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions. The mechanism of host-guest between PP5 and L-carnitine was studied by 1H NMR and molecular docking, which indicated more affinity binding force of PP5 with L-carnitine. Therefore, a selective and sensitive fluorescent method was developed. It has a linear response of 0.1–2.0 and 2.0–25.0 μM and a detection limit of 0.067 μM (S/N = 3) for L-carnitine. The fluorescent sensing platform was also used to detect L-carnitine in human serum and milk samples, which provided potential applications of detection drugs of abuse, and had path for guarding a serious food safety issues.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0098.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: airborne LiDAR; composite estimators; forest inventory; SPOT-5 HRG; TanDEM-X
Online: 16 October 2017 (04:30:26 CEST)
Today, non-expensive remote sensing (RS) data from different sensors and platforms can be obtained at short intervals and be used for assessing several kinds of forest characteristics at the level of plots, stands and landscapes. Methods such as composite estimation and data assimilation can be used for combining the different sources of information to obtain up-to-date and precise estimates of the characteristics of interest. In composite estimation a standard procedure is to assign weights to the different individual estimates inversely proportional to their variance. However, in case the estimates are correlated, the correlations must be considered in assigning weights or otherwise a composite estimator may be inefficient and its variance be underestimated. In this study we assessed the correlation of plot level estimates of forest characteristics from different RS datasets, between assessments using the same type of sensor as well as across different sensors. The RS data evaluated were SPOT-5 multispectral data, 3D airborne laser scanning data, and TanDEM-X interferometric radar data. Studies were made for plot level mean diameter, mean height, and growing stock volume. All data were acquired from a test site dominated by coniferous forest in southern Sweden. We found that the correlation between plot level estimates based on the same type of RS data were positive and strong, whereas the correlations between estimates using different sources of RS data were not as strong, and weaker for mean height than for mean diameter and volume. The implications of such correlations in composite estimation are demonstrated and it is discussed how correlations may affect results from data assimilation procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: photocatalysis; visible light; titania catalysts; azo dye; reactive violet 5; textile wastewater
Online: 24 June 2019 (08:47:16 CEST)
The presence of azo dyes in textile effluents is an issue of major concern due to their potential impact on the environment and human health. In this study we investigate the photocatalytic degradation under visible light of Reactive Violet 5 (RV5), an azo dye widely used in the textile industry. A preliminary screening of different titania-based catalysts was carried out to identify the best candidate for RV5 removal. The selected catalyst was then tested in a stirred and aerated lab-scale reactor illuminated with a light LED source (λmax = 460 nm). The effects of pH, catalyst load and hydrogen peroxide additions on the efficiency of dye removal were evaluated. Under the best conditions (pH 10, 3 g/L of catalyst and 60 mM hydrogen peroxide), the dye solution was completely decolorized in about 2 h. Overall, the results obtained suggest that the proposed process may represent a suitable method for the removal of RV5 from textile effluents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0094.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: South American Monsoon System 1; SAMS 2; SISAL 3; speleothems 4; Quaternary 5
Online: 5 October 2018 (09:43:08 CEST)
Here we present an overview of speleothem δ18O records from South America, which mostly are available in the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis (SISAL_v1) database. South American tropical and subtropical δ18O time series are primarily interpreted as being driven by the amount effect and, consequently show the past history of the convection intensity of convergence zones such as the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the South America Monsoon System. We investigate past hydroclimate scenarios in South America related to the South American Monsoon System in three different time scales: Late Pleistocene, Holocene and the last two millennia. The precession driven insolation is the main driver of convective variability over the continent during the last 250 kyrs, including the Holocene period. However a dipole is observed between the west and east portions of the continent. Records located in the central region of Brazil appear to be weakly affected by insolation driven variability and more susceptible to the South Atlantic Convergence Zone. Cold episodic events in Northern Hemisphere increase the activity of the South American Monsoon System on all time scales, in turn increasing rainfall amounts in South America, as was documented during Heinrich events in the late Pleistocene and Bond events in the Holocene, as well as during the Little Ice Age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0085.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: 7-acetamido-2-aryl-5-bromoindoles; trifluoroacetylation; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; tubulin polymerization; molecular docking
Online: 4 May 2018 (07:47:06 CEST)
Structurally related 7-acetyl-2-aryl-5-bromoindoles 2a–d and the 7-acetamido-2-aryl-5-bromoindoles 4a–d as well as their corresponding 3-trifluoroacetyl–substituted derivatives 5a–d and 5e–h were evaluated for potential antigrowth effect in vitro against the human lung cancer (A549) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. All of the 3-trifluoroacetyl–substituted 7-acetamido-2-aryl-5-bromoindoles 5e–h were found to be more active against both cell lines when compared to the chemotherapeutic drug, Melphalan. The most active compound 5g induced apoptosis in a caspase dependent manner for both cell lines. Compounds 5e–h were found to significantly inhibit tubulin polymerization. Molecular docking of 5g into the colchicine-binding site suggests that the compounds bind to tubulin by different type of interactions including pi-alkyl, amide-pi stacked and alkyl interactions as well as hydrogen bonding with the protein residues to elicit anticancer activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0005.v1
Subject: Keywords: carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein; ketohexokinase; fructose; glucose transporter 5; glucose transporter 2
Online: 1 February 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
We have previously reported that 60% sucrose diet-fed ChREBP knockout mice (KO) showed body weight loss resulting in lethality. We aimed to elucidate whether sucrose and fructose metabolism are impaired in KO. Wild type mice (WT) and KO were fed a diet containing 30% sucrose with/without 0.08% miglitol, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, and these effects on phenotypes were tested. Furthermore, we compared metabolic changes of oral and peritoneal fructose injection. Thirty percent sucrose diet feeding did not affect phenotypes in KO. However, miglitol induced lethality in 30% sucrose-fed KO. Thirty percent sucrose plus miglitol diet-fed KO showed increased cecal contents, increased fecal lactate contents, increased growth of lactobacillales and Bifidobacterium and decreased growth of clostridium cluster XIVa. ChREBP gene deletion suppressed the mRNA levels of sucrose and fructose related genes. Next, oral fructose injection did not affect plasma glucose levels and liver fructose contents; however, intestinal sucrose and fructose related mRNA levels were increased only in WT. In contrast, peritoneal fructose injection increased plasma glucose levels in both mice; however, the hepatic fructose content in KO was much higher owing to decreased hepatic Khk mRNA expression. Taken together, KO showed sucrose intolerance and fructose malabsorption owing to decreased gene expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0185.v3
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: epigenome; DNA modification; cytosine methylation; gene regulation; histone modification; 5-methylcytosine; stress response
Online: 25 December 2017 (09:43:03 CET)
Genome-wide epigenetic changes in plants are being reported during the development and environmental stresses, which are often correlated with gene expression at the transcriptional level. Sum total of the biochemical changes in nuclear DNA, post-translational modifications in histone proteins and variations in the biogenesis of non-coding RNAs in a cell is known as epigenome. These changes are often responsible for variation in expression of the gene without any change in the underlying nucleotide sequence. The changes might also cause variation in chromatin structure resulting into the changes in function/activity of the genome. The epigenomic changes are dynamic with respect to the endogenous and/or environmental stimuli which affect phenotypic plasticity of the organism. Both, the epigenetic changes and variation in gene expression might return to the pre-stress state soon after withdrawal of the stress. However, a part of the epigenetic changes may be retained which is reported to play role in acclimatization, adaptation as well as in the evolutionary processes. Understanding epigenome-engineering for improved stress tolerance in plants has become essential for better utilization of the genetic factors. This review delineates the importance of epigenomics towards possible improvement of plant’s responses to environmental stresses for climate resilient agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: penetration enhancement effect; molecular mechanism; coarse grain molecular dynamics; menthol; borneol; 5-FU
Online: 29 September 2017 (12:39:49 CEST)
Borneol and menthol were two terpenes wildly used as penetrate enhancer in transdermal drug delivery. To explore their penetration enhancement effect towards hydrophilic drug, 5-FU was selected as model drug. A method combined vitro permeation studies and coarse grain molecular dynamics was used to investigate their penetration enhancement effect towards 5-FU. As a result, although both borneol and menthol showed a penetration enhancement effect towards 5-FU, they differed a lot in the penetration enhancement mechanism, which was also thought to account for their different penetration enhancement effect. As for menthol, SC bilayer disrupting effect seemed to be its main mechanism. While for borneol, its mechanism seemed to be more complicated. Except for disrupting the SC bilayer, it could also increase the permeation of 5-FU by enhancing the diffusion rate of 5-FU or inducing the formation of transient pore. All of this enable us a molecular understanding of borneol and menthol’s penetration enhancement effect towards hydrophilic drug, which might provide some guidance in the latter research and application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ghrelin; serotonin N-acetyltransferase; tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1; melatonin; pineal gland; photoperiod; sheep
Online: 28 February 2017 (11:13:01 CET)
Several studies suggests that ghrelin (GHRL) has neurobiological effects that extend beyond control of food intake. Our previous results confirmed that GHRL modulates the secretory activity of the pineal gland (PG) through nocturnal melatonin (MEL) secretion in sheep, the seasonally reproductive animals. Here we investigated the effects of GHRL (10 ng/ml) on the expression of enzymes limiting synthesis of MEL, including tryptophan 5-hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and its phosphorylated form p31T-AA-NAT in sheep PG explants (n = 72) during the 4-hour incubation in a gas-liquid interface, at a short (SD) and long (LD) photoperiods. After each hour of incubation selected explants were frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C for subsequent analysis (real-time PCR, western-blotting, ELISA). Results show that GHRL regulates nightly MEL secretion in a TPH1-independent manner. The factor modulating GHRL activity was photoperiod. During SD photoperiod GHRL significantly reduced the expression of p31T-AA-NAT, AA-NAT and inhibited MEL secretion from PG explants. Whereas, during LD photoperiod no effect of GHRL on MEL secretion and expression of examined enzymes was noted. Studies indicate that GHRL directly affects PG under in vitro conditions and causes MEL secretion in animals which exhibit seasonality in reproductive and metabolic processes.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: predator scent; aldosterone; corticosterone; adrenal gland; dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN); serotonin (5-HT); electrophysiology
Online: 15 July 2021 (10:40:31 CEST)
Exposure to predator scent (PS) has been used as a model of stress associated with danger to life and body integrity. We tested the hypothesis that repeated PS exposure alters the excitability of serotonin (5-HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus. To study the mechanisms involved, we approached serum and adrenal corticosterone and aldosterone concentrations, as well as cortical brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to PS for ten minutes daily for ten consecutive days. Two weeks after the last exposure, electrophysiological and biochemical assessments were performed. Measurements by in vivo electrophysiology showed increased spontaneous firing activity of 5-HT neurons in rats exposed to PS. PS exposure resulted in reduced serum corticosterone and aldosterone concentrations. Concentrations of both corticosteroids in the adrenal glands, as well as the relative weight of the adrenals, were unaffected. The gene expression of hippocampal BDNF of rats exposed to PS remained unaltered. In conclusion, repeated exposure of rats to PS leads to enhanced firing activity of 5-HT neurons accompanied by reduced serum, but not adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reduced corticosteroid concentrations in the blood appear to be the result of increased metabolism and/or tissue uptake rather than altered steroidogenesis. The decrease in circulating corticosterone in rats experienced repeated PS may represent part of the mechanisms leading to increased excitability of 5-HT neurons. The increase in 5-HT neuronal firing activity might be an important compensatory mechanism designated to diminish the harmful effects of the repeated PS exposure on the brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: 1; brain protection 2; HTK 3; cardiac arrest 4; hypoxic injury 5; HIF-1α
Online: 5 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
Ischemic neuron loss contributes to brain dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). Histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is a preservative used during organ transplantation. Can HTK also protect neurons from severe hypoxia (SH) following CA? We isolated rat primary cortical neurons and induced SH with or without HTK. Changes in caspase-3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) expression were evaluated at different time points till 72 h. Using a rat asphyxia model, we induced CA-mediated brain damage and then completed resuscitation. HTK or sterile saline was administered into the left carotid artery. Neurological deficit scoring and mortality were evaluated for 3 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for evaluating NOX4 and H2O2 level in blood and brain. In the in vitro study, HTK attenuated SH- and H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a volume- and time-dependent manner, associated with persisted HIF-1α expression, reductions in procaspase-3 activation and NOX4 expression. The inhibition of HIF-1α abrogated HTK’s effect on NOX4. In the in vivo study, neurological scores were significantly improved by HTK. H2O2 level, NOX4 activity and NOX4 gene expression were all decreased in the brain specimen of HTK-treated rats. Our results suggest that HTK acts as an effective neuroprotective solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: comorbid diseases; erectile dysfunction; penile duplex doppler ultrasound; penile pathology; phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors
Online: 22 January 2018 (09:03:17 CET)
Relationship between the results of penile duplex doppler ultrasound (PDDU) and response to vardenafil was investigated in patients diagnosed with erectile dysfunction (ED). Data of 148 patients with ED were analysed retrospectively. Patients who did not respond to therapy were classified as Group I (n = 32), those responded partially were classified as Group II (n = 40) and complete responders were classified as Group III (n = 76). Age, comorbid diseases, vascular and penile pathology were compared among the three groups. While diabetes mellitus (DM) and dyslipedimia positivity adversely affect the response to treatment, the presence of hypertension (HT), peyronie's disease and priapism increase the therapeutic response to the treatment (p < 0.05). Arterial insufficiency was present in 20(30.3%), 25(37,9%) and 21(31.8%) of the patients in Group I, Group II and Group III, respectively (p = 0.001). Venous insufficiency was observed in 3(14.3%) patients in Group I and in 8(85.7%) patients in Group III (p = 0.001). Arterial/venous insufficiency was seen in 9(30%), 14(46.7%) and 7(23.3%) of the patients in Group I, Group II and Group III, respectively (p = 0.001). Response rate to treatment was highest in normal patients according to PDDU, followed by patients with venous insuffiency. Besides, it was found that DM decreased the response to treatment, whereas response was increased in cases with HT, priapism and Peyronie’s disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: pancreatic cancer (PC); abdominal ultrasonography (US); surveillance; prognosis; medical checkup; 5-year survival; cancer screening
Online: 16 September 2022 (08:08:33 CEST)
Recent advancements in surgical and anti-cancer therapies have provided significant hope of long survival in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). To realize this hope, routine medical checkups of asymptomatic people should be performed to identify operable PCs. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of medical checkups using abdominal ultrasonography (US). We retrospectively analyzed 374 patients with PC at our institute between 2010 and 2021. We divided these patients into several groups according to the diagnostic approach and compared their background and prognosis. These groups comprised PCs diagnosed through (a) symptoms, 242 cases; (b) US during medical checkup for asymptomatic individuals, 17; and other means. Of the 375 patients, 192 were men (51.3%), and the median age was 74 years (34–105). Tumors were located in the pancreatic tail in 67 patients (17.9%). Excision ratio and 5-year survival rate were significantly better in group (b) than in (a) (58.8% vs. 23.1%, P<0.01 and 42.2% vs. 9.4%, P<0.001, respectively). The prognosis of patients diagnosed using US during medical checkup was better than that of patients identified through symptomatic presentation of PC. US for asymptomatic individuals with PC might be useful for promoting better prognosis of PCs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0371.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: phytonutrients; phytochemicals; turmeric; garlic; cinnamon; graviola; oregano; Lipinski's Rule of 5; Veber’s Rules; Ghose Filter.
Online: 14 June 2021 (15:02:24 CEST)
Phytonutrients are plant foods that contain many natural bioactive compounds, called phytochemicals, which expose specific biological activities. These phytonutrients and their phytochemicals may play an important role in health care maintaining normal organism functions (as preventives) and fighting against diseases (as therapeutics). Phytonutrient’s components are the primary metabolites (i.e., proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) and phytochemicals or secondary metabolites (i.e., phenolics, alkaloids, organosulfides, and terpenes). For years, several phytonutrients and their phytochemicals have demonstrated specific pharmacological and therapeutic effects in human health such as anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, and immune response. This review summarizes the effects of the most studied or the most popular phytonutrients (i.e., turmeric, garlic, cinnamon, graviola, and oregano), and any contraindication found. This article also calculated the physicochemical properties of the main phytochemicals in the selected phytonutrients using Lipinski’s, Veber’s and Ghose’s rules. Based on our revisions for this article, all these phytonutrients have consistently shown several in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies with great potential as preventives and therapeutics on many diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0473.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: 1.globalization, 2. participative democracy, 3. deliberative democracy, 4. Collective decision-making, 5. human nature
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:14:03 CEST)
We live in the time of profound transformations commonly labelled with the word “globalization”. The rise of one ecological-technological-social system encompassing our whole planet is an important element of these processes. Solving big global problems demands knowledge of two complementary sorts: on the one hand – going “in depth”, on the other – going “in breadth”. The present paper assumes the second (in a sense: philosophical) perspective. It tries to analyze some relations between the development of technology (IT) and the development of democracy. The notion of democracy, its various forms and axiological reasons for it are considered first. In the subsequent chapter different consequences (both positive and negative) the IT development has for contemporary democracy are discussed. In the next chapter the evolutionary nature of the technological development is debated as well as the question of (democratic) control of this process. The development of Artificial General Intelligence is presented as a challenge for democracy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0514.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: High Performance Liquid Chromatography; Superficially Porous Particle; Shake-Flask method; Lipophilicity; Beyond-Rule-of-5
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:07:42 CET)
Lipophilicity can be measured with different methods, such as Shake-Flask or liquid chromatography. HPLC presents the advantage of overcoming solubility issues and therefore extending the range of lipophilicity to high values. A specific HPLC method, called ELogD, had been developed 20 years ago on a C16-amide stationary phase, enhancing hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions to mimic octanol-water partition. The emergence of novel stationary phases added to the need for a less complex mobile phase has led to the development of a new HPLC assay called alphaLogD, applicable to neutral and basic compounds at pH 7.4, that combines superficially porous particles, a high number of equilibriums between solutes and stationary phase, and results in a lower number of isocratic methods to determine the logk’w at a higher throughput. Statistical studies have been run to successfully evaluate the alphaLogD method compared to the Shake-Flask method and to allow this lipophilicity measurement into the so-called Beyond-Rule-of-5-molecules space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0414.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural; Biocatalysis; 2,5-Di(hydroxymethyl)furan; Fusarium; Whole Cells; Biotransformation; Platform Chemical; Biomass; Bioreactor
Online: 21 January 2021 (10:14:47 CET)
2,5-Di(hydroxymethyl)furan (DHMF) is a high-value chemical block than can be synthesized from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a platform chemical that results from the dehydration of biomass-derived carbohydrates. In this work, the HMF biotransformation capability of different Fusarium species was evaluated and F. striatum was selected to produce DHMF. The effects of the inoculum size, glucose concentration and pH of the media over DHMF production were evalu-ated by a 23 factorial design. A substrate feeding approach was found suitable to overcome the toxicity effect of HMF towards the cells when added at high concentrations (>75 mM). The pro-cess was successfully scaled-up at bioreactor scale (1.3 L) with excellent DHMF production yields (95%) and selectivities (98%). DHMF was purified from the reaction media with high recovery and purity by organic solvent extraction with ethyl acetate.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: microRNA; epithelial-mesenchymal transition; 5-fluorouracil; oxaliplati; FOLFOX; chemoresistance; pharmacogenetics; pharmacoepigenetics; EMT-transcription factors; biomarker.
Online: 13 November 2020 (10:47:43 CET)
The FOLFOX scheme, based on the association of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, is the most frequently indicated chemotherapy scheme for patients diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, development of chemoresistance is one of the major challenges associated with this disease. It has been reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in microRNA-driven modulation of tumor cells response to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. Besides, from pharmacogenomic research it is known that overexpression of genes encoding dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD), thymidylate synthase (TYMS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the DNA repair enzymes ERCC1, ERCC2, and XRCC1, and the phase 2 enzyme GSTP1 impair the response to FOLFOX. It has been observed that EMT is associated with overexpression of DPYD, TYMS, ERCC1, and GSTP1. In this review we investigated the role of miRNAs as EMT promotors in tumor cells, and its potential effect on upregulation of DPYD, TYMS, MTHFR, ERCC1, ERCC2, XRCC1 and GSTP1 expression, which would lead to resistance of CRC tumor cells to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin. This constitutes a potential mechanism of epigenetic regulation involved in late-onset of acquired resistance in mCRC patients under FOLFOX chemotherapy. Expression of these biomarkers microRNA could serve as tools for personalized medicine, and as potential therapeutic targets in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI; concussion; cognitive; sensorimotor; visual; postural balance; methylation; 5-mC%; blood
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:28:21 CET)
People who suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have heterogeneous symptoms and disease trajectories, which make it difficult to precisely diagnose and assess complications long-term. Insufficient information is available regarding how to precisely diagnose and assess mTBI. This study identified and compared deficits in cognitive, psychosocial, visual functions, and balance performance between college students with and without histories of mTBI. Global DNA methylation ratio (5-mC%) in blood was also compared as a peripheral epigenetic marker. Twenty-five volunteers participated in this pilot study, including 11 mTBI cases (27.3% females; mean age of 28.7 years, SD=5.92) and 14 healthy controls (64.3% females; mean age of 22.0, SD=4.13). All the participants were assessed for cognitive (by NIH toolbox—executive function, memory, and processing speed), psychological (by PROMIS—depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances), visual function (by King-Devick and binocular accommodative tests), postural balance performance (by a force plate), and blood 5-mC% (global methylation) levels. Students with mTBI reported significantly poorer episodic memory, severe anxiety, and more sleep disturbance problems. They also had higher blood 5-mC% level (all p’s<.05). No significant differences were found in visual function and postural balance. These findings validate changes in cognitive, psychosocial, and global DNA methylation long after mTBI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: menarche 1, body mass index 2, height 3, diabetes mellitus 4, non-communicable disease 5.
Online: 31 December 2018 (09:45:35 CET)
Developed countries have shown a time trend towards a younger age at menarche (AAM), which is associated with increased risk of later obesity and non-communicable diseases. We aimed to assess whether a time trend in AAM with associated disease risk is also present in Mexico. For this, we used data of 30,826 women from the Mexican National Health Survey (2000). Linear and log binomial regression was used for nutritional and disease outcomes, whereas Welch-ANOVA was used to test for a time trend. AAM decreased over time (p < 0.001), with a maximal difference of 0.99 years between the 1920s (13.6 years) and 1980s (12.6 years). AAM (in years) was negatively associated with weight (β = -1.01 kg; 95 % CI -1.006, -1,004) and BMI (β = -1.01 kg/m2; -1.007, -1.006), and positively with height (β = 0.18 cm; 0.112, 0.231). AAM was associated with diabetes (RR = 0.95; 0.93, 0.98) and hypercholesterolemia (RR = 0.93; 0.90, 0.95), but not with hypertension, breast cancer or arthritis. In Mexico, AAM decreased significantly during the 20th century. AAM was inversely associated with adult weight and BMI, and positively with height. Women with a later AAM had a lower risk of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0017.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: forest stand parameters; SPOT-5 satellite image; textural and spectral features; topographic information; estimation model
Online: 3 October 2017 (16:33:25 CEST)
In recent years, remote sensing technology has been widely used to predict forest stand parameters. In order to compare the effects of different features of remote sensing images and topographic information on the prediction of forest stand parameters, multivariate stepwise regression analysis method was used to build estimation models for important forest stand parameters by using textural and spectral features as well as topographic information of SPOT-5 satellite images in northeastern Heilongjiang Province in China as independent variables. The study results show that the optimal window to predict forest stand parameters using textural features of SPOT-5 satellite image is 9×9; the ability of textural features was better than that of spectral features in terms of predicting forest stand parameters; with the inclusion of topographic information, the accuracy of prediction of all models was improved, of which elevation has the most significant effect. The highest accuracy was achieved when predicting the stand volume (SV) (R2adj=0.820), followed by basal area (BA) (R2adj =0.778), accuracy of both above models exceeded 75%. The results show that models combined use of textural, spectral features and topographic information of SPOT-5 images have a good application prospect in predicting forest stand parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0588.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: osteoarthritis; collagen-hydrolysate; sulfated N-acetyl glucosamine; sialic acids; eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); MMP-3; ADAMTS-5
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:27:16 CEST)
The bioactivities of collagen-hydrolysates, sulfated glucosamine and a special fatty acid enriched dog-food were tested in a dog patient study as potential therapeutic treatment options in early osteoarthritis. Biophysical, biochemical, cell biological and molecular modeling methods support that these well-defined substances may act as effective nutraceuticals. Importantly, the applied collagen-hydrolysates as well as sulfated glucosamine residues from marine organisms were strongly supported by both an animal model and molecular modeling of intermolecular interactions. Molecular modeling of predicted interaction dynamics were evaluated for the receptor proteins MMP-3 and ADAMTS-5. These proteins play a prominent role in the maintenance of cartilage health as well as innate and adapted immunity. Nutraceuticals data were generated in a veterinary clinical study focusing on mobility and agility. Specifically, key clinical parameters were obtained from blood probes of German shepherd dogs with early osteoarthritis symptoms fed with collagen-hydrolysates or sulfated glucosamines. Collagen-hydrolysate, a chondroprotective food supplement was examined by high resolution NMR experiments. Molecular modeling simulations were used to further characterize the interaction potency of collagen-fragments and glucosamines with protein receptor structures. Potential beneficial effects of collagen-hydrolysates, sulfated glycans (i.e. sulfated glucosamine from crabs and mussels) and lipids, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid (extracted from fish oil) on biochemical and physiological processes are discussed here in the context of human and veterinary medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: CEA 1; colorectal cancer 2; follow-up 3; tumor markers 4; early intervention 5; adjuvant chemotherapy 6
Online: 7 May 2022 (04:09:32 CEST)
Carcinoembriogenic antigen (CEA) is a routine marker for follow-up of colo-rectal cancers. We aimed to determine whether a CEA increase within the normal range can be linked to a recurrence risk. We included 78 consecutive patients with colo-rectal cancer, who underwent curative surgical treatment with or without chemo- or radiotherapy. As reference, we used the smallest value of the CEA during follow-up. A total of 34/78 patients (43.6%) had fluctuations of CEA of at least 1.1 ng/ml, with or without increases above 5 ng/ml. In 27/34 patients (79.4%) increases of CEA were explained either by recurrence (15/34 patients, 44.1%), adjuvant chemotherapy (7/34 patients, 20.6%) or benign pathology (5/34 patients, 14.7%). In 5 of 22 recurrences (23%) a CEA increase of at least 1.1 ng/ml, but below 5 ng/ml preceded the clinical relapse by a median of 8 months (range 3-22 months). The 4-year disease-free survival was 89% in patients with postoperative CEA <2.5 ng/ml, and 55% in patients with CEA >2.5 ng/ml. CEA increase by at least 1.1 ng/ml within the normal range, after curative treatment of colorectal cancer can be either an early sign of relapse or can be usually explained by other pathological processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0025.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Orchid; Protocorm-like bodies; p-Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid; PCIB; 3-Hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole; HMI; light emitting diodes
Online: 1 July 2021 (12:28:44 CEST)
Dendrobium okinawense is an endangered epiphytic orchid, and there has been no scientific report so far on its propagation. Protocorm is mass of cell, and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) look alike protocorm produced by vegetative explants in vitro. Regeneration of PLBs is the most efficient technique for the orchids micro-propagation. We used different light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the efficient PLB organogenesis of D. okinawense. PLBs regenartion under green and red LED surpassed respectively 81.1% and 71.6% in numbers, and respectively 80.8% and 57.8% in fresh weight over white fluorescent light. We manipulated the culture media by different concentrations of PCIB and HMI. PLBs organogenesis promoted by low concentration, it increased respectively 35.9% and 19.3% over control by 0.01 mg/L PCIB and 0.01 ml/L HMI in numbers. Green LED and PCIB independently produced mostly similar numbers of new PLBs. Interestingly, culture media with 0.01 mg/L of PCIB further increased 8.5% of the numbers of PLBs under green LED, whereas the culture media with 0.01 mg/L HMI reduced the number of PLBs under green LED. PLBs culture under green LED with very low concentrations of PCIB manipulated culture media can significantly increase their organogenesis of D. okinawense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0223.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: LSD1; molecular inhibitors; thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamide derivatives; Molecular docking; 3D-QSAR; Molecular dynamics simulations
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:54:43 CEST)
Histone Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) is overexpressed in many cancers and become a new target for anticancer drugs. In recent years, the small molecule inhibitors with various structures targeting LSD1 have been reported. Here we report the binding interaction modes of a series of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxamides LSD1 inhibitors using molecular docking, three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR). Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA q2=0.783, r2=0.944, r2pred=0.851) and Comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA q2=0.728, r2=0.982, r2pred=0.814) were used to establish 3D-QSAR models, which had good verification and prediction capabilities. Based on the contour maps and the information of molecular docking, 8 novel small molecules were designed in silico, among which compounds D4, D5 and D8 with high predictive activity were subjected to further molecular dynamics simulations (MD), and their possible binding modes were explored. It was found that Asn535 plays a crucial role in stabilizing the inhibitors. Furthermore, the ADME and bioavailability prediction for D4, D5 and D8 were carried out. The results would provide valuable guidance for designing new reversible LSD1 inhibitors in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0379.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: anaerobic digestion; Co-digestion; CSTR; BMP-test; Illumina sequencing; T-RFLP; glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 48
Online: 27 May 2018 (12:53:51 CEST)
This study investigated whether biogas reactor performance, including microbial community development, in response to a change in substrate composition is influenced by initial inoculum source. Test reactors were first started with two different inocula and operated with the same grass-manure mixture for more than 120 days. These reactors initially showed great differences depending on inoculum source, but eventually showed similar performance and overall microbial community structure. At the start of the present experiment, the substrate was complemented with milled feed wheat, added all at once or divided into two portions. The starting hypothesis was that process performance depends on initial inoculum source and microbial diversity, and thus that reactor performance is influenced by the feeding regime. In response to the substrate change, all reactors showed increases and decreases in volumetric and specific methane production, respectively. However, specific methane yield and development of the microbial community showed differences related to initial inoculum source, confirming the hypothesis. The different feeding strategies had however only minor effects on process performance and overall community structure, but still induced differences in the cellulose-degrading community and in cellulose degradation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0316.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: 1; Social interaction 2; Self-organization 3; Imitation 4; Coordination dynamics 5; Group nor-malization 6; Interpersonal symmetry
Online: 23 March 2022 (12:36:52 CET)
I present an experimental paradigm to explore the interpersonal dynamics generating a collective mind. I hypothesized that collective organization is based on dual interpersonal modes: (1) symmetrical and (2) anti‑symmetrical. I specified the geometric topology of these modes by detecting the spatiotemporal patterns that embed cooperative agents in a three‑dimensional matrix. I found that the symmetrical mode is executed automatically and without guidance. Conversely, the anti‑symmetrical mode required explicit direction and recruited attention for execution. I demonstrate that self‑other mirror‑symmetry stabilized group dynamics, enabled fast and efficient symmetrical imitation that optimized information transmission, whereas anti‑symmetrical imitation was comparatively slow, inefficient, and unstable. I determined that the anti‑symmetrical mode spontaneously transitioned to the symmetrical mode under perturbations. Crucially, this renormalization mechanism never transitioned from symmetrical to anti‑symmetrical. These self-organizing dynamics speak to interpersonal symmetry‑breaking. In the present work, spontaneous group choice mandated that agents synchronize cooperative cycles in symmetrical space under internal or external perturbations. I provide examples to illustrate that this self-regulating pullback attractor manifests in invertebrates and vertebrates alike. I conclude by suggesting that inter‑agent symmetry provides the social stability manifold through which attention-driven interactions enable intrapersonal and interpersonal change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0659.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Chondrogenesis; chondrocyte; cell differentiation; C3H10T1/2; high density culture; mouse em-bryo; epigenetic signals; DNA methylation; 5-azacytidine
Online: 26 March 2021 (11:24:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of DNA methylation in the regulation of in vitro and in vivo cartilage formation. Based on the data of an RNA chip-assay performed on chondrifying BMP2-overexpressing C3H10T1/2 cells, the relative expression of Tet1 (tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 1), Dnmt3a (DNA methyltransferase 3) and Ogt (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase) genes was examined with RT-qPCR in mouse cell-line based and primary micromass cultures. RNA probes for in situ hybridization were used on frozen sections of 15-day-old mouse embryos. DNA methylation was inhibited with 5-azacytidine during culturing. We found very strong but gradually decreasing expression of Tet1 throughout the entire course of in vitro cartilage differentiation along with strong signals in the cartilaginous embryonic skeleton. Dnmt3a and Ogt expressions did not show significant changes with RT-qPCR and gave weak in situ hybridization signals. Inhibition of DNA methylation applied during early stages of differentiation reduced cartilage-specific gene expression and cartilage formation. In contrast, it had stimulatory effect when added to differentiated chondrocytes. Our results indicate that the DNA demethylation-inducing Tet1 is a significant epigenetic factor of chondrogenesis, and inhibition of DNA methylation exerts distinct effects in different phases of in vitro cartilage formation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: brain connectivity; brain development; gut-brain axis; neurodevelopmental diseases; neuronal cytoarchitecture; neuroplasticity; regulatory T cells; serotonin (5-HT)
Online: 7 December 2019 (16:55:39 CET)
Our knowledge on the plastic functions of the serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtype 7 (5-HT7R) in the brain physiology and pathology considerably advanced in the last few years. A wealth of data show that the 5-HT7R is a key player in the establishment and remodeling of neuronal cytoarchitecture during development and in the mature brain, and its dysfunction is linked to neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental diseases. The involvement of this receptor in synaptic plasticity is further demonstrated by data showing that its activation allows to rescue long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) deficits in various animal models of neurodevelopmental diseases. In addition, it is becoming clear that the 5-HT7R is involved in inflammatory intestinal diseases, possibly playing a role in the gut-brain axis, and modulates the function of immune cells. In this review, we will mainly focus on recent findings on this receptor’s role in the structural and synaptic plasticity of the mammalian brain, although we will also illustrate novel aspects highlighted in gut and immune system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: metabolic engineering; lycopene; MEP pathway; 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; farnesyl diphosphate synthase; Vibrio sp. dhg
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:40:18 CET)
Microbial production is a promising method that can overcome major limitations in conventional methods of lycopene production, such as low yields and variations in product quality. Significant efforts have been made to improve lycopene production by engineering either the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway or mevalonate (MVA) pathway in microorganisms. To further improve lycopene production, it is critical to utilize metabolic enzymes with high specific activities. Two enzymes, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (Dxs) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (IspA), are required in lycopene production using MEP pathway. Here, we evaluated the activities of Dxs and IspA of Vibrio sp. dhg, a newly isolated and fast-growing microorganism. Considering that the MEP pathway is closely related to the cell membrane and electron transport chain, the activities of the two enzymes of Vibrio sp. dhg were expected to be higher than the enzymes of E. coli. We found that Dxs and IspA in Vibrio sp. dhg exhibited 1.08-fold and 1.38-fold higher catalytic efficiencies, respectively. Consequently, the heterologous overexpression improved the specific lycopene production by 1.88-fold. Our findings could be widely utilized to enhance production of lycopene and other carotenoids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: indirubin-3′-monoxime; p53; death receptor 5; TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand; transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein
Online: 17 August 2019 (04:19:38 CEST)
Indirubin-3′-monoxime (I3M) exhibits anti-proliferative activity in various cancer cells; however, its anti-cancer mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. This study revealed that I3M promotes the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HCT116 p53+/+ cells, resulting in caspase-mediated apoptosis. However, this study demonstrated that HCT116 p53-/- cells are insensitive to I3M-mediated apoptosis, indicating that I3M-induced apoptosis depends on the p53 status of HCT116 cells. Additionally, in HCT116 p53-/- cells, I3M significantly increased Ras expression, while in HCT116 p53+/+ cells, it reduced Ras expression. Furthermore, I3M remarkably increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were reduced in transient p53 knockdown, indicating that I3M-mediated apoptosis is promoted by p53-mediated ROS production. Our results also showed that I3M enhanced transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated DR5 expression, which is upregulated by ROS production in HCT116 p53+/+ cells. Moreover, co-treatment with TRAIL synergistically enhanced I3M-induced DR5 expression, thereby triggering TRAIL-induced apoptosis of HCT116 p53+/+ cells, which was interfered by a DR5-specific blocking chimeric antibody. In summary, I3M potently enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating DR5 expression via p53-mediated ROS production in HCT116 p53+/+ cells. However, HCT116 p53-/- cells were resistant to I3M-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that I3M could be a promising anti-cancer candidate against TRAIL-resistant p53+/+ cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: eCDC; WHO; Sanger sequencing; Omicron variant; minor subvariants; BA.4/BA.5; BA.2; mul-ti-allelic; SNPs; recombinant
Online: 14 June 2022 (04:30:41 CEST)
Large population passages of the SARS-CoV-2 in the past two and a half years have allowed the circulating virus to accumulate an increasing number of mutations in its genome. The most recently emerging Omicron subvariants have the highest number of mutations in the Spike (S) protein gene and these mutations mainly occur in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the S gene. The eCDC and the WHO recommend partial Sanger sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 S gene RBD and NTD on the PCR-positive samples in diagnostic laboratories as a practical means of determining the variants of concern to monitor a possible increased transmissibility, increased virulence, or reduced effectiveness of vaccines against them. The author’s diagnostic laboratory has implemented the eCDC/WHO recommendation by sequencing a 398-base segment of the N gene for the definitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples, and sequencing a 445-base segment of the RBD and a 490-509-base segment of the NTD for variant determination. This paper presents 5 selective cases to illustrate the challenges of using Sanger sequencing to diagnose Omicron subvariant when the samples harbor a high level of co-existing minor subvariant sequences with multi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or possible recombinant Omicron subvariants containing a BA.1 NTD and a BA.2 RBD, which can only be detected by using specially designed PCR primers. The current large-scale surveillance programs using next-generation sequencing (NGS) do not face similar problems because NGS focuses on deriving consensus sequence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: oxygen plasma 2; active oxygen species 3; plasma irradiation on seed and leaf 4; growth enhancement 5; gene expression
Online: 6 December 2021 (13:28:01 CET)
Gene expression variations of plant leaf are investigated by irradiating seed and leaf with oxygen or air plasmas. Enhancement of leaf growth is induced by oxygen plasma irradiation on seeds, which is supported by increased gene expression for protein synthesis, oxidative-reduction reactions and decreased gene expression concerning DNA methylation and histone modification. Suppression of leaf growth is observed by the oxygen plasma, which would be owing to increased gene expression concerning heat shock protein and redox reaction, and decreased expression of photosynthesis and glycoprotein. Also, gene expression variation due to air plasma irradiation is almost same as that of oxygen plasma. Active oxygen species are major factors in both oxygen and air plasmas for the variation of gene expressions in plant.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adult 1; classification 2; consensus 3; goal 4; guideline 5; immune thrombocytopenia 6; indication 7; ITP 8; therapy 9
Online: 28 February 2020 (16:18:38 CET)
Despite the publication in 2009 of a paper on ‘terms and definitions of immune thrombocytopenia’, (ITP) some unresolved issues remain and are reflected by the disagreement in the treatment suggested for primary ITP in adults. Considering that these disagreements could be ascribed to non-shared goals, a ‘consensus’ to classify the different lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults according to their indications and goals was proposed in October 2018 to the XIX annual meeting of the Italian Gruppo di Studio delle Piastrine (GSP), a non-profit platelet study group of scientists and physicians. Having approved the project, 60 potential co-authors and experts in the world were invited to take part to a consensus through e-Delphy method and nine of the 12 who initially accepted the invitation completed the work. Agreement was reached on a classification of four lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults based on their indications and goals. The consensus obtained regarded also the criteria, ‘timing’ included, to consider practicable elective splenectomy in these patients. In our opinion, the classification of the lines of treatment for primary ITP in adults here proposed could facilitate the realization of better shared evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0314.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: systems genetics 1; mouse 2; Drosophila 3; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; translational research 4; genetic background: precision medicine 5; gene mapping 6.
Online: 24 May 2022 (03:37:31 CEST)
We are all similar, but a bit different. These differences are partially due to variations in our genomes and are related to the heterogeneity of symptoms and responses to treatments that patients exhibit. Most animal studies are performed in one single strain with one manipulation. However, due to the lack of variability, therapies are not always reproducible when treatments are translated to humans. Panels of already sequenced organisms are valuable tools for mimicking human phenotypic heterogeneities and gene mapping. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mouse, fly and yeast panels with insightful applications for translational research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0019.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: defective ZSM-5; hydroxyl nests; Si(OH)Al; Zn(C2H5)2, chemical liquid deposition; operando dual beam FT-IR spectroscopy
Online: 3 December 2018 (09:41:48 CET)
A series of defective ZSM-5 zeolites (~300 nm, SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of 55, 100, 400 and 950) were intentionally prepared and systematically studied by XRD, SEM, 29Si MAS NMR, argon physisorption, NH3-TPD and FT-IR technologies. The nature, the amount and the accessibility of the acid sites of defective ZSM-5 zeolites are greatly different from reported ZSM-5 zeolites with perfect crystal structure. The co-existed strong Brønsted acid sites (Si(OH)Al) and weak Brønsted acid sites (hydroxyl nests) over defective ZSM-5 zeolites might lead to unique catalytic function. Zn(C2H5)2 was grafted onto defective ZSM-5 zeolites through chemical liquid deposition (CLD) method. Interestingly, FT-IR spectroscopy studies find that Zn(C2H5)2 was preferentially grafted on the hydroxyl nests with weak acidity rather than the Si(OH)Al groups with strong acidity over different defective ZSM-5 zeolites. Particularly, home-built operando dual beam FTIR-MS was applied to study the catalytic performance of Zn species locating at different sites of defective ZSM-5 zeolites under n-hexane transformation. Results show that Zn species grafted over hydroxyl nests obtain better dehydrogenation performance than Zn species over framework aluminum. This study provides guidance for the rational design of highly efficient alkane dehydrogenative aromatization catalysts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Direct Behavior Rating 1; Test 2; Sensitivity over time 3; Rating 4; School 5; Classroom Behavior 6; Progress Monitoring 7
Online: 19 October 2018 (14:36:31 CEST)
Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) as a behavioral progress monitoring tool can be designed as longitudinal assessment with only short intervals between measurement points. The reliability of these instruments has been evaluated mostly in observational studies with small samples based on generalizability theory. However, for standardized use in the pedagogical field, a larger and broader sample is required in order to assess measurement invariance between different participant groups and over time. Therefore, we constructed a DBR with multiple items to measure the occurrence of specific externalizing and internalizing student classroom behaviors on a Likert scale (1 = never to 7 = always). In a pilot study, two trained raters observed 16 primary school students and rated the student behavior over all items with a satisfactory reliability. In the main study, 108 regular primary school students, 97 regular secondary school students and 14 students in a clinical setting were rated daily over one week (five measurement points). IRT analyses confirmed the instrument’s technical adequacy, and latent growth models demonstrated the instrument’s stability over time. Further development of the instrument and study designs to implement DBRs are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Load Forecasting 1; Demand-Side Management 2; Pattern Similarity 3; Hierarchical Forecasting 4; Feature Selection 5; Weather Station Selection 6
Online: 19 December 2018 (12:19:14 CET)
Electricity demand forecasting has been a real challenge for power system scheduling in the different levels of the energy sectors. Various computational intelligence techniques and methodologies have been employed in the electricity market for load forecasting; although, scant evidence is available about the feasibility of each of these methods considering the type of data and other potential factors. This work introduces several scientific, technical rationale behind intelligent forecasting methods, based on the work of previous researchers in the field of energy. The fundamental benefits and main drawbacks of the aforementioned methods are discussed in order to depict the efficiency of each approach in various situations. In the end, a proposed hybrid strategy is represented.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: consciousness 1; subjective experience 2; will 3; agency 4; self 5; psychopathology 6; treatment 7; transcranial near infrared light 8; biophotomodulation 9
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:44:47 CEST)
In this paper I will address Dr. Sonne’s questions about will, agency, choice, consciousness, relevant brain regions, impacts of disorders and their therapeutics, and I will do this by referring to my theory, Dual-brain Psychology, which posits that within most of us there exist two mental agencies with different experiences, wills, choices, and behaviors. Each of these agencies is associated as a trait with one brain hemisphere (either left or right) and its composite regions. One of these agencies is more adversely affected by past traumas and is more immature and more symptomatic while the other is more mature and healthier. The theory has extensive experimental support through 17 peer-reviewed publications with clinical and non-clinical research. I will discuss how this theory relates to the questions that Dr. Sonne presented and will discuss also my published theory on the physical nature of subjective experience and its relation to the brain and how that theory interacts with DBP, and how the 2 theories relate to subjective experience, will, behavior, psychopathology and its treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0374.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: aldosterone; apoptosis; cardiac myocyte; eplerenone; fibrosis; finerenone; G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-5; mineralocorticoid receptor; mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA); signal transduction
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:24:29 CEST)
Background: In the heart, aldosterone (Aldo) binds the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to exert damaging, adverse remodeling-promoting effects. We recently showed that G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase (GRK)-5 blocks the cardiac MR by directly phosphorylating it, thereby repressing its transcriptional activity. MR antagonist (MRA) drugs block the cardiac MR reducing morbidity and mortality of advanced human heart failure. Non-steroidal MRAs, such as finerenone, may provide better cardio-protection against Aldo than classic, steroidal MRAs, like spironolactone and eplerenone. Herein, we sought to investigate potential differences between finerenone and eplerenone at engaging GRK5-dependent cardiac MR phosphorylation and subsequent blockade. Methods: We used the cardiomyocyte cell line H9c2 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Results: GRK5 phosphorylates the MR in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in response to finerenone but not to eplerenone. Unlike eplerenone, finerenone alone potently and efficiently suppresses cardiac MR transcriptional activity, thus displaying inverse agonism. GRK5 is necessary for finerenone`s inverse agonism, since GRK5 genetic deletion renders finerenone incapable of blocking cardiac MR transcriptional activity. Eplerenone alone does not fully suppress cardiac MR basal activity regardless of GRK5 expression levels. Finally in NRVMs, GRK5 is necessary for the anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic effects of both finerenone and eplerenone against Aldo, as well as for the higher efficacy and potency of finerenone at blocking Aldo-induced apoptosis and fibrosis. Conclusions: Finerenone, but not eplerenone, induces GRK5-dependent cardiac MR inhibition, which underlies, at least in part, its higher potency and efficacy, compared to eplerenone, as an MRA in the heart. GRK5 acts as a co-repressor of the cardiac MR and is essential for efficient MR antagonism in the myocardium.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0712.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Group-B Enterovirus; RNA domain-I; viral ribonucleoprotein complexes; Enterovirus replication; 5’ terminally deleted viral forms; antiviral innate immune response; type I Interferon
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:00:13 CEST)
Group-B enteroviruses (EV-B) are ubiquitous naked single-stranded positive RNA viral pathogens that are responsible for common acute or persistent human infections. Their genome is composed in the 5'end by a non-coding region, which is crucial for the initiation of the viral replication and translation processes. RNA domain-I secondary structures can interact with viral or cellular proteins to form viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes regulating viral genomic replication, whereas RNA domains-II to -VII (IRES) are known to interact with cellular ribosomal subunits to initiate the viral translation process. Natural 5’ terminally deleted viral forms lacking some genomic RNA domain-I secondary structures have been described in EV-B induced murine or human infections. Recent in vitro studies have evidenced that the loss of some viral RNP complexes in the RNA domain-I can modulate the viral replication and infectivity levels in EV-B infections. Moreover, the disruption of secondary structures of RNA domain-I could impair viral RNA sensing by RIG-I or MDA5 receptors, a way to overcome antiviral innate immune response. Overall, natural 5′ terminally deleted viral genomes resulting in the loss of various structures in the RNA domain-I could be major key players of host-cell interactions driving the development of acute or persistent EV-B infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: bioeconomy 1; footprint analysis 2; land use modelling 3; Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) model 4; land conversion 5; biodiversity 6; ecosystem functions 7
Online: 1 December 2021 (18:08:00 CET)
Footprints are powerful indicators for evaluating the impact of the bioeconomy of a country on environmental goods, domestically and abroad. In this study, we apply a hybrid approach combining a Multi-Regional Input-Output model and land use modelling to compute the agricultural land footprint (aLF). Furthermore, we added information on land-use change to the analysis and allocated land conversion to specific commodities. The German case study shows that the aLF abroad is larger by a factor of 2.5 to 3 than the aLF in Germany. In 2005 and 2010, conversion of natural and semi-natural land-cover types abroad allocated to Germany due to import increases was 2.5 times higher than the global average. Import increases to Germany slowed down in 2015 and 2020, reducing land conversion attributed to the German bioeconomy to the global average. The case study shows that the applied land footprint provides clear and meaningful information for policymakers and other stakeholders. The presented methodological approach can be applied to other countries and regions covered in the underlying database EXIOBASE. It can be adapted, also for an assessment of other ecosystem functions, such as water or soil fertility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0694.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Congenital hypothyroidism; FOXE1; Mexican population; multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA); NKX2-1; NKX2-5; PAX8; polyalanine tract; protein modeling; thyroid dysgenesis; TSH receptor
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:15:14 CEST)
Mexico shows a high birth prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) due to thyroid dysgenesis (TD). PAX8 defects underlie only 1% of these cases and NKX2-1 does not seem to be involved. Here, we analyzed other TD-related genes in 128 non-related Mexican patients (females 77.3%; 6 months to 16.6 years) with non-syndromic CH-TD diagnosis established by clinical evaluation, thyroid hormone serum profiling, and scintigraphy (74%) or ultrasonography (26%). We performed Sanger sequencing of FOXE1, NKX2-5, and TSHR and evaluated copy number variations (CNVs) in TSHR, FOXE1, PAX8, and NKX2-1 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Odds ratios for TD risk were explored for FOXE1 polyalanine stretches [polyAla-rs71369530] in cases and controls (N=116). Five rare missense changes cataloged as benign (NKX2-5:p.(Ala119Ser)-rs137852684), of unknown significance (FOXE1:p.(Ala335Gly)-rs543372757; TSHR:p.(Asp118Asn)-rs1414102266), and likely pathogenic (FOXE1:p.(Gly124Arg)-rs774035532; TSHR:p.(Trp422Arg)-rs746029360) accounted for 1.5% (N=2/128) of clinically relevant genotypes (supported in part by protein modeling) in CH-TD. No CNVs were identified, nor did polyAla >14 alanines in FOXE1 significantly protect against TD. The present and previously published data collectively show that small clinically relevant germline variants in PAX8, FOXE1, and TSHR are found in only a very small proportion (2.5%) of isolated CH-TD Mexican patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0061.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: rett syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-cpg-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein g1
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:58:54 CET)
Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder, is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), which alter the functions of domains to either bind to methylated DNA or interact with a transcriptional co-repressor complex. It has been established that alterations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) or forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1) correspond to distinct neurodevelopmental disorders, given that a series of studies have indicated that RTT is also caused by alterations in either one of these genes. We tried to elucidate RTT through evolution and structure assessment of MeCP2, CDKL5, and FOXG1, by focusing on their binding partners and disordered structures. Here, we provide insight into the similarities of the FOXG1 and MECP2 binding partners evolution and function. On the other hand, we suggest that CDKL5 could be a potential candidate for a classical RTT treatment, particularly based on its disordered structure that spans after the catalytic domain to the C-terminus, which shows abundant linear motifs that can bind to molecules with divergent structures of similar affinity. Additionally, we provide insight into the relationship between disordered structure and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0013.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Rett Syndrome; intrinsically disordered region; phylogenetic profile analysis; post-transcriptional modification; methyl-CpG-binding protein 2; cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5; forkhead box protein G1
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:59:56 CEST)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is mainly caused by mutations in methyl CpG-binding protein 2, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5, or forkhead box protein G1. These RTT-causing proteins harbor an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) whose conformation exhibits spatiotemporal heterogeneity, which not only confer versatility to the protein, but also implicates them in diseases. The IDR generally evolves more rapidly than an ordered structure. In this study, we examined the relationship between pathogenic RTT-associated point mutations in RTT-causing proteins and the evolutionary dynamics of sequence features including structural order–disorder, phosphorylation sites, and evolutionary rates. We also analyzed the molecular properties and evolution of proteins that interact with RTT-causing proteins in terms of phylogenetic profiles, tissue specificity, subcellular localization, expression level, and functions. The results indicate that constrained IDRs may function by forming contacts with other regions in the protein sequence causing pathogenic missense mutations likely to arise in the rapidly evolving IDR and affect molecular networks, leading to disease. The results also provide novel insights into the genetic basis for RTT and the evolution of the neocortex in higher vertebrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0293.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), PARP-DNA complex,DNA-protein binding,DNA repair, 5′,8-Cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleoside, DNA damage , DNA repair efficiency.
Online: 24 December 2018 (16:01:44 CET)
Abstract5′,8-Cyclo-2′-deoxyadenosine (cdA), in the 5′R and 5′Sdiastereomeric forms, are typical non strand-break oxidative DNA lesions, induced by hydroxyl radicals, with emerging importance as a molecular marker. These lesions are exclusively repaired by nucleotide excision repair (NER) mechanism with a low efficiency, thus readily accumulating in the genome. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) acts as an early responder to DNA damage and plays a key role as a nick sensor in the maintenance of the integrity of the genome by recognizing nicked DNA. So far, it was unknown whether the diastereomeric cdA lesions could induce specific PARP1 binding. Here we provide the first evidence of PARP1 to selectively recognize the diastereomeric lesions 5′S-cdA and 5′R-cdA in vitro as compared to deoxyadenosine in model DNA substrates (23-mers) by using circular dichroism,fluorescence spectroscopy, immunoblotting analysis and gel mobility shift assay. Several features of the recognition of the damaged and undamaged oligonucleotides by PARP1were characterized. Remarkably, PARP1 efficiently binds to both cdA lesions in the double stranded (ds)-oligonucleotides. In particular, PARP1 proved to bind 5′S-cdAwith a higher affinity constant for the 5'S lesion in a model of ds DNA than 5′R-cdA, showing different recognition patterns, also compared with undamaged dA. This new finding highlights the ability of PARP1 to recognize and differentiate the distorted DNA backbone in a biomimetic system caused by different diastereomeric forms of a cdA lesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0272.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Keywords: 1; genome 2; epigenetics 3; neurodevelopmental disorders; 4; chromosome anomalies; 5; retrotransposon; 6; chromosome rearrangement; 7; neurologic disease; 8; birth defects; 9; development 10; infection
Online: 15 September 2018 (18:07:03 CEST)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to understand the role of infection in the origin of chromosomal anomalies linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. In patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, DNA’s from viruses and bacteria including known teratogens were tested against chromosome anomalies known to cause the disorders. Results support a theory that parental infections disrupt elaborate multi-system gene coordination needed for neurodevelopment. Genes essential for neurons, lymphatic drainage, immunity, circulation, angiogenesis, barriers, structure, and chromatin activity were all found close together in polyfunctional clusters that were deleted in neurodevelopmental disorders. These deletions account for immune, circulatory, and structural deficits that accompany neurologic deficits. In deleted clusters, specific and repetitive human DNA matched infections and passed rigorous artifact tests. In some patients, epigenetic driver mutations were found and may be functionally equivalent to deleting a cluster or changing topologic chromatin interactions because they change access to large chromosome segments. In three families, deleted DNA sequences were associated with intellectual deficits and were not included in any database of genomic variants. These sequences were thousands of bp and unequivocally matched foreign DNAs. Analogous homologies were also found in chromosome anomalies of a recurrent neurodevelopmental disorder. Viral and bacterial DNAs that match repetitive or specific human DNA segments are thus proposed to interfere with highly active break repair during meiosis, and sometimes delete polyfunctional clusters, and disable epigenetic drivers. Mis-repaired gametes produce zygotes containing rare chromosome anomalies which cause neurologic disorders and accompanying non-neurologic signs. Neurodevelopmental disorders may be examples of assault on the human genome by foreign DNA with some infections more likely tolerated because they resemble human DNA segments. Further tests of this model await new technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Wharton’s Jelly human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs); Growth Differentiation Factor-5; human bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hBM-MSCs); tenogenic commitment; gene expression; immunofluorescence assay
Online: 19 July 2020 (11:02:01 CEST)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells derived from bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) are utilized in tendon tissue‐engineering protocols while extra-embryonic cord-derived, including from Wharton’s Jelly (hWJ-MSC), are emerging as useful alternatives. To explore the tenogenic responsiveness of hBM-MSCs and hWJ-MSCs to hGDF-5 we supplemented each at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL and determined proliferation, morphology and time-dependent expression of tenogenic markers. We evaluated expression of Collagen types 1 (COL1A1) and 3 (COL3A1), Decorin (DCN), Scleraxis A (SCX-A), Tenascin-C (TNC) and Tenomodulin (TNMD) noting the earliest and largest increase with 100 ng/mL. With 100 ng/mL, hBM-MSCs showed upregulation of SCX-A (1.7-fold) at day 1, TNC (1.3-fold) and TNMD (12-fold) at Day 8. hWJ-MSCs, at the same dose, showed up-regulation of COL1A1 (3-fold), DCN (2.7-fold), SCX (3.8-fold) and TNC (2.3-fold) after 3 days of culture. hWJ-MSCs also showed larger proliferation rate and marked aggregation into a tubular shaped system at Day 7 (with 100 ng/mL of hGDF-5). Simultaneous to this we explored expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-6, TNF, IL-12A, IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) cytokines across for both cell types. hBM-MSCs exhibited a better balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines upregulating IL-1β (11-fold) and IL-10 (10-fold) at Day 8; hWJ-MSCs, had a slight expression of IL-12A (1.5-fold) but a greater up-regulation of IL-10 (2.5-fold). Collagen type I and tenomodulin proteins, detected by immunofluorescence, confirming the greater protein expression when 100 ng/mL were supplemented. In the same conditions, both cell types showed specific alignment and shape modification (fibroblast-like) with a Lenght/Width ratio increase at value higher than 1, suggesting their response in activating tenogenic commitment events, and they both potential use in 3D in vitro tissue engineering protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0399.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: inositide; phosphoinositide; 5-phosphatase; INPP5K; SKIP; phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate; congenital muscular dystrophy; cataract; intellectual disability; insulin signaling; insulin resistance; endoplasmic reticulum; endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:19:10 CEST)
INPP5K (Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase K, or SKIP (for Skeletal muscle and Kidney enriched Inositol Phosphatase) is a member of the phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases family. Its protein structure is comprised of a N-terminal catalytic domain which hydrolyses both PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, followed by a SKICH domain at the C-terminus which is responsible for protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of INPP5K. Strikingly, INPP5K is mostly concentrated in the endoplasmic reticulum, although it is also detected at the plasma membrane, in the cytosol and the nucleus. Recently, mutations in INPP5K have been detected in patients with a rare form of autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with cataract, short stature and intellectual disability. INPP5K functions extend from control of insulin signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress response and structural integrity, myoblast differentiation, cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion and migration, renal osmoregulation, to cancer. The goal of this review is thus to summarize and comment recent and less recent data in the literature on INPP5K, in particular on the structure, expression, intracellular localization, interactions and functions of this specific member of the 5-phosphatases family.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: : Data preprocessing 1; data validation 2; recommendation engine 3; E-commerce 4; Click-through rate 5; Buy-through rate 6; online customer behavior 7; non-parametric outlier removal 8; personalization 9
Online: 29 January 2019 (09:49:55 CET)
E-commerce businesses employ recommender models to assist in identifying a personalized set of products for each visitor. To accurately assess the recommendations’ influence on customer clicks and buys, three target areas—customer behavior, data collection, user-interface —will be explored for possible sources of erroneous data. Varied customer behavior misrepresents the recommendations’ true influence on a customer due to the presence of B2B interactions and outlier customers. Non-parametric statistical procedures for outlier removal are delineated and other strategies are investigated to account for the effect of a large percentage of new customers or high bounce rates. Subsequently, in data collection we identify probable misleading interactions in the raw data, propose a robust method of tracking unique visitors, and accurately attributing the buy influence for combo products. Lastly, user-interface issues discuss the possible problems caused due to the recommendation widget’s positioning on the e-commerce website and the stringent conditions that should be imposed when utilizing data from the product listing page. This collective methodology results in an exact and valid estimation of the customer’s interactions influenced by the recommendation model in the context of standard industry metrics such as Click-through rates, Buy-through rates, and Conversion revenue.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: multiple sclerosis; MS; cause; genes; polygenic; heredity; autoimmune; diet; depression; fatigue; suicide; seizures; bowel disorders; thyroid; mitochondria; chromosome 2; chromosome 5; glial cells; sunlight; vitamin D3; ultraviolet radiation; melanocyte stimulating hormone; melanocyte concentrating hormone; stress
Online: 22 July 2019 (04:37:27 CEST)
The literature on the causation of multiple sclerosis (MS), both genetic and environmental, extends over hundreds of years, with no firm conclusions on the exact role of autoimmunity and lifestyle. The epidemiology of MS was the basis for this review, but with a new, extensive examination of genes pertaining to each disorder, and disease of first, and second, degree relatives of those with MS. The author’s motivation was to discover some relationship between MS, and notable familial conditions, as the heredity of MS is concluded to be 30%, and the disorders had a chronic and/or idiopathic nature. This investigation hoped to further understand the randomness of MS- who acquires it, and what symptoms develop- after the author’s decades of observing several incidences of multiple members developing MS in a single family. Online databases for the human genome were used to link genes to MS, and symptoms, including excessive depression, fatigue and suicide rates, in coordination with linking genes for specific familial conditions including seizures, stroke, mental illness, bowel disorders, and thyroid conditions. Interesting associations were found, notably a cluster of Th2 cytokines, known to cure the animal model of MS, important receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones, a gene specific to Epstein Barr Virus, and potential genes for mitochondrial dysfunction. The results surprised the author, showing polygenic regions of chromosome 2 and 5, especially a cluster at loci 5q31-q33, may be dysregulated. The conclusion agrees with past hypotheses MS results not from a single gene, but from various genes, including those expressed in glial cells. The individual theories to the causation of MS, starting with Charcot may be explained by multiple pathways converging into a single disease outcome. In coordination with a sunlight factor, chromosome 2 appears to mediate the immune system, and inflammation, through ultraviolet radiation producing vitamin D3 in the skin, but additionally through peptides formed in the melanocyte stimulating and concentrating hormone class. The impact of stress in MS could be primary, given the loci of several stress-related and stress-modulated genes on these chromosomes, and calls for more appreciation of, and greater care for, the MS patients’ state of mind.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxine, vitamin B6, immune response, IL-6, TNF, type I interferon, lymphopenia, blood clotting, coagulopathy, cytokine storm, sphingosine-1-phosphate, kynurenine, inflammasome, serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), hypertension, angiotensin
Online: 8 May 2020 (12:36:03 CEST)
Although most cases of COVID-19 are paucisymptomatic, severe disease is characterized by immune dysregulation, with a decreased type I interferon response, increased inflammatory indicators, surging IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα suggestive of cytokine storm, progressive lymphopenia, and abnormal blood clotting. Factors determining susceptibility to severe disease are poorly understood, although mortality correlates with increasing age and co-morbidities including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) tends to be insufficient in populations particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, including the elderly, the institutionalized, and people with diabetes and CVD, and PLP becomes further depleted during infection and inflammation. In turn, low PLP results in immune imbalance, as PLP is an essential cofactor in pathways regulating cytokine production, in particular type I interferons and IL-6, and in lymphocyte trafficking and endothelial integrity. Furthermore, normalizing PLP levels attenuates abnormalities in platelet aggregation and clot formation. Finally, PLP insufficiency induces excess secretion of renin and angiotensin, and hypertension. In inflammatory disease, pharmacological doses of PLP decrease circulating TNFα, IL-6 and D-dimer, and animal studies demonstrate that supplemental PLP shortens the duration and severity of viral pneumonia. Severe COVID-19 manifests as an imbalance in the immune response and the clotting system. Pharmacological PLP supplementation may therefore mitigate COVID-19 symptoms by alleviating both the immune suppression underlying viral spread and the pathological hypersecretion of inflammatory cytokines, as well as directly bolstering endothelial integrity and preventing hypercoagulability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0042.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA); amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); tauopathy; leukodystrophy; mass spectrometry; RT-qPCR; Ceramide Synthase (CERS2/CERS1); Serine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Sptlc2); neutral Sphingomyelinase (Smpd3); neutral Ceramidase (Asah2); Fatty Acid Elongase (Elovl1/4/5); SCA34; SCA38; acid Sphingomyelinase (ASMase, Smpd1)
Online: 5 November 2019 (03:04:02 CET)
Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) acts during stress-responses, modulating mRNA translation and nutrient metabolism. Atxn2 knockout mice exhibit progressive obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Conversely, the progressive ATXN2 gain-of-function due to polyGlutamine (polyQ) expansions leads to a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative process named spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), with early adipose tissue loss and late muscle atrophy. We tried to understand lipid dysregulation in a SCA2 patient brain and in an authentic mouse model. Thin layer chromatography of a patient cerebellum was compared to the lipid metabolome of Atxn2-CAG100-KnockIn (KIN) mouse spinocerebellar tissue. The human pathology caused deficits of sulfatide, galactosylceramide, cholesterol, C22/24-sphingomyelin and gangliosides GM1a/GD1b, despite quite normal levels of C18-sphingomyelin. Cerebellum and spinal cord from the KIN mouse showed a consistent decrease of various ceramides, with a significant elevation of sphingosine in the more severely affected spinal cord. Deficiency of C24/26-sphingomyelins contrasted with excess C18/20-sphingomyelin. Spinocerebellar expression profiling revealed consistent reductions of CERS protein isoforms, of Sptlc2 and Smpd3, but upregulation of Cers2 mRNA, as prominent anomalies in the ceramide-sphingosine metabolism. Reduction of Asah2 mRNA correlated to deficient S1P levels. In addition, downregulations for the elongase Elovl1, Elovl4, Elovl5 mRNAs and ELOVL4 protein explain the deficit of very-long-chain sphingomyelin. Reduced ASMase protein levels correlated to the accumulation of long-chain sphingomyelin. Overall, a deficit of myelin lipids was prominent in SCA2 nervous tissue at prefinal stage, not compensated by transcriptional adaptation of several metabolic enzymes. Myelination is controlled by mTORC1 signals, so our human and murine observations are in agreement with the known role of ATXN2 yeast, nematode and mouse orthologs as mTORC1 inhibitors and autophagy promoters.