REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1798.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D/4D printing; advanced robotics systems; pneumatic muscles; actuators
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:49:15 CEST)
3D/4D printing technologies are currently among the fastest growing, cutting edge fabrication technologies. The scale of their applications is vast and applicable to nearly all industries. 3D printing technologies are particularly popular in robotics, and especially in advanced design innovative solutions for areas such as manufacturing, space technology and medicine. The development of robotics, and in particular of the precision of manufactured components, such as actuators, pneumatic muscles, power transmission units, etc., means that new prototypes are still being made, where the use of 3D printers reduces the production time severalfold and allows for completing the necessary simulations and tests. In addition, the use of 3D printers allows for the production of thin-walled and cellular structures, which is a great advantage compared to conventional fabrication technologies. In the range of 3D printers available on the market, only a few selected technologies allow for actual use in the construction of advanced robot elements (muscles, vibration dampers, etc.). In the era of rapid growth of the precision of the available 3D printers and modern materials, 3D printing may soon become a major tool in robotics. This article presents an overview of 3D printing technologies and materials in terms of their application in robotics and provides examples of the use of 3D and 4D printing in prototyping and fabrication of robotic elements with particular emphasis on the current state of the art. The study considered the possibilities of using 3D/4D printing in robotics with the use of polymeric materials. The review of the literature and the research work currently being carried out in this area is very promising and it seems that 3D/4D printing in robotics is widely used and is still developing, which allows to conclude that in the near future the number of research works in this field will increase rapidly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0572.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: 3D printing polymers; Additive manufacturing; 4D printing; polymer textiles; multifunctional polymers
Online: 8 September 2023 (08:59:51 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) and four-dimensional (4D) printing emerged as the next generation of manufacturing techniques, spanning several research areas such as engineering, chemistry, biology, computing, and materials science. Three-dimensional printing allows the manufacture of complex shapes with high precision, by adding layer by layer of different materials. The use of smart materials that change shape or color, produce an electrical current, become bioactive, or perform an intended function in response to an external stimulus. Shape memory materials (SMMs) in 3D printing technology have attracted a lot of attention due to their ability to respond to external stimuli, leading this technology towards an emerging area of research, "4D printing technology." The core part of this review summarizes the effect of the main external stimuli on 4D textile materials followed by the main applications 4D printed textiles can change their shape over time due to external stimuli such as temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); Functionally Graded Materials (FGM); Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP; ceramics; ceramic-based 4D-components; zirconia; graded microstructure
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:21:04 CEST)
In our study we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with a varying microstructure were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore forming agents (PFA) and were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Different zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for AM of single- and multi-material test components. All samples were sintered defect-free and in the end we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. The T3DP opens the door to AM of further ceramic-based 4D-components like multi-color or multi-material, especially multi-functional components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0566.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Temporomandibular joint; Osteoarthritis; Semaphorin 4D; Plexin-B1; Osteoblast
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:07:01 CEST)
Subchondral bone loss is an important pathological feature of early-stage temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies focused mainly on the bone resorption by osteoclasts in early-stage OA, but the bone formation feature has not drawn enough attention. Sema4D/Plexin-B1 is a pair of molecules expressed by osteoclast/osteoblast, which is capable of inhibiting bone formation by osteoblasts. The present study found that subchondral bone loss in early-stage TMJ OA was accompanied by up-regulated expression of Sema4D in cartilage and subchondral bone and Plexin-B1 in subchondral bone. Reducing Sema4D level could inhibit the subchondral bone loss and cartilage degeneration of early-stage TMJ OA. In vitro, results revealed that Sema4D could reduce the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and increase the migrating capability of Plexin-B1-positive osteoblasts. Our results revealed that elevated Sema4D expression in early-stage TMJ OA might decrease the bone formation activity of osteoblasts in the subchondral bone by binding to Plexin-B1 expressed by osteoblasts. Inhibiting Sema4D/Plexin-B1 signaling in the early-stage OA holds promise as a strategy for new therapeutic approaches to osteoarthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0433.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: dynamic; tensor; operator; moving coordinates; 4D space; invariant
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:11:35 CEST)
This paper puts forward an alteration for Tensor Calculus utliized in a coordinate system which is under a dynamic distortion drawing inspiration from similar fields such as the Calculus of Moving Surfaces (CMS). The paper establishes transformation laws for Tensors within these regions and establishes Operators such as the Tensorial Field Derivative which enforce a Tensorial Transformation on Tensors defined within a Dynamically Moving coordinate system. This variation of Tensor Calculus can be utilized to observe how disciplines such as QFT and Continuum Mechanics would change to accomodate for a distorting coordinate system and can be utliized to develop new theoretical models which account for this temporal distortion particularly within Biological Settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: 4D flow; fontan; flow component; diastolic dysfunction; kinetic energy
Online: 6 September 2023 (11:19:08 CEST)
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to 1) analyze the disruption of intracardiac flow by flow components and kinetic energy (KE) parameters in single ventricle physiology patients and compare with controls; 2) investigate left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in terms of 4D flow parameters in repaired Fontan (rFontan) group; 3) compare intracardiac flow parameters in morphologic LV and RV rFontan patient groups. Methods: Twenty-five rFontan patients (age: 10±3, M/F: 15/10) and fourteen controls (age: 10±2, M/F: 8/6) were prospectively recruited. All underwent cine and 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) on 3.0T scanner. Cardiac function and inter-ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony were analyzed using cine images. From 4D flow CMR, ventricular flow components were assessed: direct flow, retained inflow, delayed ejection flow and residual volume. Global and regional blood flow KE parameters, normalized to end-diastolic volume (EDV) were analyzed for functional single ventricle (FSV). Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction was assessed on echocardiography guidelines. Results: In comparison of rFontan vs. controls, median FSV residual volume (28% vs. 23%, P= 0.034) were higher in rFontan; median FSV direct flow (32% vs. 40%, P=0.005) and delayed ejection flow (17% vs. 24%, P=0.024) were lower in rFontan. FSV KEiEDV parameters were all lower in rFontan (all P<0.05). No significant diﬀerences were observed for flow components and KE parameters between patients with and without inter-ventricular dyssynchrony. FSV direct flow (AUC=0.76, Sensitivity=86%, Specificity=70%) was an independent predictor of LV diastolic dysfunction. Residual volume and E-wave KEiEDV were significantly different between morphologic RV and morphologic LV patient group. Conclusions: The changed flow pattern and decreased KE may be hemodynamic disturbances and impaired ventricular filling in rFontan patients. Reduced direct flow is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Morphologic right ventricular subgroup is worse than morphologic left ventricular group in terms of the intracardiac hemodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0172.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Dirac fermion, 4D space-time, gravity, quantum field theory
Online: 23 January 2023 (09:34:09 CET)
The electron of magnetic spin −1/2 is a Dirac fermion of a complex four-component spinor field. Though it is effectively addressed by relativistic quantum field theory, an intuitive form of the fermion still remains lacking. In this novel undertaking, the fermion is examined within the boundary posed by a recently proposed MP model of a hydrogen atom into 4D space-time. Such unorthodox process conceptually transforms the electron to the four-component spinor of non-abelian in both Euclidean and Minkowski space-times with gravity included. Supplemented by several postulates, the fermion relationships to both relativistic and non-relativistic aspects of the atom are intuitively explored. The outcomes have important implications towards defining the fundamental state of matter from an alternative perspective using quantum field theory. Such findings, if considered could consolidate properly the Standard Model and pave the paths to explore physics beyond and they warrant further investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0085.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: 3D+t modeling; coronary artery; non-rigid registration; cage deformation; 4D CT
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:36:01 CEST)
Cardiovascular-related diseases are one of the leading causes of death worldwide. An understanding of heart movement based on images plays a vital role in assisting the procedure in the postoperative and postoperative processes. In particular, if the shape information can be provided in real-time using the electrocardiogram(ECG) signal using this information, the heart’s movement information can be used for cardiovascular analysis and imaging guides during surgery. In this paper, we propose creating a 3D+t cardiac coronary artery model that is rendered in real-time according to the ECG signal. Hierarchical cage-based deformation modeling is used to generate mesh deformation used during the procedure according to the ECG signal. We match the blood vessel’s lumen obtained from the ECG-gated 3D+t CT angiography taken at the multiple cardiac phases to derive the optimal deformation. Splines for 3D deformation control points were used to continuously represent the obtained deformation at the multi-view according to the ECG signal. To verify the proposed method, we compared the manually segmented lumen and results of the proposed method for eight patients. The average distance and dice coefficient between the two models was 0.543mm and 0.735, respectively. The required time for registration of the 3D coronary artery model is 23.53 seconds/model. rendering speed to derive the model according to the ECG signal after generating the 3D+t model is faster than 120 FPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0566.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: 4D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity; Bekenshtein-Hawking entropy; energy emission; quasinormal modes; deflection angle
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:35:41 CET)
The logarithmic correction to Bekenshtein-Hawking entropy in the framework of 4D Einstein$-$Gauss$-$Bonnet gravity coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics is obtained. We explore the black hole solution with the spherically symmetric metric. The logarithmic term in the entropy has a structure similar to the entropy correction in the semi-classical Einstein equations which mimics the quantum correction to the area low. The energy emission rate of black holes and energy conditions are studied. Quasinormal modes of black holes are investigated. The gravitational lensing of light around BHs was investigated. We calculated the deflection angle for some model parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0261.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: thermodynamics-economics dictionary; economic Einstein 4D PDEs; economic Schwarzschild type metric; economic 3D black holes; economic entropy
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:43:56 CET)
The subject of this paper is to analyse the Math Principia of Economic 3D Black Holes in Roegenian economics. This idea is totally new in the related literature, excepting our papers. In details, we study two special problems: (i) math origin of economic 3D black holes, (ii) entropy and internal political stability depending on national income and the total investment, for economic RN 3D black hole. To solve these problems, it was necessary to jump from macroeconomic side to microeconomic side (a substantial approach so different), to complete the thermodynamics-economics dictionary with new entities, to introduce the flow between two macroeconomic systems, to study the Schwarzschild type metric properties on an economic 4D system, together with Rindler coordinates, Einstein 4D PDEs, and economic RN 3D black hole. In addition, we introduce some economic Ricci type flows or waves, for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0227.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: responsive materials; smart materials; bioinspired materials; non-living plant tissues; anisotropy; thermal fatigue; microstructure; 4D printing; additive manufacturing
Online: 14 June 2018 (09:01:53 CEST)
In Nature, it is common for living plants and non-living plant tissues to consist of materials with anisotropic multilayer and non-homogenous structure. The structure of tissues determines their self-shaping and self-folding capabilities in response to a stimulus in order to activate different functionalities. Predetermined movements are realized according to changes in environmental conditions, which trigger the fibrous anisotropic structure of the plants’ material. In this study, we present the fabrication process of low-cost anisotropic multilayer materials that are capable of realizing complex movements caused by small temperature changes (<40 oC). The mismatch in the thermo-mechanical properties between three or more anisotropic thin layers creates responsive materials that alter their shape owing to the developed internal stresses. Isotropic layers can perform only bending movements, whereas anisotropic multilayer materials can perform bending, twisting or complex combined modes. The movements of the material can be controlled by forming anisotropic homogenous metallic strips over an anisotropic polymer. As a result, inexpensive responsive materials can be developed to passively react to a very broad range of thermal requirements. We studied the major parameters that affect the sensitivity of the developed materials, as well as their failure modes and crack formation under thermal fatigue conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0276.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: composite materials; carbonized elastomeric matrices; C/SiC fillers; μ-DENT; in situ tensile test; Deben Microtest; Tescan Vega 3; NanoScan-4D; Digital Image Correlation (DIC).
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:31:29 CET)
The carbonized elastomer-based composites (CECs) possess a number of attractive features in terms of thermomechanical and electromechanical performance, durability in aggressive media and facile net-shape formability, but their relatively low ductility and strength limit their suitability for structural engineering applications. Prospective applications such as structural elements of MEMS can be envisaged, since smaller principal dimensions reduce the susceptibility of components to residual stress accumulation during carbonization, and to brittle fracture in general. We report the results of operando in-SEM study of micro-deformation and fracture behavior of CECs based on NBR elastomeric matrices filled with carbon and silicon carbide. Nanostructured carbon composite materials were manufactured via compounding of elastomeric substance with carbon and SiC fillers using mixing rolling mill, vulcanization, and low-temperature carbonization. Double Edge Notched Tensile (DENT) specimens of vulcanized and carbonized elastomeric composites were subjected to in situ tensile testing in the chamber of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) Tescan Vega 3 using Deben Microtest 1 kN Tensile Stage. The series of acquired SEM images were analyzed by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) using Ncorr open source software to map the spatial distribution of strain. These maps were correlated with Finite Element Modelling (FEM) simulations to refine the values of elastic moduli. Besides, the elastic moduli were derived from unloading curve nanoindentation hardness measurements carried out using NanoScan-4D tester and interpreted using the Oliver-Pharr method. Carbonization causes significant increase of elastic moduli from 0.86 ± 0.07 to 14.12 ± 1.20 GPa for the composite with graphite and carbon black fillers. Nanoindentation measurements yield somewhat lower values, namely, 0.25 ± 0.02 GPa and 9.83 ± 1.10 GPa before and after carbonization respectively. The analysis of fractography images suggests that crack initiation, growth and propagation may occur both at the notch stress concentrator and relatively far from the notch. Possible causes of such response are discussed, namely, (1) residual stresses introduced by processing; (2) shape and size of fillers; and (3) the emanation and accumulation of gases in composites during carbonization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: principal component analysis (PCA); motion model; respiratory-correlated four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT); lung cancer; stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT); image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT)
Online: 29 November 2021 (10:04:11 CET)
A method for generating fluoroscopic (time-varying) volumetric images using patient-specific motion models derived from 4-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) images is developed. 4D-CBCT images acquired immediately prior to treatment have the potential to accurately represent patient anatomy and respiration during treatment. Fluoroscopic 3D image estimation is done in two steps: 1) deriving motion models and 2) optimization. To derive motion models, every phase in a 4D-CBCT set is registered to a reference phase chosen from the same set using deformable image registration (DIR). Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of the displacement vector fields (DVFs) resulting from DIR into a few vectors representing organ motion found in the DVFs. The PCA motion models are optimized iteratively by comparing a cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection to a simulated projection computed from both the motion model and a reference 4D-CBCT phase, resulting in a sequence of fluoroscopic 3D images. Patient datasets were used to evaluate the method by estimating the tumor location in the generated images compared to manually defined ground truth positions. Experimental results showed that the average tumor mean absolute error (MAE) along the superior-inferior (SI) direction and the 95th percentile in two patient datasets were (2.29 mm and 5.79 mm) for patient 1 and (1.89 mm and 4.82 mm) for patient 2. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of deriving 4D-CBCT-based PCA motion models that have the potential to account for the 3D non-rigid patient motion and localize tumors and other patient anatomical structures on the day of treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0241.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: coupled chemistry-meteorology data assimilation; weak and strong data assimilation coupling; Canadian Quick Covariance method (CQC); assimilation of MIPAS temperature observations; ozone-temperature cross-covariance; tracer-wind 4D-Var assimilation
Online: 21 October 2019 (05:09:58 CEST)
We examine data assimilation coupling between meteorology and chemistry in the stratosphere from both weak and strong coupling strategies. The study was performed with the Canadian operational weather prediction Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model coupled online with the photochemical stratospheric chemistry developed at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, described in Part I. Here, the Canadian Meteorological Centre’s operational variational assimilation system was extended to include errors of chemical variables and cross-covariances between meteorological and chemical variables in a 3D-Var configuration, and we added the adjoint of tracer advection in the 4D-Var configuration. Our results show that the assimilation of limb sounding observations from the MIPAS instrument on board Envisat can be used to anchor the AMSU-A radiance bias correction scheme. Also, the added value of limb sounding temperature observations on meteorology and transport is shown to be significant. Weak coupling data assimilation with ozone-radiation interaction is shown to give comparable on meteorology whether a simplified linearized or comprehensive ozone chemistry scheme is used. Strong coupling data assimilation, using static error cross-covariances between ozone and temperature in a 3D-Var context, produced inconclusive results with the approximations we used. We have also conducted the assimilation of long-lived species observations using 4D-Var to infer winds. Our results showed the added value of assimilating several long-lived species, and an improvement in the zonal wind in the Tropics within the troposphere and lower stratosphere. 4D-Var assimilation also induced a correction of zonal wind in the surf zone and a temperature bias in the lower tropical stratosphere
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0129.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Region based theory of space; RBTS; Contact algebra; Dyadic and Triadic relations; sequent algebra; boundaries; triple junctions; mereotopology; 4D mereotopology; mereophysics; Region Connect Calculus RCC; invariant spacetime interval; Falaco solitons; phase-field method; intuitionistic logic
Online: 5 August 2021 (08:39:00 CEST)
Mereotopology is a concept rooted in analytical philosophy. The phase-field concept is based on mathematical physics and finds applications in materials engineering. The two concepts seem to be disjoint at a first glance. While mereotopology qualitatively describes static relations between things like x isConnected y (topology) or x isPartOf y (mereology) by first order logic and Boolean algebra, the phase-field concept describes the geometric shape of things and its dynamic evolution by drawing on a scalar field. The geometric shape of any thing is defined by its boundaries to one or more neighboring things. The notion and description of boundaries thus provides a bridge between mereotopology and the phase-field concept. The present article aims to relate phase-field expressions describing boundaries and especially triple junctions to their Boolean counterparts in mereotopology and contact algebra. An introductory overview on mereotopology is followed by an introduction to the phase-field concept already indicating first relations to mereo- topology. Mereotopological axioms and definitions are then discussed in detail from a phase-field perspective. A dedicated section introduces and discusses further notions of the isConnected relation emerging from the phase-field perspective like isSpatiallyConnected, isTemporallyConnected, isPhysicallyConnected, isPathConnected and wasConnected. Such relations introduce dynamics and thus physics into mereotopology as transitions from isDisconnected to isPartOf can be described.