ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0384.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: direct laser writing, multiphoton processing, laser 3D nanolithography, optical 3D printing, microstructures, nanotechnology, mesoscale, two-photon polymerization, microoptics, SZ2080
Online: 17 October 2018 (11:26:32 CEST)
3D meso-scale structures that can reach up to centimeters in overall size but retain micro- or nano-features, proved to be promising in various science fields ranging from micro-mechanical metamaterials to photonics and bio-medical scaffolds. In this work we present synchronization of the linear and galvano scanners for efficient femtosecond 3D optical printing of objects at the meso-scale (from sub-μm to sub-cm spanning five orders of magnitude). In such configuration the linear stages provide stitch-free structuring at nearly limitless (up to tens-of-cm) working area, while galvo-scanners allow to achieve translation velocities in the range of mm/s-cm/s without sacrificing nano-scale positioning accuracy and preserving undistorted shape of the final print. The principle behind this approach is demonstrated, proving its inherent advantages in comparison to separate use of only linear stages or scanners. The printing rate is calculated in terms voxels/s, showcasing the capability to maintain an optimal feature size while increasing throughput. Full capabilities of this approach are demonstrated by fabricating structures that reach millimeters in size but still retain μm-scale features: scaffolds for cell growth, microlenses and photonic crystals. All this is combined into a benchmark structure: a meso-butterfly. Provided results show that synchronization of two scan modes is crucial for the end goal of industrial-scale implementation of this technology and makes the laser printing well aligned with similar approaches in nanofabrication by electron and ion beams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 3D Printing; Microfluidics; Micromixing
Online: 14 April 2017 (06:03:24 CEST)
3D printing facilitates the straightforward construction of microchannels with complex three-dimensional architectures. Here, we demonstrate 3D-printed modular mixing components that operate on the basis of splitting and recombining fluid streams to decrease interstream diffusion length. These are compared to helical mixers that operate on the principle of chaotic advection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: intraoral scanners; digital dentistry; trueness; precision; accuracy; 3D printing; materials
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:05:37 CEST)
Introduction: The current generation of 3D printers are lighter, cheaper, and smaller, making them more accessible to the chairside digital dentist than ever before. 3D printers in general in the industrial and chairside setting can work with various types of materials including, metals, ceramics, and polymers. Evidence presented in many studies show that an ideal material used for dental restorations is characterised by several properties related to durability, cost-effectiveness, and high performance. This review is the second part in a 3D Printing series that looks at the literature on material science and applications for these materials in 3D printing as well as a discussion on the potential further development and future evolution in 3D printing materials. Conclusions: Current materials in 3D printing provide a wide range of possibilities for providing more predictable workflows as well as improving efficiency through less wasteful additive manufacturing in CAD/CAM procedures. Incorporating a 3D printer and a digital workflow into a dental practice is challenging but the wide range of manufacturing options and materials available mean that the dentist should be well prepared to treat patients with a more predictable and cost effective treatment pathway. As 3D printing continues to become a commonplace addition to chair side dental clinics, the evolution of these materials, in particular reinforced PMMA, resin incorporating zirconia and glass reinforced polymers offer increased speed and improved aesthetics that will likely replace subtractive manufacturing milling machines for most procedures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D printing; intraoral scanners; digital dentistry; trueness; precision; accuracy; history
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:57:02 CEST)
Introduction: The term 3D printing is commonly used to depict an assembling method whereby the final form of an object is the result of the addition of different layers to build the frame of an object. This procedure is more accurately portrayed as additive manufacturing and is likewise alluded to as fast prototyping. The term 3D printing, in any case, is generally new and has been an active part of current developments in Dentistry. Much publicity encompasses the evolution of 3D printing, which is hailed as an innovation that will perpetually change CAM manufacturing, including in the dental sector. This review is the first part in a 3D Printing series that looks at the history of 3D Printing, the technologies available and reviews the literature relating to the accuracy of these technologies. Conclusions: The recent advancement in digital dentistry to incorporate these tools has modernised dental practices by paving the way for computer-aided design (CAD) technology and rapid prototyping. The use of 3D printing has led to 3D digital models produced with intraoral scanners (IOS), which can be manipulated easily for diagnosis, treatment planning, mockups, and a multitude of other uses. Combining 3D Printing with a 3D intraoral scan eliminates the need for physical storage but makes it to retrieve a 3D models for use within all dental modalities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0136.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: laser 3D nanolithography; micro-optics; astrophotonics; 3D printing; additive manufacturing; SZ2080TM; hybrid materials; inorganics; imaging; high temperature.
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:04:13 CET)
A pilot study on laser 3D printing of inorganic free-form micro-optics is experimentally validated. Ultrafast laser nanolithography is employed for structuring hybrid organic-inorganic material SZ2080TM followed by high-temperature calcination post-processing. The combination allows production of 3D architectures and the heat-treatment results in converting the material to inorganic substance. The produced miniature optical elements are characterized and their optical performance demonstrated. Finally, the concept is validated for manufacturing compound optical components such as stacked lenses. This is opening for new directions and applications of laser made microoptics under harsh conditions such as high intensity radiation, temperature, acidic environment, pressure variations, which include open space, astrophotonics, and remote sensing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0352.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: 3d printing; microscopy; open-source; optics; super-resolution
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:10:24 CEST)
The maker movement has reached the optics labs, empowering researchers to actively create and modify microscope designs and imaging accessories. 3D printing has especially had a disruptive impact on the field, as it entails an accessible new approach in fabrication technologies, namely additive manufacturing, making prototyping in the lab available at low cost. Examples of this trend are taking advantage of the easy availability of 3D printing technology. For example, inexpensive microscopes for education have been designed, such as the FlyPi. Also, the highly complex robotic microscope OpenFlexure represents a clear desire for the democratisation of this technology. 3D printing facilitates new and powerful approaches to science and promotes collaboration between researchers, as 3D designs are easily shared. This holds the unique possibility to extend the open-access concept from knowledge to technology, allowing researchers from everywhere to use and extend model structures. Here we present a review of additive manufacturing applications in microscopy, guiding the user through this new and exciting technology and providing a starting point to anyone willing to employ this versatile and powerful new tool.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0590.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: 3D printing; Bioprinting; Additive Manufacturing, Tissue Engineering, Blood Vessels, Vascular Grafting
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:39:44 CET)
Abstract: The broad clinical use of synthetic vascular grafts for vascular diseases is limited by their thrombogenicity and low patency rate, especially for vessels with a diameter inferior to 6 mm. Alternatives such as tissue-engineered blood grafts (TEBGs) have gained increasing interest. Among the different manufacturing approaches, 3D bioprinting presents numerous advantages and enables the fabrication of multi-scale, multi-material, and multicellular tissues with heterogeneous and functional intrinsic structures. Extrusion-, inkjet- and light-based 3D printing techniques have been used for the fabrication of TEBG out of hydrogels, cells, and/or solid polymers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of 3D printing for TEBG with a focus on the biomaterials and deposition methods.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0772.v1
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:08:09 CET)
OBJECTIVE: Although 3D-printed anatomic models are not new to medicine, the high costs and lengthy production times entailed have limited their application. Our goal was developing a new and less costly 3D modeling method to depict organ-tumor relations at faster printing speeds. METHODS: We have devised a method of 3D modeling using DICOM images. Coordinates are extracted at a specified interval, connecting them to create mesh-work replicas. Adjacent constructs are depicted by density variations, showing anatomic targets (ie, tumors) in contrasting color. RESULTS: An array of organ solid-tumor models were printed via Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printer at significantly less cost ($0.05/cm3) and time expenditure (1.73 min/cm3; both, p<.001). Printed models helped promote visual appreciation of organ-tumor anatomy and adjacent tissues. Our mesh-work 3D thyroidal prototype reproduced glangular size/contour and tumor location, readily approximating the surgical specimen. CONCLUSIONS: This newly devised mesh-type 3D printing method may facilitate anatomic modeling for personalized care and improve patient awareness during informed surgical consent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0220.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: 3D printing; 3D scanning; customized ecological objects; methods; stereolithography; open-source lab
Online: 12 March 2020 (14:46:07 CET)
3D printing is described as the third industrial revolution: its impact is global in industry and progresses every day in society. It presents a huge potential for ecology and evolution, sciences with a long tradition of inventing and creating objects for research, education and outreach. Its general principle as an additive manufacturing technique is relatively easy to understand: objects are created by adding material layers on top of each other. Although this may seem very straightforward on paper, it is much harder in the real world. Specific knowledge is indeed needed to successfully turn an idea into a real object, because of technical choices and limitations at each step of the implementation. This article aims at helping scientists to jump in the 3D printing revolution, by offering a hands-on guide to current 3D printing technology. We first give a brief overview of uses of 3D printing in ecology and evolution, then review the whole process of object creation, split into three steps: (1) obtaining the digital 3D model of the object of interest, (2) choosing the 3D printing technology and material best adapted to the requirements of its intended use, (3) pre- and post-processing the 3D object. We compare the main technologies available and their pros and cons according to the features and the use of the object to be printed. We give specific and key details in appendices, based on examples in ecology and evolution.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D printing; tissue engineering; periodontal regeneration; scaffolds; stem cells; growth factors
Online: 24 November 2020 (16:18:17 CET)
The three-dimensional printing of scaffolds is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques of periodontal regeneration. This technique uses computer assisted design and manufacturing after CT scan. After 3D modelling, individualized scaffolds are printed by extrusion, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, or powder bed inkjet printing. These scaffolds can be made of one or several materials such as natural polymers, synthetic polymers, or bioceramics. They can be monophasic or multiphasic and tend to recreate the architectural structure of the periodontal tissue. In order to enhance the bioactivity and have a higher regeneration, the scaffolds can be embedded with stem cells and/or growth factors. This new technique could enhance a complete periodontal regeneration. This review summarizes the application of 3D printed scaffolds in periodontal regeneration. The process, the materials and designs, the key advantages and prospects of 3D bioprinting are highlighted, providing new ideas for tissue regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: circular meshes; free-form surfaces; 3D concrete printing; shell structures
Online: 15 March 2022 (06:51:19 CET)
Shell-like, double curved and thus above-average performance structures, are usually produced monolithically on site. For industrial advancement, however, they must be divided into transportable modules which can be assembled on the construction site (design for assembly). Models are lattice shells made of steel and glass, in which predominantly flat sub-surfaces (modules) are used. Therefore, the main question is: Which modularizations are suitable for flow production with mineral building materials? In this paper designed free-form surface is going to be discretized as PQ circular mesh system, suitable modules for 3D concrete printing. Moreover, the multi-criteria optimization is done with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) in order to get optimal final shape. The goal is to start from the arbitrary shape, that can be generated from two curves, with possible two-way division into modules and compare it with the resulted discretized PQ circular mesh system, realized with new algorithm. The comparison can be defined through two main criteria: geometrical and structural.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optimization; extrusion-based additive manufacturing; 3d printer; continuous fibers
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:40:25 CEST)
In this study, a novel task of printing speed optimization for continuous fiber composites is investigated. Using continuous fibers is an innovative approach to reinforce products made by fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing (AM) technology. In the printing process of composites with continuous fibers, the printing speed is critical because of its significant effect on the geometric shape of the samples, especially their corners. During optimization in this research, continuous glass fiber (CGF) and polylactic acid (PLA) filaments were utilized as reinforcing phase and matrix, respectively, and were simultaneously fed into the extrusion-based polymer 3D printer to form PLA/CGF composites. The optimization was carried out by calculating the temperature changes of the deposited rasters in the presence and absence of fibers as a first step and then determining the special relationship between the printing speeds and rasters temperature changes. Finally, the optimal and the maximum printing speed was computed based on a hypothesis, which is proved by the results of high-quality printed composites with different geometric shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0337.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: ultrafast laser microfabrication; 3D glass printing; light field manipulation
Online: 29 July 2019 (11:51:49 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has allowed for production of geometrically complex 3D objects with extreme flexibility, which is currently undergoing rapid expansions in terms of materials, functionalities, as well as areas of application. When attempting to print 3D microstructures in glass, femtosecond laser induced chemical etching (FLICE) – which is a subtractive 3D printing technique – has proved itself a powerful approach. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of macro-scale 3D glass objects of large heights up to ~3.8 cm with an identical lateral and longitudinal spatial resolution of ~20 μm. The remarkable accomplishment is achieved by revealing an unexplored regime in the interaction of ultrafast laser pulses with fused silica which results in aberration-free focusing of the laser pulses deeply inside fused silica.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0062.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wood-filled PLA; Thermal Decomposition; Starch; 3D printing
Online: 5 May 2020 (05:44:47 CEST)
Dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) analysis under nitrogen environment was used to understand the thermal decomposition process of 3D printing filaments made of wood-filled polylactic acid (PLA)/starch blend. The characteristic temperatures and apparent activation energy (AAE) of the filaments with various starch contents were calculated with well-known kinetic models by Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Coats-Redfern and Kissinger. With the increased starch content in the filament, the onset thermal decomposition temperatures of the filaments decreased gradually from 272.4 to 155.1°C. The thermal degradation degree became smaller, and the transitional temperature interval became larger with increased starch proportion. The AAE values of the three types of filaments with different starch ratios varied between 97 kJ/mol and 114 kJ/mol, depending on material composition and method of calculation. The improved understanding of thermal decomposition behavior of PLA-starch-wood composites can help develop more biodegradable PLA/starch-based filaments for 3D printing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0108.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: 3D printing technology; freshwater turtle; Ocadia Spp.; shell wound healing
Online: 8 February 2022 (12:22:31 CET)
Numerous cases and a shortage of resources usually limit wild animal rescue. New technology implemented might save these severely injured wild animals from the situation of euthanasia by easing the requirement of intensive medication. Three-dimensional (3D) technologies provide precise and accurate results that improve the quality of the medical application. These 3D tools have become relatively low-cost and accessible in the past years. In the medical field of exotic animal, turtle shell defect is highly challenging because of inevitable water immersion. This report is the first attempt to apply the combination of 3D scanning, computer-aid design (CAD), and 3D printing to make a protective device that frees the wound from exposure to water or infection sources. The presenting techniques successfully extricate a wild freshwater turtle from an extensive shell defect within a short period. Integration of multiple sciences to 3D technology can provide a facile model for veterinary medical applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Fatigue data; Polylactic acid; Additive manufacturing, 3D printing, Fused deposition modeling
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:44:17 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) are used in several industries such as automotive, aerospace, and medical sciences. One of the most common devices used in additive manufacturing is fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers. This fabrication method has different inputs that affect the quality of the parts. In this research, the bending fatigue properties of polylactic acid (PLA) biomaterial made with a 3D printer are investigated. To demonstrate the influence of printing parameters on fatigue lifetime, standard specimens with nozzle diameters of 0.2-0.6 mm, extruder temperature of 180-240°C, and print speed of 5-15 mm/s were printed. After performing fully-reversed bending fatigue tests, it was found that printed specimens at 180°C have the best fatigue lifetime in most cases. Accordingly, fatigue behavior improved by reducing the nozzle diameter. Printing at lower temperatures also improved fatigue lifetime. The printing speed affected the slope of the S-N diagram, known as the fatigue strength exponent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; flexural properties; fatigue; PLA
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:46:18 CET)
This paper aims to analyse the mechanical properties response of polylactic acid (PLA) parts manufactured through fused filament fabrication. The influence of six manufacturing factors (layer height, filament width, fill density, layer orientation, printing velocity, and infill pattern) on the flexural resistance of PLA specimens is studied through an L27 Taguchi experimental array. Different geometries have been tested on a four-point bending machine and on a rotating bending machine. From the first experimental phase, an optimal set of parameters deriving in the highest flexural resistance have been determined. Results show that layer orientation is the most influential parameter, followed by layer height, filament width, and printing velocity, whereas the fill density and infill pattern show no significant influence. Finally, the fatigue fracture behaviour is evaluated and compared with previous studies results, to present a comprehensive study of the mechanical properties of the material under different kind of solicitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete frames; modules; gridshell structures; 3D concrete printing; digital construction; SHCC; ECC
Online: 16 March 2022 (09:33:46 CET)
Despite all their advantages, load-bearing concrete shell structures with double curvatures are not frequently in use. The main reason is the complexity of their construction. In such a context, this article starts with a brief, critical review of existing technologies while their pros and cons are highlighted. Against that background the authors then propose a new approach for the highly automated fabrication of gridshell structures from variable modules. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a new technology, a demonstrator called ConDIT 1.0, a sphere-like shell structure composed of several frames was designed and built. The frame modules were fabricated automatically using extrusion-based 3D printing and a printable, strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC). This article presents the design of ConDIT 1.0, the mechanical material characterization of printed SHCC, the technology of module production, the results of geometry verification for print modules using 3D scanning, and the procedure for the demonstrator’s assembly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0196.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; dual-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3d printing
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:33:03 CEST)
The kinetics and modeling of dual-wavelength controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC) are presented and measured data are analyzed by analytic formulas and numerical data. The UV-light initiated inhibition effect is strongly monomer-dependent and different monomers have different C=C bond rate constants and conversion efficacy. Without the UV-light, for a given blue-light intensity, higher initiator concentration (C10) and rate constant (k’) lead to higher conversion, as also predicted by analytic formulas, in which the total conversion rate (RT) is an increasing function of k’R, which is proportional to k[gB1C1]0.5. However, the coupling factor b1 plays a different role that higher b1 leads to higher conversion only in the transient regime; whereas higher b1 leads lower steady-state conversion. For a fixed initiator concentration C10, higher inhibitor concentration (C20) leads to lower conversion due to stronger inhibition effect. However, same conversion reduction was found for the same H-factor of H0 = [b1C10 - b2C20]. Conversion of blue-only are much higher than that of UV-only and UV-blue combined, in which high C20 results a strong reduction of blue-only-conversion, such that the UV-light serves as the turn-off (trigger) mechanism for the purpose of spatial confirmation within the overlap area of UV and blue light. For example, UV-light controlled methacrylate conversion of a glycidyl dimethacrylate resin formulated with a tertiary amine co-initiator, and butyl nitrite, subject to a continuous exposure of a blue light, but an on-off exposure of a UV-light. Finally, we developed a theoretical new finding for the criterion of a good material/candidate governed by a double ratio of light-intensity and concentration, [I20C20.]/[I10C10].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0060.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panel; three-point bending; 3D printing; core shape; number of core layers
Online: 2 August 2022 (10:00:47 CEST)
Single-layer core corrugated sandwich panels generally consist of a corrugated core and two layers of panels, while multi-layer core corrugated sandwich panels are formed by stacking multiple layers of panels with multiple layers of core layers. In this study, integrated multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels with different shapes of corrugated cores (triangular, trapezoidal, and rectangular) and the different number of core layers were fabricated using 3D printing technology, and the mechanical behavior of such multilayer core corrugated sandwich panels under quasi-static three-point bending was investigated using experiments and numerical simulations. The effects of core shape and number of core layers on the bending deformation process, damage mode, load carrying capacity, and bending energy dissipation capacity of multilayer core sandwich panels are discussed. Parametric design of multilayer triangular core corrugated sandwich panels was also carried out by finite element software ABAQUS. It was found that a new multilayer corrugated sandwich panel with a multi-layer core is better than the single core shape multilayer corrugated sandwich panel in terms of bending load capacity, energy dissipation capacity and deformation capacity can be obtained through the combination design of different core shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0125.v1
Subject: Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Thermal stress; Additive manufacturing; Mechanical properties; Thermomechanical simulation
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:44:50 CEST)
Metal 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing method. The quality of the printed product can pass for mechanical application, if the anisotropy of the microstructure, imperfections, deformation, and residual stress of the printed sample could be lower than the appropriate level or if they are fully illuminated. Thermal stress is one of the significant reasons for deformation in the 3D printed samples. Thermal stresses are the direct consequence of the local temperature gradient. In this research, the effect of the temperature printer’s chamber (from room temperature to 900 C) was studied on thermal stress and subsequent total deformation in the printed sample. The printed sample is a six-layers-printed walk, which could be considered as a building block of other complex shapes and give us inside about deformation. The computational results show a meaningful reduction in thermal stress and deformation at the higher temperature of the printer’s chamber. The lower final deformation of the printed sample is an important subject, especially for samples with complex shapes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; 3D Printing; Additive Manufacturing; Medical Applications; Open-source files; Innovation
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:24:14 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) rapidly spread to over 180 countries and abruptly disrupted the production rates and supply chains worldwide. Since then, 3D printing also recognized as additive manufacturing (AM) and known to be a novel technique that uses layer-by-layer deposition of material to produce the intricate 3D geometry, has been engaged in reducing the distress caused by the outbreak. During the early stages of this pandemic, shortages of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE), including facemasks, shields, respirators, and other medical gears, were significantly answered by remotely 3D printing them. Amidst the growing testing requirements, the 3D printing emerged as a potential and fast solution manufacturing process to meet the production needs due to its flexibility, reliability, and rapid response capabilities. In the recent past, some of the other medical applications that have gained prominence in the scientific community include 3D printed ventilator splitters, device components, and patient-specific products. Regarding the non-medical applications, researchers have successfully developed contact-free devices to address the sanitary crisis in public places. This work aims to systematically review the applications of 3D printing or AM techniques that have been involved in producing various critical products essential to limit this deadly pandemic's progression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0222.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Keywords: regenerative medicine; tissue engineering; decellularized extracellular matrix; 3D bioprinting; bioink, scaffolds; biofabrication; transplantation.
Online: 21 August 2019 (09:46:26 CEST)
Abstract: The promise of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is founded on the ability to regenerate diseased or damaged tissues and organs into functional tissues and organs or the creation of new tissues and organs altogether. In theory, all damaged and diseased tissues and organs can be regenerated or created using different configurations and combinations of extracellular matrix, cells and inductive biomolecules. Currently, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering can allow the improvement of patients’ quality of life through availing novel treatment options. Tissues and organs have a specific ECM, with specific proteins and factors released by cells residing within the local microenvironment. The coupling of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering field with 3D printing is revolutionizing the treatment of patients in a huge way. 3D bioprinting allows the proper placement of cells and ECMs, allowing the recapitulation of native microenvironments of tissues and organs. 3D bioprinting utilizes different bioinks made up of different formulations of ECM/biomaterials, biomolecules and even cells. The choice of the bioink used during 3D bioprinting is very important as properties such as printability, compatibility and physical strength influence the final construct printed. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides both physical and mechanical microenvironment needed by cells to survive and proliferate. Decellularized ECM bioink contains biochemical cues from the original native ECM and also the right proportions of ECM proteins. Different techniques and characterization methods are used to derive bioinks from several tissues and organs and to evaluate their quality. This review discusses the uses of decellularized ECM bioinks and argues that they represent the most biomimetic bioinks available. In addition, we briefly discuss some polymer-based bioinks utilized in 3D bioprinting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: kinetic model; 3-wavelength; photopolymerization; spatial confirmation; additive manufacturing; 3D printing
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:16:16 CET)
Detailed kinetics for a 3-wavelength photopolymerization confinement (PC) system is presented for both numerical solutions and analytic formulas. The dynamic profiles are simulated for oxygen, free radical, and conversion for various situations of: blue-light only, 2-light (red and UV), and 3-light (red, blue, UV). An effective PC requires two conditions: (i) a strong N-inhibition for uncured regime with a low conversion (triggered by the UV-light); and (ii) a weak S-inhibition (oxygen-induced) for high conversion under the blue-light or blue and red-light initiation. Good PC candidates are governed by collective factors of: (i) the double ratio of light-intensity and initiator-concentration, (ii) monomers rate-constant; and (iii) effective absorption constants at specific wavelength and initiators. A new reverse feature for the role of N-inhibition on the blue-conversion is found. Higher oxygen concentration leads to a lower conversion, which could be enhanced by reducing the S-inhibition via a red or blue-light pre-irradiation, having a pre-irradiation time TP=200 s for red-light only, and reduced to 150 s, when both red and blue-light. System under UV-only leads a conversion lower than that of blue-only. However, conversion could be improved by the dual-light (blue and UV), and further enhanced by the pre-irradiation of red-light. The two competing factors, N-inhibition and S-inhibition, could be independently and selectively tailored to achieve: (a) high conversion of blue-light (without UV-light), enhanced by red-light pre-irradiation for minimal S-inhibition; and (b) efficient PC initiated by UV-light produced N-inhibition for reduced confinement thickness and for high print speed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0360.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: earthen buildings; 3D printing; sustainability; biocomposites; aging; mechanical properties; lime carbonation; vulcanization
Online: 11 January 2022 (12:14:21 CET)
This paper is part of a study of earthen mixtures for 3D printing of buildings. To meet the ever-growing environmental needs, the focus of the paper is on a particular type of biocomposite for the stabilization of earthen mixtures—the rice husk-lime biocomposite—and on how to enhance its effect on the long-term mechanical properties of the hardened product. Having assumed that the shredding of the vegetable fiber is precisely one of the possible ways to improve the mechanical properties, we compared the results of uniaxial compression tests performed on cubic specimens made with both shredded and unaltered vegetable fiber, for three curing periods. The results showed that the hardened earthen mixture is not a brittle material in the strict sense, because it exhibits some peculiar behaviors, anomalous for a brittle material. However, being a “designable” material, its properties can be varied with a certain flexibility to get as close as possible to the desired ones. One of the peculiar properties of the hardened earthen mixture deserves further investigation, rather than corrections. This is the vulcanization that occurs (in a completely natural way) in the long term, thanks to the mineralization of the vegetable fiber by carbonation of the lime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0450.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polymer; polymer composite; 3D printing; FDM; fused deposition modeling; FFF; fused filament fabrication
Online: 16 April 2021 (16:52:42 CEST)
The paper formulates requirements for a polymer material for molding products from it by fused deposition modeling. A methodology for evaluating the suitability of a polymer or composite of thereof in 3D printing technology has been developed. A graphic representation of the developed methodology in the form of a temperature-shear rate logarithm diagram is proposed. Application of the proposed methodology makes it possible to simplify the development of new materials for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling both at the stage of selecting the components of the polymer composition and at the stage of its subsequent approbation.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: 3D printings; additive manufacturing; polymerization kinetics; photoredox; monomer conversion; synergic effects; cationic; free radical. UV visible light.
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:29:11 CEST)
The synergic features and enhancing strategies for various photopolymerization systems are reviewed by kinetic schemes and the associated measurements. The important topics include: (i) photo crosslinking of corneas for the treatmnet of corneal deseases using UVA-light (365 nm) light and riboflavin as the photosensitizer; (ii) synergic effects by a dual-function enhancer in a 3-initiator system; (iii) synergic effects by a 3-initiator C/B/A system, having an electron-transfer and oxygen-mediated energy-transfer pathways; (iv) copper-complex (G1) photoredox catalyst in G1/Iod/NVK systems for free radiical (FRP) and cationic photopolymeriation (CP); (v) radical-mediated thiol-ene (TE) photopolymerizations; (vi) superbase photogenerator based-catalyzed thiol−acrylate Michael (TM) addition reaction; and the combined system of TE and TM usinghual wavelength; (vii) dual-wavelength (UV and blue) controlled photopolymerization confinement (PC); (viii) dual-wavelength (UV and red) selectively controlled 3D printing; and (ix) 3-wavelength selectively controlled in 3D printing and additive manufacturing (AM). With minimum mathematics, we present ( for the first time), the synergic features and enhancing strategies for various systems of multi-commponents, initiators, monomers, and under one- two- and there-wavelength light. Therefore, this Review provides not only the bridging between modeling and measurements, but also guidances for further experimantal stuides and new applications in 3D printings and additive manufacturing (AM), based on the innovative concepts (kinetics/schemes).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Digital construction, concrete, 3D-printing, extrusion-based deposition, layer interfaces, bond strength, cold joints, concrete testing
Online: 3 October 2018 (17:44:13 CEST)
Interfaces between layers in 3D-printed elements produced by extrusion-based material deposition were investigated on both macro- and micro-scales. On the macro-scale, compression and bend tests were performed on two 3D-printable cement-based compositions (3PCs), namely C1 and C2. The influences of binder composition and time interval between layers on layer-interface strength were critically analyzed. In the context of additive manufacturing, the optimized composition C2, containing pozzolanic additives, exhibited mechanical performance superior to that of the mixture with Portland cement as the sole binder. In particular, Mixture C2 showed a less pronounced decrease in interface tensile strength. Even for time intervals between depositions of two layers as long as 1 day the loss in corresponding flexural strength was below 25%, as compared with C2 specimens tested in the perpendicular direction. In contrast, the decrease in flexural strength measured for C1 specimens amounted to over 90% for the same set of parameters. Higher porosity at the interfaces of the printed concrete layers was identified as the cause for the lower interface strengths of C1. Microscopic observations supported the findings of the macroscopic investigations. While a pronounced recovery (“self-healing”) of the porous, discontinuous interlayers was observed with increasing age for Mixture C2, in case of C1 the filling products grown in the porous interlayer were found to be non-strengthening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cloud Manufacturing(CMfg); 3D Printing Device Resources; HPSO; Muti-objective Optimization; Baldwin effect
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:20:59 CET)
Focusing on service control factors, rapid changes in manufacturing environments, the difficulty of resource allocation evaluation, resource optimization for 3D printing services (3DPSs) in cloud manufacturing environments and so on, an indicator evaluation framework is proposed for the cloud 3D printing (C3DP) order task execution process based on a Pareto optimal set algorithm that is optimized and evaluated for remotely distributed 3D printing equipment resources. Combined with the multi-objective method of data normalization, an optimization model for C3DP order execution based on the Pareto optimal set algorithm is constructed with these agents' dynamic autonomy and distributed processing. This model can perform functions such as automatic matching and optimization of candidate services, and it is dynamic and reliable in the C3DP order task execution process based on the Pareto optimal set algorithm. Finally, a case study is designed to test the applicability and effectiveness of the C3DP order task execution process based on the analytic hierarchy process and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (AHP-TOPSIS) optimal set algorithm and the Baldwin effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; microscopy; CAD; FDM; cell shape; cytoskeleton; tactile education; data visualization; modelling; Materialise Mimics; CiTo-3DP
Online: 10 May 2022 (10:10:24 CEST)
Additive manufacturing (3D printing) and computer-aided design (CAD) still have limited up-take in biomedical and bioengineering research and education, despite the significant potential of these technologies. The utility of organ-scale 3D-printed models of living structures is widely appreciated, while the workflows for microscopy data translation into tactile-accessible replicas are not well developed yet. Here, we demonstrate an accessible and reproducible CAD-based methodology for generating 3D-printed scalable models of human cells cultured in vitro and imaged using conventional scanning confocal microscopy and fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing. We termed this technology CiTo-3DP (Cells-in-Touch for 3D Printing). As a proof-of-concept, we created CiTo-3DP models of human pancreatic cancer cells and healthy dermal fibroblasts by using selectively stained nuclei and the cytoskeleton components (f-actin and α-smooth muscle actin). The production of dismountable sets of cellular components was al-so shown. The CiTo-3DP approach can be adapted to comprehensively present various cell types, subcellular structures and extracellular matrices. We envisage that the resulting CAD and 3D printed models could be used for further applications, including but not limited to in silico simulations for biology, medicine, pharmacological research, tissue engineering, morphometrical analysis, multiphysics modelling, education, rehabilitation of visually impaired people, and integration into virtual reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0715.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 3D-concrete-printing; additive manufacturing; extrusion processes simulation; regularized Bingham model; fresh concrete; particle finite element method
Online: 30 July 2020 (10:46:53 CEST)
To enable purposeful design and implementation of automated concrete technologies, precise assessment and prediction of the complex material flow at various stages of the process chain are necessary. This paper investigates the intermediate stage of the extrusion and deposition processes in extrusion-based 3D-concrete-printing, using a numerical model based on the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). In PFEM, due to the Lagrangian description of motion, remeshing algorithms and the alpha shape method are used to track the free surface during large deformation scenarios. The Bingham constitutive model was used for describing the rheological behaviour of fresh concrete. This model is validated by comparing the numerically predicted layer geometries with those obtained from laboratory 3D printing experiments. Extensive parametric studies were then conducted using the numerical simulation, delineating the influence of process and material parameters on the layer geometries, the dynamic surface forces generated under the extrusion nozzle and the inter-layer interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0446.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: photo-polymerization kinetics; monomer conversion; metal composited; enhancement effects; curing depth; 3D printing; addative manufacturing
Online: 7 February 2022 (12:52:53 CET)
This article presents, for the first time, the efficacy and curing depth analysis of photo-thermal dual polymerization in metal (Fe) polymer composites for 3D printing of a 3-component (A/B/M) system based on the proposed mechanism of our group, in which the co initiators A and B are Irgacure-369, and charge-transfer complexes (CTC), respectively; and the monomer M is filled by Fe. Our formulas show the depth of curing (Zc) is an increasing function of the light intensity, but a decreasing function of the Fe and photoinitiator concentrations. Zc is enhanced by the additive [B] which produces extra thermal radical for polymerization under high temperature. The heat (or temperature) increase in the system has two components : (i) due to the light absorption of Fe filler, and (ii) heat released from the exothermic photopolymerization of the monomer. The heat is transported to the additive (or co-initiator) [B] to produce extra radical R' and enhance the monomer conversion function (CF). The Fe filler leads to temperature increase, but also limits the light penetration leading to lower CF and Zc, which could be overcome by the additive initiator [B] in thick polymers. Optimal Fe for maximal CF and Zc are explored theoretically.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0057.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM); Functionally Graded Materials (FGM); Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP; ceramics; ceramic-based 4D-components; zirconia; graded microstructure
Online: 10 October 2017 (03:21:04 CEST)
In our study we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology Thermoplastic 3D-Printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with a varying microstructure were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore forming agents (PFA) and were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Different zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for AM of single- and multi-material test components. All samples were sintered defect-free and in the end we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. The T3DP opens the door to AM of further ceramic-based 4D-components like multi-color or multi-material, especially multi-functional components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: 3D printing (3DP), Construction processes, Architectural design, Concrete Engineering, Numerical Modelling, Arch-Roof, High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Additive manufacturing (AM), Computer-aided design (CAD), Manufacture, Design, Sustainability
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:39:43 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across a variety of disciplines, however their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries and have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets to their application in fabricating functional products, large objects and the construction of full-scale buildings. Many international projects have recently been realized and the construction industry is beginning to utilise these dynamic technologies. The potential advantages for integrating 3D printing into house construction are significant, these include the capacity for mass customization of designs and parameters for functional and aesthetic purposes, reduction in construction waste from highly precise material placement, and the use of recycled waste products in layer deposition materials. With the ultimate goal of improving construction efficiency and decreasing building costs, applying Strand7 Finite Element Analysis software, a numerical model was designed specifically for 3D printing in a cement mix incorporated with recycled waste product High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and found that construction of an arched truss-like roof was structurally feasible without the need for steel reinforcements. The lab sizes prototypes were manufactured based on the destined numerical model by using a 3D printing technology. Currently available 3D printing technologies can be adopted for building construction and this paper discusses the applications, advantages, limitations and future directions of 3D printing as an innovative and viable solution for affordable house construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0305.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: site-specific; melt pool size; control; closed-loop; additive manufacturing; Directed Energy Deposition; 3D printing; metal; Titanium; lasers
Online: 27 September 2019 (08:26:46 CEST)
A variety of techniques have been utilized in metal additive manufacturing (AM) for melt pool size management, including modeling and feed-forward approaches. In a few cases, closed-loop control has been demonstrated. In this research, closed-loop melt pool size control for large-scale, laser-wire based Directed Energy Deposition is demonstrated with a novel modification: site-specific changes to the controller set-point were commanded at trigger points, the locations of which were generated by the projection of a secondary geometry onto the primary 3D-printed component geometry. The present work shows that, through this technique, it is possible to print a specific geometry that occurs beyond the actual toolpath of the print head. This is denoted as an extra-toolpath geometry and is fundamentally different from other methods of generating component features in metal AM. A proof-of-principle experiment is presented in which a complex oak leaf geometry was embossed on an otherwise ordinary double-bead wall made from Ti-6Al-4V. The process is introduced and characterized primarily from a controls perspective with reports on the performance of the control system, the melt pool size response, and the resulting geometry. The implications of this capability, which extend beyond localized control of bead geometry to the potential mitigations of defects and functional grading of component properties, are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0303.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: 3D bioprinting; 3D printing; bioink; cancer; cell biology
Online: 24 February 2022 (08:08:44 CET)
Tumor cells evolve in a complex and heterogeneous environment composed of different cell types and an extracellular matrix. Current 2D culture methods are very limited in their ability to mimic the cancer cell environment. In recent years, various 3D models of cancer cells have been developed, notably in the form of spheroids/organoids, using scaffold or cancer-on-chip devices. However, these models have the disadvantage of not being able to precisely control the organization of multiple cell types in complex architecture and are sometimes not very reproducible in their production, and this is especially true for spheroids. Three-dimensional bioprinting can produce complex, multi-cellular, and reproducible constructs in which the matrix composition and rigidity can be adapted locally or globally to the tumor model studied. For these reasons, 3D bioprinting seems to be the technique of choice to mimic the tumor microenvironment in vivo as closely as possible. In this review, we discuss different 3D-bioprinting technologies, including bioinks and crosslinkers that can be used for in vitro cancer models, and the techniques used to study cells grown in hydrogels; finally, we provide some applications of bioprinted cancer models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0075.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: femtosecond laser 3D microfabrication; 3D printing; nanotechnology; microfluidics; lab-on-chip
Online: 13 April 2017 (10:32:29 CEST)
An approach employing ultrafast laser hybrid subtractive-additive microfabrication combining ablation, 3D nanolithography and welding is proposed for the realization of Lab-On-Chip (LOC) device. Single amplified Yb:KGW fs-pulsed laser source is shown to be suitable for fabricating microgrooves in glass slabs, polymerization of fine-meshes filter out of hybrid organic-inorganic photopolymer SZ2080 inside them, and, lastly, sealing the whole chip with cover glass into a single monolithic piece. The created microfluidic device proved its particle sorting function by separating 1 μm and 10 μm polystyrene spheres in a mixture. All together, this shows that fs-laser microfabrication technology is a flexible and versatile tool for the manufacturing of mesoscale multi-material LOC devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0466.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: 3D Zernike moments; 3D Zernike radial polynomials; 3D Zernike polynomials; Spherical harmonics; Recurrence formula; Matrix Lie Group; Group action
Online: 25 November 2021 (09:54:08 CET)
3D Zernike moments based on 3D Zernike polynomials have been successfully applied to the field of voxelized 3D shape retrieval and have attracted more attention in biomedical image processing. As the order of 3D Zernike moments increases, both computational efficiency and numerical accuracy decrease. Due to this phenomenon, a more efficient and stable method for computing high-order 3D Zernike moments was proposed in this study. The proposed recursive formula for computing 3D Zernike radial polynomials combines the recursive calculation of spherical harmonics to develop a voxel-based algorithm for the calculation of 3D Zernike moments. The algorithm was applied to the 3D shape Michelangelo's David with a size of 150×150×150 voxels. As compared to the method without additional acceleration, the proposed method uses a group action of order sixteen orthogonal group and saving unnecessary iterations, the factor of speed-up is 56.783±3.999 when the order of Zernike moments is between 10 and 450. The proposed method also obtained an accurate reconstructed shape with the error rate (normalized mean square error) of 0.00 (4.17×10^-3) when the reconstruction was computed for all moments up to order 450.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0104.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:07:28 CET)
In the production of green parts from powder, there is unavoidable slight deviation in the die filling, even when high-quality powders are used. The quantity of powder in the die varies and thus affects the weight of the compact. This filling variation results in variation of the pressing force, and thus influences the part geometry. The development of the DORST Netshape® System was conceived as an autonomous manufacturing system in order to compensate for these effects. Based on the Dorst Industry 4.0 innovations for part weight measuring immediately after pressing in combination with a laser dimension measuring system, this technology package attempts to reach enhanced precision and consistency in production. The paper presents results from various trials that show the capability of this new system, designed to improve the quality of pressed parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0103.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:07:12 CET)
This paper presents the results of the investigation of composite sinters W-TiB2 which were used as an electrode in the process of electro-spark deposition (ESD) and the examination of the deposited layers. The scope of the study includes detailed characteristics of powder mixtures, composite sinters made using the spark plasma sintering method (SPS) and layers deposited in the electro-spark process. The ESD process, using the W+30 vol.% TiB2 electrode, was carried out using an automated device. The substrates were made of copper and aluminium. The topography analysis of the surfaces of the composite layer and the evaluation of their wear resistance properties are also presented. The analysis of the results of research showed the possibility to obtain, using the SPS method, composite materials of good quality, which can be used as electrodes in the ESD process. The obtained layers had increased wear resistance in relation to the substrate material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0041.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:07:02 CET)
We present progress in fast, high-resolution imaging, material classification, and fault detection using hyperspectral X-ray measurements. Classical X-ray CT approaches rely on data from many projection angles, resulting in long acquisition and reconstruction times. Additionally, conventional CT cannot distinguish between materials with similar densities. However, in additive manufacturing, the majority of materials used are known a priori. This knowledge allows to vastly reduce the data collected and increase the accuracy of fault detection. In this context, we propose an imaging method for non-destructive testing of materials based on the combination of spectral X-ray CT and discrete tomography. We explore the use of spectral X-ray attenuation models and measurements to recover the characteristic functions of materials in heterogeneous media with piece-wise uniform composition. We show by means of numerical simulation that using spectral measurements from a small number of angles, our approach can alleviate the typical deterioration of spatial resolution and the appearance of streaking artifacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0026.v1
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:41:04 CET)
Fatigue remains a challenge especially for high end metal AM parts and materials. From a design perspective, the fatigue limit of an AM solution can be improved upon by optimizing the manufacturing process for a certain material and part. In addition, improved accuracy of design methodologies aids in capturing the features critical for fatigue and quantifies their significance to desired part lifetime as well as providing a basis for their avoidance. In current work we present an overall concept merging thermomechanical process and powder bed solidification modeling to micromechanical analysis of fatigue of the resulting material microstructure. Material features critical to fatigue, particularly surface roughness, internal defects such as porosity and cracks and on the other hand inclusions, can be assessed directly on the basis of AM part microstructure with respect to the resulting fatigue limit. Case analyses consist of maraging steel and nickel alloys. The overall scheme provides a basis for optimization of metal AM solutions against fatigue and multiscale modeling founded basis for fatigue design.
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:59:58 CET)
Quality assurance has been one of the major challenges in laser-based additive manufacturing (AM) processes. This study proposes a novel process modeling methodology for layer-wise in-situ quality monitoring based on image series analysis. An image-based autoregressive (AR) model has been proposed based on the image registration function between consecutively observed thermal images. Image registration is used to extract melt pool location and orientation change between consecutive images, which contains sensing stability information. Subsequently, a Gaussian process model is used to characterize the spatial correlation within the error matrix. Finally, the extracted features from the aforementioned processes are jointly used for layer-wise quality monitoring. A case study of a thin wall fabrication by a Directed Laser Deposition (DLD) process is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.
Online: 28 January 2021 (15:30:45 CET)
Additive Manufacturing (AM) simplifies the fabrication of complex geometries. Its scope has rapidly expanded from the fabrication of pre-production visualization models to the manufacturing of end use parts driving the need for better part quality assurance in the additively manufactured parts. Machine learning (ML) is one of the promising techniques that can be used to achieve this goal. Current research in this field includes the use of supervised and unsupervised ML algorithms for quality control and prediction of mechanical properties of AM parts. This paper explores the applications of supervised learning algorithms - Support Vector Machines and Random Forests. Support vector machines provide high accuracy in classifying the data and is used to decide whether the final parts have the desired properties. Random Forests consist of an ensemble of decision trees capable of both classification and regression. This paper reviews the implementation of both algorithms and analyzes the research carried out on their applications in AM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0362.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: 3D reconstruction; 3D data smoothing; mesh simplification; high resolution micro-CT images
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:34:27 CEST)
Three-dimensional reconstruction plays an important role in assisting doctors and surgeons in diagnosing bone defects’ healing progress. Common three-dimensional reconstruction methods include surface and volume rendering. As the focus is on the shape of the bone, volume rendering is omitted. Many improvements have been made on surface rendering methods like Marching Cubes and Marching Tetrahedra, but not many on working towards real-time or near real-time surface rendering for large medical images, and studying the effects of different parameter settings for the improvements. Hence, in this study, an attempt towards near real-time surface rendering for large medical images is made. Different parameter values are experimented on to study their effect on reconstruction accuracy, reconstruction and rendering time, and the number of vertices and faces. The proposed improvement involving three-dimensional data smoothing with convolution kernel Gaussian size 0.5 and mesh simplification reduction factor of 0.1, is the best parameter value combination for achieving a good balance between high reconstruction accuracy, low total execution time, and a low number of vertices and faces. It has successfully increased the reconstruction accuracy by 0.0235%, decreased the total execution time by 69.81%, and decreased the number of vertices and faces by 86.57% and 86.61% respectively.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0556.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Solar radiation; 3D city models; Urban environment; GRASS GIS r.sun; 3D extension
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:20:40 CEST)
Solar3D is an open-source software application designed to interactively calculate solar irradiation at three-dimensional (3D) surfaces in a virtual environment constructed with combinations of 3D city models, digital elevation models (DEMs), digital surface models (DSMs) and feature layers. The GRASS GIS r.sun solar radiation model computes solar irradiation based on two-dimensional (2D) raster maps for given day, latitude, surface and atmospheric conditions. With the increasing availability of 3D city models and demand for solar energy, there is an urgent need for better tools to computes solar radiation directly with 3D city models. Solar3D extends GRASS GIS r.sun from 2D to 3D by feeding the model with input, including surface slope, aspect and time-resolved shading, that is derived directly from the 3D scene using computer graphics techniques. To summarize, Solar3D offers several new features which, as a whole, distinguish itself from existing 3D solar irradiation tools: (1) the ability to consume massive heterogeneous 3D city models, including massive 3D city models such as oblique airborne photogrammetry-based 3D city models (OAP3Ds or integrated meshes); (2) the ability to perform near real-time pointwise calculation for duration from daily to annual; (3) the ability to integrate and interactively explore large-scale heterogeneous geospatial data. (4) the ability to calculate solar irradiation at arbitrary surface positions including at rooftops, facades and the ground. Solar3D is publicly available at https://github.com/jian9695/Solar3D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0001.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: direct laser writing; ultrafast laser; 3D laser lithography; 3D printing; hybrid polymer; integrated microoptics; optical damage; photonics; pyrolysis; ceramic 3D structures
Online: 1 November 2016 (04:59:50 CET)
We introduce optically clear and resilient free-form micro-optical of pure (non-photosensitized) organic-inorganic SZ2080 material made by femtosecond 3D laser lithography (3DLL). This is advantageous for rapid printing of 3D micro-/nanooptics, including their integration directly onto optical fibers. A systematic study on the fabrication peculiarities and quality of resultant structures is performed. Comparison of microlenses’ resiliency to CW and femtosecond pulsed exposure is determined. Experimental results prove that pure SZ2080 is ∼3 fold more resistant to high irradiance as compared with a standard photo-sensitized material and can sustain up to 1.91 GW/cm2 intensity. 3DLL is a promising manufacturing approach for high-intensity micro-optics for emerging fields in astro-photonics and atto-second pulse generation. Additionally, pyrolysis is employed to shrink structures up to 40% by removing organic SZ2080 constituents. This opens a promising route towards downscaling photonic lattices and creation of mechanically robust glass-ceramic structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0754.v1
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:34:49 CEST)
Path planning in 3D environment is a fundamental research area for robots and autonomous vehicles. Based on the principle ``the shortest path consists of tangents'', RimJump* is proposed as a tangent-based path planning method suitable for finding the shortest path (both off-ground and on-ground) in 3D space (e.g., octomap and point cloud) for mobile platform to follow. RimJump* searches the tangent graph in the form of a path tree and considers the geometrical properties of the locally shortest path. Therefore, the method can provide all of the locally shortest paths that connect the starting point and the target, including the globally shortest path. And the time cost of RimJump* is insensitive to map scale increases in comparison to methods that search the whole passable space rather than the surface of the obstacle, e.g., Dijkstra and A*. In the Results, RimJump* is compared with other methods in terms of path length and time cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0490.v1
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:43:11 CEST)
Background: Melatonin is a potent mitochondrial, cytoprotective and antioxidant molecule with potentially strong anti-aging properties. Topical melatonin has shown to improve the clinical signs of skin aging. Melatosphere™ is a new lipid-based delivery system able to improve stability and skin penetration of melatonin when used in topical formulations. No clinical studies, using objective instrumental data, are available so far regarding the positive effect of Melatosphere™ in improving wrinkles in women with mild-to-moderate skin aging. Study Aim: We evaluate, in an open prospective, evaluator-blinded trial, the effects on skin texture of 2 months treatment with a Melatosphere™ based cream. Subjects and Methods: 15 women aged >45 years with mild to moderate facial skin aging (Glogau score ≥2) participated in the trial, after their informed consent. An ANTERA 3D computer-assisted skin analysis evaluation for the assessment of coarse and fine wrinkles of the periorbital area and melanin content was performed at baseline and after two months of treatment. An evaluator-blinded Investigator Global assessment of skin elastosis, roughness, level of dyscromia, skin dryness and presence of actinic damage was also performed at the same time points using a 4-grade score from 0 (no sign) to 3 (severe sign). Results: At baseline the mean (SD) IGA score was 8.2(1.0). After 2 months the IGA score significantly decrease to 4.2(1.4) (49% reduction) (P=0.0007). ANTERA 3D evaluations showed a significant reduction in skin coarse and fine wrinkles volume in the target area of -31% and -18%, respectively. Melanin content was reduced significantly by -17%. Conclusion: Topical melatonin carried in Melatosphere improves in the short-term signs of skin aging evaluated clinically and by ANTERA 3D device in women with mild to moderate skin aging.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0071.v1
Online: 4 September 2018 (15:02:50 CEST)
We demonstrated a new approach to the production of three-dimensional-coated patterns using liquid route. Metallic perovskite oxides were coated onto three-dimensional (3D) microstructured substrates with different aspect ratios. The success of the method relies on the solution viscosity monitored by adding viscous liquid. The process of oxide thin films consists in three steps: preparing the precursor solution, coating the solution by spin-coating process onto three-dimensional-Si substrates and post-annealing. The chemical solution 3D-coating is conformal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Terrestrial photogrammetry, 3D reconstruction, Low-cost technology, 3D model, bundle adjustment, Agisoft PhotoScan, C2C
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:35:32 CET)
This paper analyses and evaluate the precision and the accuracy the capability of low-cost terrestrial photogrammetry by using many digital cameras to construct a 3D model of an object. To obtain the goal, a building façade has imaged by two inexpensive digital cameras such as Canon and Pentax camera. Bundle adjustment and image processing calculated by using Agisoft PhotScan software. Several factors will be included during this study, different cameras, and control points. Many photogrammetric point clouds will be generated. Their accuracy will be compared with some natural control points which collected by the laser total station of the same building. The cloud to cloud distance will be computed for different comparison 3D models to investigate different variables. The practical field experiment showed a spatial positioning reported by the investigated technique was between 2-4cm in the 3D coordinates of a façade. This accuracy is optimistic since the captured images were processed without any control points.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Additive-Manufacturing, 3D Printing, Glass-Ceramics, Nanoscale, Laser 3D lithography, SZ2080, Cristobalite, Zirconia, Nanocomposites, Calcination
Online: 20 September 2018 (13:52:10 CEST)
Fabrication of a true-3D inorganic ceramic with resolution down to nanoscale using sol-gel resist precursor is demonstrated. The method has an unrestricted free-form capability, control of the fill-factor, and high fabrication throughput. A systematic study of the proposed approach based on ultrafast laser 3D lithography of organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel resin followed by a heat treatment enabled formation of inorganic amorphous and crystalline composites guided by the composition of the initial resin. The achieved resolution of 100 nm was obtained for 3D patterns of complex free-form architectures. Fabrication throughput of 50×103 voxels/s is achieved; voxel - a single volume element was recorded by a single pulse exposure. After a subsequent thermal treatment, ceramic phase was formed depending on the temperature and duration of the heat treatment as validated by Raman micro-spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a gradual emergence of the crystalline phases at higher temperatures with a signature of cristobalite SiO2, a high-temperature polymorph. Also, the tetragonal ZrO2 phase known for its high fracture strength was observed. This 3D nano-sintering technique is scalable from nano- to millimeter dimensions and opens a conceptually novel route for optical 3D nano-printing of various crystalline inorganic materials defined by an initial composition for diverse applications for microdevices in harsh physical and chemical environments and high temperatures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Deep Learning; 3D Instance Segmentation; Datasets
Online: 12 November 2021 (14:56:14 CET)
Beyond semantic segmentation,3D instance segmentation(a process to delineate objects of interest and also classifying the objects into a set of categories) is gaining more and more interest among researchers since numerous computer vision applications need accurate segmentation processes(autonomous driving, indoor navigation, and even virtual or augmented reality systems…) This paper gives an overview and a technical comparison of the existing deep learning architectures in handling unstructured Euclidean data for the rapidly developing 3D instance segmentation. First, the authors divide the 3D point clouds based instance segmentation techniques into two major categories which are proposal based methods and proposal free methods. Then, they also introduce and compare the most used datasets with regard to 3D instance segmentation. Furthermore, they compare and analyze these techniques performance (speed, accuracy, response to noise…). Finally, this paper provides a review of the possible future directions of deep learning for 3D sensor-based information and provides insight into the most promising areas for prospective research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0437.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: graphene; polystyrene; 3D graphene sponges; electrochemistry
Online: 19 November 2018 (09:39:17 CET)
Polystyrene as a thin film on arbitrary substrates or pellets form defective graphene films or powders that can be dispersed in water and organic solvents. The materials were characterized by visible absorption, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron and atomic force microscopy and electrochemistry. Raman spectra of these materials show the presence of the expected 2D, G and D peaks at 2750, 1590 and 1350 cm-1, respectively. The relative intensity of the G vs. the D peak is taken as a quantitative indicator of the density of defects in the G layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0269.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: 3D models; cartilage; chondrocytes; osteoarthritis (OA)
Online: 12 October 2018 (12:19:01 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease involving cartilage degeneration. This study aimed to compare properties of chondrocytes from less-affected (LA-Cartilage) and severely-affected (SA-Cartilage) of human OA articular cartilage. Based on Dougados classification, OA cartilage was classified into two groups; less-affected (Grade 0–1) and severely-affected (Grade 2–3). Chondrocytes from each group were cultured until passage (P) 4. Growth, migration, stem cell properties and chondrogenic properties under normal and inflammatory conditions, and the formation of in vitro 3D cartilage tissues were compared between groups. The growth and migratory properties of LA-chondrocytes and SA-chondrocytes were similar, except that the migration rate of SA-chondrocytes was significantly higher at P0 compared to LA-chondrocytes. Both LA-chondrocytes and SA-chondrocytes expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and tri-lineage differentiation, but the expression of stem cell markers decreased significantly with increasing passage number. Exposure to inflammatory conditions induced distinct morphological changes and significant increases in expression of SOX9 at P4 and MMP3 at P1 for LA-chondrocytes. LA-chondrocytes and SA-chondrocytes able to develop into in vitro 3D constructs, but SA-chondrocytes exhibited superior cartilage-like properties. Chondrocytes from both less- and severely-affected regions are suitable to be used in clinical applications, however, chondrocytes from severely-affected regions could be a more favorable cell source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0293.v1
Online: 1 February 2018 (14:37:58 CET)
Numerical weather prediction is an initial-value problem, for determination of the initial conditions, there are many methods and one of the most classical methods is variational methods in three dimensions, or 3D-Var. In this approach, with a defined cost function proportional to the square of the distance between the analysis and both the background and the observations, one can obtain the analysis. In the cost function, the background and the observations are reshaped to vectors; within this step, the order of the background error covariance matrix and the observational error covariance matrix becomes huge, which is not convenient to one to obtain the analysis. In this paper, according to the matrix analysis approach, we put forward some possible improvements to the dimension-reduction algorithm of 3D-Var, so that provide some references for data assimilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: 3D point Cloud Classification, 3D point Cloud Shape Completion,Auto-Encoders, Contrastive Learning, Self-Supervised Learning
Online: 6 September 2021 (18:00:28 CEST)
In this paper, we present the idea of Self Supervised learning on the Shape Completion and Classification of point clouds. Most 3D shape completion pipelines utilize autoencoders to extract features from point clouds used in downstream tasks such as Classification, Segmentation, Detection, and other related applications. Our idea is to add Contrastive Learning into Auto-Encoders to learn both global and local feature representations of point clouds. We use a combination of Triplet Loss and Chamfer distance to learn global and local feature representations. To evaluate the performance of embeddings for Classification, we utilize the PointNet classifier. We also extend the number of classes to evaluate our model from 4 to 10 to show the generalization ability of learned features. Based on our results, embedding generated from the Contrastive autoencoder enhances Shape Completion and Classification performance from 84.2% to 84.9% of point clouds achieving the state-of-the-art results with 10 classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0288.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: MV/LV network; GIS planning; Spatial network analysis; 3D virtual city; Web and 3D Web GIS applications
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:32:37 CET)
Electric energy has become essential nowadays not only for the daily life of each of us but also for the economy of different countries. The dissemination of geographic information plays an important role in national development as it facilitates communication between managers, investors, and consumers in this sector. Since the management of electricity network data was previously done in Tunisia based on paper maps and plans, the purpose of this article is to present a case of planning based on GIS, Web, and 3D Web GIS, which would have significant positive consequences on this sector from a technical and financial sides with an improvement in customer satisfaction and the creation of an intelligent electricity network which will be a real decision-making tool. This work draws up an inventory of the network MV (Medium Voltage)/LV (Low Voltage) of the region of Medjez El Bab which routes electricity to the big centers of consumption with access to MV/LV subscribers. The analysis of the network's impedance allowed carrying out different scenarios to optimize performance and obtain more realistic routes. Many thematic maps were produced as part of this project (Slope map, Land use map, map of the MV voltage domains, map of the MV/LV transformer stations power, etc.). A three-dimensional virtual city has been developed to visualize the graphical and attribute data for the study area. A Web and 3D Web GIS applications that allows the publication of the interactive maps on the Web as well as the database information have been developed to offer users the possibility of consulting the produced products by internet. Finally, a website related to the study was developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Localization; Navigation; Smartphone; GNSS; 3D Building Models
Online: 4 August 2022 (08:56:12 CEST)
Smart health applications have received significant attention in recent years. Novel applications hold significant promise to overcome many of the inconveniences faced by persons with disabilities throughout daily living. For people with blindness and low vision (BLV), environmental perception is compromised, creating myriad difficulties. Precise localization is still a gap in the field and is critical to safe navigation. Conventional GNSS positioning cannot provide satisfactory performance in urban canyons. 3D mapping-aided (3DMA) GNSS may serve as an urban GNSS solution, since the availability of 3D city models has widely increased. As a result, this study developed a real-time 3DMA GNSS-positioning system based on state-of-the-art 3DMA GNSS algorithms. Shadow matching was integrated with likelihood-based ranging 3DMA GNSS, generating positioning hypothesis candidates. To increase robustness, the 3DMA GNSS solution was then optimized with Doppler measurements using factor graph optimization (FGO) in a loosely-coupled fashion. This study also evaluated positioning performance using an advanced wearable system’s recorded data in New York City. The real-time forward processed FGO can provide a root-mean-square error (RMSE) with about 21 m. The RMSE drops to 16 m when the data is post-processed with FGO in a combined direction. Overall results show that the proposed loosely-coupled 3DMA FGO algorithm can provide a better and more robust positioning performance for the multi-sensor integration approach used by this wearable for persons with BLV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0308.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: micro-video classification; 3D CNN; multi-modal
Online: 21 July 2022 (03:09:34 CEST)
Along with the popularity of the Internet, people are exposed to more and more ways of micro-videos, and a huge amount of micro-video data has emerged. micro-videos have gradually become the Internet content preferred by the public, and a large number of micro-video apps have also emerged, such as Tiktok and Kwai. Intelligent classification and mining of micro-videos can greatly enhance user experience, improve business operation efficiency and enhance user experience. Through deep intelligent analysis and mining of micro-videos, important information in micro-videos can be extracted to provide an important basis for beautifying videos, content appreciation, video recommendation, content search, etc. In the past, content understanding for short videos often used human work annotation, but in recent years, with the great success of deep convolutional neural networks in image recognition, short video content understanding based on this method has gradually developed. Nowadays, most recognition algorithms extract the feature representation of each frame independently and then fuse them. However, while extracting the feature representation, some low-level semantic features are lost, which makes the algorithm unable to accurately distinguish the category of the video. At present, the algorithm of micro-video recognition based on deep learning has surpassed the iDT algorithm, making these traditional methods fade out of people’s view. In this paper according to the micro-video classification task, a new network model is proposed to concatenate features of each modality into the overall features of various modalities through the network, and then fuse the various modal features with the attention mechanism to obtain the whole micro-video features, which will be used for classification. In order to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed in this paper, experiments are conducted in the public dataset, and it is shown the effectiveness of our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0157.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: mathematical models; Table Curve 3D; correlation coefficient
Online: 11 February 2022 (08:35:16 CET)
This article describes the methodology used to identify the mathematical model that describes the correlations between the input parameters of an experiment and the parameters being followed. As a technological process, the aerodynamic separation was chosen, respectively, the behavior of a solid particle within an ascending vertical airflow. The experimental data obtained were used to identify two parameters, the average linear velocity, and the angular velocity, and through the Table Curve 3D program was developed a mathematical model which describes the dependence between the input parameters (the shape and size of the solid particle and the velocity of the airflow) and the monitored parameters. In order to determine a single mathematical equation that describes as accurately as possible the correlation between the input variables and those obtained, a pyramid-type analysis was designed. The determination of the mathematical equation started from the number of equations generated by the Table Curve 3D program, then the equations with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.85 were chosen, and finally, the common equations were identified. Respecting the working methodology was identified one equation which has for the average linear velocity a correlation coefficient r2 between 0.88-0.99 and 0.86-0.99 for the angular velocity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0450.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Radar; precipitation; 3D-Var; data assimilation; WRF
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:11:16 CET)
Radar observation data with high temporal and spatial resolution are used in the data assimilation experiment to improve precipitation forecast of a numerical model. The numerical model considered in this study is Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with double-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WDM6). We calculated radar equivalent reflectivity factor using higher resolution WRF and compared with radar observations in South Korea. To compare the precipitation forecast characteristics of three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) assimilation of radar data, four experiments are performed based on different precipitation types. Comparisons of the 24-h accumulated rainfall with Automatic Weather Station (AWS) data, Contoured Frequency by Altitude Diagram (CFAD), Time Height Cross Sections (THCS), and vertical hydrometeor profiles are used to evaluate and compare the accuracy. The model simulations are performed with and with-out 3D-VAR radar reflectivity, radial velocity and AWS assimilation for two mesoscale convective cases and two synoptic scale cases. The radar data assimilation experiment improved the location of precipitation area and rainfall intensity compared to the control run. Especially, for the two convective cases, simulating mesoscale convective system was greatly improved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0477.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; surface roughness; powder bed fusion
Online: 24 August 2021 (21:43:29 CEST)
The initial stability after implantology is paramount to the survival of the dental implant and the surface roughness of the implant plays a vital role in this regard. The characterisation of surface topography is a complicated branch of metrology, with a huge range of parameters available. Each parameter contributes significantly towards the survival and mechanical properties of 3D-printed specimens. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effect of surface roughness of 3D-printed dental implants and 3D-printed dogbone tensile samples under areal height (Ra) parameters, amplitude parameters (average of ordinates), skewness (Rsk) parameters and mechanical properties. During the experiment, roughness values were analysed and the results showed that the skewness parameter demonstrated a minimum value of 0.596%. The 3D-printed dental implant recorded Ra with a 3.4 mm diameter at 43.23% and the 3D-printed dental implant with a 4.3 mm diameter at 26.18%. Samples with a complex geometry exhibited a higher roughness surface, which was the greatest difficulty of additive manufacturing when evaluating surface finish. The results show that when the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreases from 968.35 MPa to 955.25 MPa, Ra increases by 1.4% and when UTS increases to 961.18 MPa, Ra increases by 0.6%. When the cycle decreases from 262142 to 137433, Ra shows that less than a 90.74% increase in cycle is obtained. For 3D-printed dental implants, the higher the surface roughness, the lower the mechanical properties, ultimately leading to decreased implant life and poor performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0165.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Bone; 3D Printing; halloysite; PLA Surface Functionalization
Online: 9 May 2020 (11:39:54 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques have received considerable focus in the area of bone engineering due to its precise control in the fabrication of complex structures with customizable shapes, internal and external architectures, mechanical strength, and bioactivity. In this study, we design a new composition biomaterial consisting of polylactic acid (PLA), and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) loaded with zinc nanoparticles (PLA+H+Zn). The hydrophobic surface of the 3D printed scaffold was coated with two layers of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the sides and one layer of NaOH in the middle. Additionally, a layer of gentamicin was coated on the outermost layer against bacterial infection. Scaffolds were cultured in standard cell culture medium without the addition of osteogenic medium. This surface modification strategy improved material hydrophilicity and enhanced cell adhesion. Pre-osteoblasts cultured on these scaffolds differentiated into osteoblasts and proceeded to produce a type I collagen matrix and subsequent calcium deposition. 3D printed scaffolds formed from this composition possessed high mechanical strength and showed an osteoinductive potential. Furthermore, the external coating of antibiotics not only preserved the previous osteogenic properties of the 3D scaffold but also significantly reduced bacterial growth. Our surface modification model enabled the fabrication of a material surface that was hydrophilic and antibacterial, simultaneously, with an osteogenic property. The designed PLA+H+Zn may be a viable candidate for the fabrication of customized bone implants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: drug release; electrospinning; paclitaxel; polycaprolactone; 3D matrix
Online: 11 October 2018 (06:09:26 CEST)
Paclitaxel is a natural, highly lipophilic anti proliferative drug widely used in medicine. We have studied the release of tritium-labeled paclitaxel (3H-PTX) from matrices destined for the coating of vascular stents and produced by the electrospinning method from the solutions of polycaprolactone (PCL) with paclitaxel (PTX) in hexafluoisoropropanol (HFIP) and/or solutions of PCL with PTX and human serum albumin (HSA) in HFIP or HIFP-dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) blend. The release of PTX has been shown to depend on the solvent and the composition of electrospinning solution, as well as the composition of the surrounding medium, particularly the concentration of free PTX and PTX-binding biomolecules present in human serum. It was shown that 3D matrices can completely release PTX without weight loss. Two-phase PTX release from optimized 3D matrices was obtained: ~27% of PTX was released in the first day, another 8% were released over the next 26 days. Wherein ~2.8%, ~2.3%, and ~0.25% of PTX was released on day 3, 9, and 27, respectively. Considering PTX toxicity, the rate of its diffusion through the arterial wall, and the data obtained the minimum cytostatic dose of the drug in the arterial wall will be maintained for at least three months.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0292.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; diagnostics; optics; bioprinting, electronics, microfluidics
Online: 19 June 2018 (10:41:57 CEST)
AbstractWhile the technology is relatively new, low cost 3D printing has impacted many aspects of human life. 3D printers are being used as manufacturing tools for a wide variety of devices in a spectrum of applications ranging from diagnosis to implants to external prostheses. The ease of use and availability of 3D design software and low cost has made 3D printing an accessible manufacturing and fabrication tool in many research laboratories. 3D printers can print materials with varying density, optical character, strength and chemical properties providing platforms for a huge number of strategies that can be chosen for user’s needs. In this review, we focus on applications in biomedical diagnostics and how this revolutionary technique is facilitating development of low cost, sensitive and often geometrically complex tools. 3D printing in fabrication of microfluidics, supporting equipment, optical and electronic components of diagnostic devices is presented. Emerging diagnostic 3D bioprinting as a tool to incorporate living cells or biomaterials into 3D printing is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0541.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D printing; biomimetic; poly (lactic acid); spheroids; bone repair; 3D printed scaffold; bone morphogenetic protein 2; biomimetic apatite.
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:48:39 CET)
This study aimed to assess the response of 3D printed PLA scaffolds biomimetically coated with apatite on human primary osteoblast spheroids and evaluate the biological response to its association with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in rat calvaria. PLA scaffolds were produced via 3D printing, soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution, and characterized by physical-chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties. The in vitro biological response was assessed with human primary osteoblast (HOb) spheroids. The in vivo analysis was conducted through the implantation of 3D printed PLA scaffolds either alone, covered by apatite (PLA-CaP) or PLA-CaP loaded with rhBMP-2 (PLA-CaP+rhBMP-2) on critical-sized defects (8 mm) of rat calvaria. Increased cell adhesion and in vitro release of growth factors (PDGF, bFGF, VEGF) was observed for PLA-CaP scaffolds when pre-treated with FBS. PLA-CaP+BMP2 presented higher values of newly formed bone (NFB) than other groups at all experimental periods (p<0.05), attaining 44.85% of NFB after 6 months. These findings indicate that functionalization of PLA scaffolds with biomimetic apatite can improve its biological properties in the presence of complex biological media. Its association with BMP2 may enhance bone repair, suggesting this strategy as a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0054.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 3D printing; semi-solid extrusion 3D printing; additive manufacturing; extemporaneous manufacturing; drug delivery; personalized dosage forms; veterinary medicine; prednisolone
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:59:30 CET)
Currently, the number of approved veterinary medicines are limited, and human medications are used off-label. These approved human medications are of too high potencies for a cat or a small dog breed. Therefore, there is a dire demand for smaller doses of veterinary medicines. This study aims to investigate the use of three semi-solid extrusion 3D printers in a pharmacy or animal clinic setting for extemporaneous manufacturing of prednisolone containing orodispersible films for veterinary use. Orodispersible films with adequate content uniformity and acceptance values defined by the European Pharmacopoeia was produced with one of the studied printers, namely, the Allevi 2 bioprinter. Smooth and flexible films, with high mechanical strength, neutral pH, and low moisture content were produced with high correlation between prepared design and obtained drug amount, indicating that the Allevi 2 printer could successfully be used to extemporaneously manufacture personalized doses for animals at the point-of-care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0119.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: 3D nano-lithography, 3D laser lithography, direct laser writing, nanopolymerization, cross-linking, multi-photon absorption, avalanche ionization, temperature effects
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:31:31 CET)
Direct laser writing three-dimensional nano-lithography is an established technique for manufacturing functional 3D micro- and nano-objects via non-linear absorption induced polymerization process. In this Chapter an underlying physical mechanisms taking place during nano-confined polymerization reaction, induced by tightly focused ultra-short laser pulses, are reviewed and discussed. The special attention is paid on the effects that directly impact structuring resolution and minimum achievable feature size. Analysis of possible photo-initiation mechanisms as contributing multi-photon absorption and avalanche ionization in pre-polymers under diverse exposure conditions (wavelength, pulse duration) is presented. Feasible structuring of pure (non-photosensitized) and functional nanoparticles doped polymer precursors is justified and benefits of such materials/structures for microoptics, photonics and cell scaffolds are highlighted. The influence of temperature effects (induced by writing process itself or determined by ambient conditions) on polymerization process, observed in different pre-polymers under diverse exposure regimes is outlined. The further adjustment of the structuring resolution is possible via precise control of light polarization and diffusion assisted radical quenching. The work is concluded with a brief outlook on future challenges and perspectives related to refinement of 3D ultra-fast laser lithography fabrication process in the means of application of diverse post-processing methods and research into novel photo-curable materials including inorganic ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Therapeutics; Drug Repurposing; 3D Tissue Models
Online: 20 September 2022 (03:24:22 CEST)
The repurposing of licenced drugs for use against COVID-19 is one of the most rapid ways to develop new and alternative therapeutic options to manage the ongoing pandemic. Given the approximately 8,000 licenced compounds available from Compounds Australia that can be screened, this paper demonstrates the utility of commercially-available ex vivo/3D airway and alveolar tissue models. These models are a closer representation of in vivo studies compared to in vitro models, but retain the benefits of rapid in vitro screening for drug efficacy. We demonstrate that several existing drugs appear to show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity against both Delta and Omicron Variants of Concern in the airway model. In particular, fluvoxamine, as well as aprepitant, everolimus, and sirolimus have virus reduction efficacy comparable to the current standard of care (remdesivir, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir). Whilst these results are encouraging, further testing and efficacy studies are required before clinical use can be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: soft robot; pneumatic drive; soft gripper; 3D printing
Online: 13 June 2022 (08:09:27 CEST)
The soft robot has many degrees of freedom, strong environmental adaptability and good human-computer interaction ability. As the end-effector of the soft robot, the soft gripper can grasp objects of different shapes without destructivity. Based on the theoretical analysis of the soft robot, the kinematics model of the flexible gripper and the theoretical model of the bending deformation of the air cavity were established. Accordingly, the relationship between the bending angle of the soft gripper and the air pressure was determined. Through the application of finite element software, the bending degree of pneumatic network multi-cavity soft gripper was simulated by finite element software, and the influence of structural parameters of soft actuator on bending deformation was determined. In addition, with the 3D technology conducting the printing of soft gripper fixtures and molds, the injection molding the actuator and the human-computer interaction interface controlling the movement of the gripper, the adaptability of the soft gripper in grasping object was verified. The result shows that the software gripper possesses good flexibility and can better grasp objects of different shapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0487.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: 3D City Model; CityGML 2.0; Spatial Data Integration
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:51:35 CET)
3D city models integrate heterogeneous urban data from multiple sources in a unified geospatial representation, combining both semantics and geometry. Although in the last decades, they are predominantly used for visualization, today they are used in a large range of tasks related to exploration, analysis, and management across multiple domains. The complexity of urban processes and the diversity of urban environment bring challenges to the implementation of 3D city models. To address such challenges, this paper presents the development process of a 3D city model of a single neighborhood in Sofia city based on CityGML 2.0 standard. The model represents the buildings in LOD1 with a focus on CityGML features of related to the buildings like building part, terrain intersection curve and address. Similar building models of 18 cities provided as open datasets are explored and compared in order to extract good modeling practices. As a result, workflows for generation of 3D building models in LOD1 are elaborated and improvements in the feature modeling are proposed. Two options of building model are examined: modeling of a building as a single solid and modeling of a building with separate building parts. Finally, the possibilities for visualization of the model in popular platforms such as ArcGIS Pro and Cesium Ion are explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0389.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: 3D Bioprinting; Extracellular Matrix; Extrusion; Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering
Online: 22 November 2021 (12:26:49 CET)
There is need to address the challenges of organ shortage, through development of tissues and organs with alternatives to those of the allograft-kind. This illustrates the quest behind novel biofabrication strategies such as 3D bio-printing, which is necessary to create artificial multi-cellular tissues/organs. Several findings have been reported in this review. First, the role of ECM components in tissue regenerative medicine is presented. Different ECM components such as collagen, gelatin, elastin, fibronectin, laminins and glycosaminoglycans are concisely examined for their tissue regenerative medicine applications. Next, current state of research on extrusion-based 3D bio-printing techniques and their limitations are reviewed. For example, we show that cell viability is still a challenge with extrusion, while the use of natural polymers such as collagen in improving composites’ mechanical properties is limited. Lastly, we examine unresolved research questions necessary to advance the present state of research in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0321.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cancer cachexia, muscle atrophy, tissue regeneration, 3D bioprinting
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:20:17 CEST)
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome that is identified by ongoing muscle atrophy, along with functional impairment, anorexia, weakness, fatigue, anemia, reduced tolerance to antitumor treatments. Thus, reducing the patients’ quality of life. Cachexia alone causes about 22-25% of cancer deaths. This review covers the symptoms, mediators, available treatment, and prospects of 3D bioprinting for cancer cachexia. Studies about cachexia have shown several factors that drive this disease – protein breakdown, inflammatory cytokines activation, and mitochondrial alteration. Even with proper nutrition, physical exercises, anti-inflammatory agents, chemotherapy, and grafting attempts, standard treatment has been unsuccessful for cachexia. But the use of 3D bioprinting shows much promise compared to conventional methods by attempting to fabricate 3D constructs mimicking the native muscle tissues. In this review, some 3D bioprinting techniques with their advantages and drawbacks, along with their achievements and challenges in in-vivo applications have been discussed. Constructs with neural integration or muscle-tendon units aim to repair muscle atrophy. But it is still difficult to properly bio-print these complex muscles. Although progress can be made by developing new bio-inks or 3D printers to fabricate high-resolution constructs. Using secondary data, this review study shows prospects of why 3D bioprinting can be a good alternate approach to fight cachexia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0699.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: pollen, pollen classes, determination, 3D, laser scanning microscopy
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:45:54 CEST)
Pollen analysis as a part of palynology deals with the morphological determination of pollen and spores. Different technologies with different resolutions varying from simple light microscopy to highly elaborate electron microscopy are used for the examination, depending on the area of application (e.g. sedimentology, melissopalynology, forensic palynology, etc.). To answer the question of whether laser scanning microscopy (LSM) can replace scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the determination of pollen species, 168 species were examined using LSM. It was concluded that LSM is both efficient and easy to handle. After preparing the fresh pollen, a 3D laser scan takes 5-10 minutes and unlike using SEM, the pollen does not have to be sputtered or processed. The 3D scans can be measured quickly and easily with the integrated software and there were no observable artifacts. At magnifications up to 8545x, the image quality is comparable to that of a sputtered SEM sample whereas at higher magnifications, the SEM method is superior. Overall, pollen display by LSM is much less time consuming and more cost effective than with the SEM method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0264.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: PEGDA Hydrogels; 3D recognition; diffusion; strand displacement assay.
Online: 9 June 2021 (11:45:54 CEST)
The control of the three-dimensional (3D) polymer network structure is important for permselective materials when specific biomolecules detection is needed. Here we investigate conditions to obtain a tailored hydrogel network that combine both molecular filtering and molecular capture capabilities for biosensing applications. Along this line short oligonucleotide detection in a displacement assay is set within PEGDA hydrogels synthetized by UV radical photopolymerization. To provide insights on the molecular filter capability, diffusion studies of several probes (sulforhodamine G and dextrans) with different hydrodynamic radii were carried out using NMR technique. Moreover, fluorometric analyses of hybridization of DNA oligonucleotides inside PEGDA-hydrogels shed light on the mechanisms of recognition in 3D, highlighting that mesh size and crowding effect greatly impact of hybridization mechanism onto polymer network. Finally, we found the best probe density and diffusion transport conditions to allow the specific oligonucleotide capture and detection inside PEGDA-hydrogels for oligonucleotide detection and the filtering out of higher molecular weight molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Lab-on-a-disk; 3D microstructure; FLISA; VEGF
Online: 6 January 2021 (14:20:00 CET)
Fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) is a commonly used, quantitative technique for detecting biochemical based on antigen–antibody binding reactions using a well-plate platform. With the developments in the manufacturing technology of microfluidic systems, FLISA can be implemented onto microfluidic disk platforms, which allows the detection of trace biochemical with high resolutions. Apart from requiring a lower proportion of reagent (1/10), this method also reduces the time required for the entire process to less than an hour. The incubation process involves antigen–antibody binding reactions as well as the binding of fluorogenic substrates to target proteins. The protocol for FLISA on a microfluidic platform necessitates the appropriate execution of liquid reagent movements during each step in order to ensure sufficient binding reactions. Herein, we propose a novel microfluidic disk comprising a 3D incubation chamber. Vascular endothelial growth factor as concentration with ng mL-1 is detected sequentially using a benchtop process employing this 3D microfluidic disk. The 3D microfluidic disk is implemented without requiring manual intervention or additional procedures for liquid control. During the incubation process, microbead movement is controlled through centrifugal force, generated due to disk rotation, and gravitational force via bead sedimentation on the sloped floor of the chamber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0573.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; stainless steel; microstructure; mechanical properties; simulation
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:18:37 CEST)
Metal 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing method, especially in the case of complex shapes. The quality of the printed product is still a challenging issue for mechanical applications. The anisotropy of the microstructure, imperfections, and residual stress are some of the issues that diminish the mechanical properties of the printed sample. The simulation could be used to investigate some technical details, and this research has tried to computationally study the metal 3D printing of austenitic stainless steel to address austenite microstructure and local yield strength. Two computational codes were developed in Visual basics 2015 to simulate the local heating/cooling curve and subsequent austenite microstructure. A stochastic computational code was developed to simulate austenite grain morphology based on calculated thermal history. Then Hall-Pitch equation was used to estimate the yield strength of the printed sample. These codes were used to simulate the effect of temperature of the printer’s chamber on microstructure and subsequent yield strength. The austenite grain topology is more columnar at a lower temperature. The percentage of the equiaxed zone will be increased at a higher chamber’s temperature. Almost a fully equiaxed austenite microstructure will be achieved at 800 C chamber’s temperature, but the last printed layer, which is columnar and can be removed by cutting then. The estimated local austenite grain size and the local yield strength in the equiaxed regions are in the range of 15 to 30 μm and 270 to 330 MPa at 800 C temperature of printer’s chamber, respectively.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0328.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: INSAT 3D; INSAT 3DR; Surface insolation; Solar resource
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:19:10 CEST)
Solar Insolation is the major contributor of earth’s radiation and energy budget. The insolation reaching the surface is a prime input for eco-physiological processes such as evapotranspiration and photosynthesis. Therefore, it is as critical component to assess bio-energy and bio-fuel resources. It is also a crucial input to crop simulation model for yield forecasting and its further applications in solar energy solutions. Although ground observations are better for accuracy purpose, they have challenges of maintenance, regular calibration and upkeeping etc. This call for the continuous spatio-temporal satellite based observations barring the acceptable accuracy. In case of INSAT3D/3DR, Bhattacharya et al. (2015) have derived the surface insolation product which is being used widely. We propose a method of improvement in this product. It is envisaged that a correction applied with the help of ground truth estimates may enhance the utilization of insolation products derived from INSAT3D/3DR datasets. In the present study, surface insolation product derived from INSAT 3D/3DR data at an interval of 30 minutes each (collectively 15 minutes interval) with 4 km spatial resolution was used for duration from May-2017 to Apr-2019 over Nagpur. Ground truth observations for same duration were carried out with CNR4, which were used to correct the INSAT 3D/3DR surface insolation product using the statistical best-fit method. Corrected INSAT 3D/3DR products are found correlating with the ground values well with differences of approximately < 1 W/m2. Best-fit parameters evolved in the present study uses only 2 years of simultaneous ground and satellite data which can be further improved by multi-year data base. We propose better utilization of INSAT 3D/3DR based surface insolation products in the assessment of solar resource mapping over Nagpur (and possibly other regions, such as Bhandara) with the help of best-fit parameters as assessed in the present study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0160.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: rabies; uDISCO; 3D imaging; rabies pathogenicity; astrocyte infection
Online: 16 January 2020 (08:52:30 CET)
Although conventional immunohistochemistry for neurotropic Rabies virus (RABV) usually shows a high preference for neurons, non-neuronal cells are also potential target cells and abortive infection of astrocytes is considered a main trigger of innate immunity in the CNS. While in vitro studies indicated differences between field and less virulent lab-adapted RABVs, a systematic and quantitative comparison of astrocyte tropism in vivo is lacking. Here, a recently developed solvent-based tissue clearing technique was used to measure the RABV cell tropism in infected brains. Immunofluorescence analysis of 1 mm-thick tissue slices enabled 3D segmentation and quantification of infection frequencies of astrocytes and neurons. Comparison of highly virulent street virus clones from fox, dog, and raccoon with three lab strains of intermediate and low virulence revealed remarkable differences in the ability to infect astrocytes in vivo. While all viruses and infection routes led to comparable neuron infection frequencies, striking differences were detected for the infection of astrocytes. Consistent and inoculation route-independent astrocyte infection by field viruses, together with route-dependent or undetectable astrocyte infection by lab-adapted or vaccine viruses strongly suggests a model in which the ability to establish productive astrocyte infection in vivo functionally distinguishes field and attenuated lab RABV strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0089.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Sigma Phase, Contiguity, Kinetics, Cahn models, 3D Reconstruction
Online: 6 December 2018 (16:14:18 CET)
Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) and Superduplex Stainless Steels (SDSS) are an important class of stainless steels because they combine the benefits of austenite and ferrite phases, resulting in steels with better mechanical properties and higher corrosion resistance. Due to these characteristics are widely employed in various industries. However, the appearance of deleterious phases in their microstructure impairs the properties of DSS and SDSS. Among the deleterious phases, the main one is the sigma phase (σ), which can be nucleated when the steel is exposed to the temperature range between 650 °C and 900 °C, reducing its toughness and resistance to corrosion. In a previous work, Fonseca and collaborators used two descriptors of the microstructural path to analyze the formation of sigma phase (σ), SV, interfacial area per unit volume between sigma phase and austenite, and <λ>, mean chord length of sigma, both in function of the VV, volume fraction of sigma, known in the literature as microstructural partial path (MP). In this work, the contiguity ratio is applied for the first time to describe the microstructural path in the study of sigma phase precipitation in SDSS. The contiguity ratio showed that the distribution of the ferrite/sigma boundaries is homogeneous. Thus, it is reasonable to infer that one has a uniform distribution of sigma phase nuclei within the ferrite. About the kinetics of sigma phase formation, the DSS can be described by the classical JMAK equation, whereas for the SDSS, the kinetics tends to follow the Cahn model for grain edge nucleation. Finally, we present the 3D reconstruction of the sigma phase in SDSS. The results demonstrate that the sigma phase nucleates at the edges of the ferrite/austenite interfaces. Moreover, the sigma phase grows consuming the ferrite, but it is not fully interconnected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital construction; 3D-concrete-printing; buildabiltiy; additive manufacturing
Online: 27 August 2018 (06:37:13 CEST)
Buildability, i.e. the ability of a deposited material bulk to retain its dimmensions under increasing load, is an inherent prerequisite for formwork-free digital construction (DC). Since DC processes are relatively new, no standard methods of characterization are available yet. The paper at hand presents practice-oriented buildabilty criteria by taking various process parameters and construction costs into consideration. In doing so, direct links between laboratory buildability tests and target applications are established. A systematic basis for calculating the time interval (TI) to be followed during laboratory testing is proposed for the full-width printing (FWP) and filament printing (FP) processes. The proposed approach is validated by applying it to a high-strength, printable, fine-grained concrete. Comparative analyses of FWP and FP revealed that to test the buildability of a material for FP processes, higher velocities of the printhead should be established for laboratory tests in comparison to those needed for FWP process, providing for equal construction rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0611.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogels; cardiac patches; 3D bioprinting; furfuryl-gelatin; lattice
Online: 31 July 2018 (08:06:27 CEST)
3D bioprinting holds great promise in the field of regenerative medicine as it can create complex structures in a layer-by-layer manner using cell-laden bioinks, making it possible to imitate native tissues. Current bioinks lack both the high printability and the biocompatibility required in this respect. Hence, the development of bioinks that are capable of both properties is needed. In our previous study, a furfuryl-gelatin based bioink, crosslinkable by visible light, was used for creating mouse mesenchymal stem cell-laden structures with high fidelity. In this study, lattice mesh geometries were printed in a comparative study to test against the properties of a traditional rectangular-sheet. After 3D printing and crosslinking, both structures were analysed for swelling and rheological properties, and their porosity estimated using scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the lattice structure was relatively more porous but sturdy and exhibited a lower degradation rate compared to the rectangular-sheet. Further, the lattice allowed encapsulation of a greater number of cells, allowing them to proliferate to a greater extent compared to the rectangular-sheet that retained a lesser number of cells initially. All of these results collectively affirmed that the lattice poses as a superior scaffold design for tissue engineering applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0288.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: calcium phosphate cement; methylcellulose; 3D plotting; support; hydroxyapatite
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
3D plotting is an additive manufacturing technology enabling biofabrication, thus the integration of cells or biologically sensitive proteins or growth factors into the manufacturing process. However, most (bio-)inks developed for 3D plotting were not shown to be processed into clinical relevant geometries comprising critical overhangs and cavities, which would collapse without a sufficient support material. Herein, we have developed a support hydrogel ink based on methylcellulose (mc), which is able to act as support as long as the co-plotted main structure is not stable. Therefore, 6 w/v %, 8 w/v % and 10 w/v % mc were allowed to swell in water, resulting in viscous inks, which were characterized for their rheological and extrusion properties. The successful usage of 10 w/v % mc as support ink was proven by multichannel plotting of the support together with a plottable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) acting as main structure. CPC scaffolds displaying critical overhangs or a large central cavity could be plotted accurately with the newly developed mc support ink. The dissolution properties of mc allowed complete removal of the gel without residuals, once CPC setting was finished. Finally, we fabricated a scaphoid bone model by computed tomography data acquisition and co-extrusion of CPC and the mc support hydrogel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0215.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: Copper; Phosphoric acid; 3D Nanostructures; 1-dodecanethiol SAMs
Online: 13 June 2018 (15:33:35 CEST)
A novel and simple method to improve the corrosion resistance of copper by constructing a 3D 1-dodecanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in 3.5% NaCl solution is reported in this study. Several drops of 1% H3PO4 solution are thinly and uniformly distributed on copper surface to form a 3D nanostructure constituted by Cu3(PO4)2 nanoflowers. The anticorrosion properties of 1-dodecanethiol SAMs on copper surface and on copper surface treated with H3PO4 solution were evaluated. Results demonstrated that 1-dodecanethiol SAMs on bare copper surface exhibit good protection capacity, whereas a copper surface pretreated with H3PO4 solution can substantially enhance the corrosion resistance of 1-dodecanethiol SAMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0151.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 3D culture; multiple myeloma; STAT; bortezomib; CETSA; stattic
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:32:11 CEST)
Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. While the conventionally cultured cells were present in single cells or small clusters, MM-3D cells grew in large spheroids. We discovered that STAT3 was the pathway that was more activated in 3D in both cell lines. The active form of STAT3 (phospho-STAT3 or pSTAT3), which was absent in MM cells cultured conventionally, became detectable after 1-2 days in 3D culture. This elevated pSTAT3 level was dependent on the 3D environment, since it disappeared after transferring to conventional culture. STAT3 inhibition using a pharmacological agent, Stattic, significantly decreased the cell viability of MM cells and sensitized them to bortezomib in 3D culture. Using an oligonucleotide array, we found that 3D culture significantly increased the expression of several known STAT3 downstream genes implicated in oncogenesis. Since most primary MM tumors are naturally STAT3-active, studies of MM in 3D culture can generate results that are more representative of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0240.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: epoxyqinomicin; DHMEQ; metastasis; invasion; adhesion; 3D cell culture
Online: 25 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
We previously designed and synthesized dehydroxyepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) as an inhibitor of NF-κB based on the structure of microbial secondary metabolite epoxyquinomicin C. DHMEQ showed anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity in various in vivo disease models without toxicity. Cell detachment from the primary tumor and subsequent invasion are considered to be early phase of metastasis, while tumor cell attachment to the tissue and secondary tumor formation the late phase. The assay system for late phase was set up with intra-portal-vein injection of pancreatic cancer cells. Administration of DHMEQ was found to inhibit the liver metastasis possibly by decreasing the expression of MMP-9 and IL-8. Also when the pancreatic cancer cells treated with DHMEQ was inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice, the metastatic foci formation was inhibited. These results indicate that DHMEQ is likely to inhibit the late phase of metastasis. Meanwhile, we have recently employed three-dimensional (3D) culture of breast cancer cells for the model of early phase metastasis. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of breast cancer cells without toxicity. In this way, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the late and early phases of metastasis. Thus, DHMEQ is likely to be useful for the suppression of cancer metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0181.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; open source; RepRap; calibration; bed levelling
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:35:31 CET)
Inexpensive piezoelectric diaphragms can be used as sensors to facilitate both nozzle height setting and build platform leveling in FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication) 3D printers. Tests simulating nozzle contact are conducted to establish the available output and an output of greater than 8 Volts found at 20 ºC, a value which is readily detectable by simple electronic circuits. Tests are also conducted at a temperature of 80 ºC and, despite a reduction of greater than 80% in output voltage, this is still detectable. The reliability of piezoelectric diaphragms is investigated by mechanically stressing samples over 100,000 cycles at both 20 ºC and 80 ºC and little loss of output over the test duration is found. The development of a nozzle contact sensor using a single piezoelectric diaphragm is described.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: orthodontics; airway; clear aligners; 3D diagnostics; sleep apnea; CBCT
Online: 29 July 2022 (09:37:56 CEST)
This retrospective study evaluated changes in the pharyngeal portion of the upper airway in pa-tients with constricted and normal airway treated with clear aligners (Invisalign, Align). Additionally, the paper has assessed the change of tongue position in the oral cavity from lateral view. Evaluation was performed with specialized software (Invivo 6.0, Anatomage) on pre-treatment and posttreatment pairs of cone beam computed tomography imaging (CBCT) data. The level of airway constriction, volume, cross-section minimal area, and tongue profile were evaluated. Patients with malocclusion, with pair or initial and finishing CBCT and without sig-nificant weight change between the scans, treated with Invisalign clear aligners were distributed in two groups. Group A consisted of fifty-five patients with orthodontic malocclusion and con-stricted upper airway. Control group B consisted of thirty-one patients with orthodontic malocclusions without any airway constriction. In the group with airway constriction, there was a statistically significant increase in volume during therapy (p<0.001). The surface of the most con-stricted cross-section of airway did not change significantly after treatment in any of the groups. The airway constriction was most frequently localized at the level of 2nd cervical vertebra. The final tongue position was different from initial in 62.2% of all clear aligner treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0322.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Theoretical analysis; bionics; jigsaw connection; 3D Printing; ﬁnite element
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:06:18 CEST)
In engineering, connections between components are often weak areas. Unreasonable connection methods can easily reduce the strength of components, resulting in unpredictable failure modes. In nature, numerous connection methods for biological structures with excellent mechanical properties have evolved. Studying the connection methods of organisms in nature can inspire new ideas for bionic connection methods. When the diabolical ironclad beetle is under pressure, the elytra are not easy to separate, which ensures the stability of the beetle's external structure, thus making the beetle extremely resistant to pressure. The reason for this is the interlocking and toughening effect of the unique jigsaw connection between the elytra. Therefore, in this paper a theoretical analysis model is established and used to analyze the mechanical behavior of the diabolical ironclad beetle's jigsaw connection during the drawing process and determine the influence of factors such as quantity, angle, and geometric characteristics on the mechanical properties of the jigsaw connection. The results of the theoretical analysis are then compared with the results of experiments and ABAQUS finite element simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: close range photogrammetry; 3D linear control network; object dimensioning
Online: 7 March 2022 (19:57:21 CET)
In surveying engineering tasks, close-range photogrammetry belongs to leading technology considering different aspects like the achievable accuracy, availability of hardware and software, accessibility to measured objects, or the economy. Hence, constant studies on photogrammetric data processing are desirable. Especially in industrial applications, the control points for close-range photogrammetry are usually measured using total stations. In the case of small objects, more precise positions of control points can be obtained by deploying and adjusting a three-dimensional linear network set up on the object. The article analyzes the accuracy of the proposed method, based on the measurement of the linear network using a tape with a precision of ±1 mm. The experiment shows that the adjusted positions of the network control points can be determined with high, one-millimeter accuracy. The photogrammetric 3D model derived referring to such control points and stereo-images captured with a non-metric camera is also characterized by the highest possible precision, which qualifies the presented method to accurate measurements used in surveying engineering. The authors prove that the distance between two randomly optional points derived from the 3D model of a dimensioned object is equal to the actual distance measured directly on it with one-millimeter accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: polyimide bonding; plasma activation; hydrophilic; hybrid bonding; 3D integration
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:47:17 CET)
Polymer adhesives have emerged as a promising dielectric passivation layer in hybrid bonding for 3D integration while they raise misalignment problems during curing. In this work, the synergistic effect of oxygen plasma surface activation and wetting is utilized to achieve bonding between completed cured polyimides. The optimized process achieves a void-less bonding with a maximum shear strength of 35.3 MPa at a low temperature of 250 °C in merely 2 min, significantly shortening the bonding period and decreasing thermal stress. It is found that the plasma activation generated hydrophilic groups on the polyimide surface, and the wetting process further introduced more -OH groups and water molecular on the activated polyimide surface. The synergistic process of plasma activation and wetting facilitate bridging polyimide interfaces to achieve bonding, providing an alternative path for adhesive bonding in 3D integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Fault Detection; 3D Printer; Error Detection; FFF; Contact Sensor
Online: 29 December 2021 (09:10:49 CET)
Desktop fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printers have been growing in popularity among hobbyist and professional users as a prototyping and low-volume manufacturing tool. One issue these printers face is the inability to determine when a defect has occurred rendering the print unusable. Several techniques have been proposed to detect such defects but many of these approaches are tailored to one specific fault (e.g., filament runout/jam), use expensive hardware such as laser distance sensors, and/or use machine vision algorithms which are sensitive to ambient conditions, and hence can be unreliable. This paper proposes a versatile, reliable, and low-cost system, named MTouch, to detect millimeter-scale defects that tend to make prints unusable. At the core of MTouch is an actuated contact probe designed using a low-power solenoid, magnet, and hall effect sensor. This sensor is used to check for the presence, or absence, of the printed object at specific locations. The MTouch probe demonstrated 100% reliability, which was significantly higher than the 74% reliability achieved using a commercially available contact probe (the BLTouch). Additionally, an algorithm was developed to automatically detect common print failures such as layer shifting, bed separation, and filament runout using the MTouch probe. The algorithm was implemented on a Raspberry Pi mini-computer via an Octoprint plug-in. In head-to-head testing against a commercially available print defect detection system (The Spaghetti Detective), the MTouch was able to detect faults 44% faster on average while only increasing the print time by 8.49%. In addition, MTouch was able to detect faults The Spaghetti Detective was unable to identify such as layer shifting and filament runout/jam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0445.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: 3D geological modelling; groundwater models; incised valleys; Rome; alluvium
Online: 28 October 2021 (16:13:54 CEST)
This study presents the results of a research project financed by the Lazio Regional Government. The research focused on defining an integrated model of recent alluvial deposits in the Tiber River. To achieve this objective, geological boreholes were made to monitor the aquifer and in situ and laboratory tests carried out. The data obtained was used to detail stratigraphic aspects and improve the comprehension of water circulation beneath the recent alluvial deposits of the Tiber River in the urban area of Rome, between the Ponte Milvio bridge and the Tiber Island. The stratigraphic intervals recognised in the boreholes were parameterised based on their litho-technical characteristics. The new data acquired, and integrated with existing data in the CNR IGAG database, made it possible to produce a three-dimensional model of the lithologies in the study area.The model of the subsoil, simplified for applied reasons, was described in hy-drostratigraphic terms: three different lithotypes were subjected to piezometric levels monitor-ing. Finally, the research generated a numerical hydrological level in a stationary regime. In general, this study demonstrates how a numerical hydrogeological model calibrated by piezo-metric monitoring data can support the construction of a geological model, discarding or con-firming certain hypotheses and suggesting other means of reconstructing sedimentary bodies.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: computed tomography; 3D imaging; quantitative analysis; accurate morphometric characterization
Online: 15 October 2021 (12:12:47 CEST)
The ever-growing field of materials with applications in the biomedical field holds great promise regarding the design and fabrication of devices with specific characteristics especially scaffolds with personalized geometry and architecture. The continuous technological development pushes the limits of innovation in obtaining adequate scaffolds and establishing their characteristics and performance. To this end, computed tomography (CT) proved to be a reliable, non-destructive, high-performance machine, enabling visualization and structure analysis at sub-micronic resolutions. CT allows both qualitative and quantitative data of the 3D model, offering an overall image of its specific architectural features as well as reliable numerical data for rigorous analyses. The precise engineering of scaffolds consists in the fabrication of objects with well-defined morphometric parameters (e.g.: shape, porosity, wall thickness), and in their performance validation through thorough control over their behavior (in situ visualization, degradation, new tissue formation, wear, etc.). This review is focused on the use of CT in biomaterial science with the aim of qualitatively and quantitatively assess the scaffolds’ features and in monitoring their behavior following in vivo or in vitro experiments. Furthermore, the paper presents the benefits and limitations regarding the employment of this technique when engineering materials with applications in the biomedical field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ankle-foot orthosis; position sensors; smart glove; 3D modeling
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:27:54 CEST)
A position sensing glove, called SmartScan, that creates a 3D virtual model of a real object is presented. The data from the glove is processed by a volume minimization algorithm to validate the position sensor data. This allows only data from the object’s surface to be retained. The data validation algorithm allows the user to progressively improve an image by repeatedly moving their hand over the object. In addition, the user can choose their own balance between feature resolution and invalid data rejection. The SmartScan glove is tested on a foot model and is shown to be robust against motion artifacts, and has a mean accuracy of 2.9 mm (compared to a 3D model generated from optical imaging) without calibration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Feature extraction; independent component analysis; 3D inversion; physical properties
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:45:30 CEST)
A major problem in the post-inversion geophysical interpretation is the extraction of geological information from inverted physical property models, which do not necessarily represent all underlying geological features. No matter how accurate the inversions are, each inverted physical property model is sensitive to limited aspects of subsurface geology and is insensitive to other geological features that are otherwise detectable with complementary physical property models. Therefore, specific parts of the geological model can be reconstructed from different physical property models. To show how this reconstruction works, we simulated a complex geological system that comprises an original layered earth model that has passed several geological deformations and alteration overprints. Linear combination of complex geological features comprised three physical property distributions: Electrical resistivity, induced polarization chargeability, and magnetic susceptibility models. This study proposes a multivariate feature extraction approach to extract information about the underlying geological features comprising the bulk physical properties. We evaluated our method in numerical simulations and compared three feature extraction algorithms to see the tolerance of each method to the geological artifacts and noises. We show that the fast-independent component analysis (fast-ICA) algorithm by negentropy maximization is a robust method in the geological feature extraction that can handle the added unknown geological noises. The post-inversion physical properties are also used to reconstruct the underlying geological sources. We show that the sharpness of the inverted images is an important constraint on the feature extraction process. Our method successfully separates geological features in multiple 3D physical property models. This methodology is reproducible for any number of lithologies and physical property combinations and can recover the latent geological features, including the background geological patterns from overprints of chemical alteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0597.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; microfabrication; microfluidic guillotine; single cell; wound healing
Online: 27 July 2021 (09:21:04 CEST)
Micro-blade design is an important factor in the cutting of single cells and other biological structures. This paper describes the fabrication process of three dimensional (3D) micro-blades for the cutting of single cells in a microfluidic “guillotine” intended for fundamental wound repair and regeneration studies. Our microfluidic guillotine consists of a fixed 3D micro-blade centered in a microchannel to bisect cells flowing through. We show that the Nanoscribe two-photon polymerization direct laser writing system is capable of fabricating complex 3D micro-blade geometries. However, structures made of the Nanoscribe IP-S resin have low adhesion to silicon, and they tend to peel off from the substrate after at most two times of replica molding in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Our work demonstrates that the use of a secondary mold replicates Nanoscribe printed features faithfully for at least 10 iterations. Finally, we show that complex micro-blade features can generate different degrees of cell wounding and cell survival rates compared with simple blades possessing a vertical cutting edge fabricated with conventional 2.5D photolithography. Our work lays the foundation for future applications in single cell analyses, wound repair and regeneration studies, as well as investigations of the physics of cutting and the interaction between the micro-blade and biological structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0264.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Tuning fork gyroscope; MEMS; 3D packaging; high Q-factors
Online: 12 July 2021 (13:43:38 CEST)
Tuning fork gyroscopes (TFGs) are promising for potential high-precision applications. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a novel high-Q dual mass tuning fork microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope utilizing three-dimensional (3D) packaging techniques. Except for two symmetrically-decoupled proof masses (PM) with synchronization structures, a symmetrically-decoupled lever structure is designed to force the antiparallel, antiphase drive-mode motion and basically eliminate the low-frequency spurious modes. The thermoelastic damping (TED) and anchor loss are greatly reduced by the linearly-coupled, momentum- and torque-balanced antiphase sense mode. Besides, a novel 3D packaging technique is used to realize high Q-factors. A composite substrate encapsulation cap, fabricated by through-silicon-via (TSV) and glass-in-silicon (GIS) reflow processes, is anodically bonded to the sensing structures at wafer scales. A self-developed control circuit is adopted to realize loop control and characterize gyro-scope performances. It is shown that a high-reliability electrical connection together with a high-air-impermeability package can be fulfilled with this 3D packaging technique. Furthermore, the Q-factors of the drive and sense modes reach up to 51947 and 49249, respectively. This TFG realizes a wide measurement range of ±1800° /s and a high resolution of 0.1° /s with a scale-factor nonlinearity 720 ppm after automatic mode-matching. Besides, the long-term zero-rate output (ZRO) drift can be effectively suppressed by temperature compensation, inducing a small angle random walk (ARW) of 0.923°/√h and a low bias instability (BI) of 9.270°/h.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0707.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: multiphoton lithography; crystalline; 3D nanostructures; ceramic; glass; additive manufacturing
Online: 28 December 2020 (15:44:19 CET)
The current paper is focused on the rapidly developing field of nano-/micro three-dimensional production of inorganic materials. The fabrication method includes laserlithography of hybrid organic-inorganic materials with subsequent heat treatment lead-ing to a variety of crystalline phases in 3D structures. In this work, it was examineda series of organometallic polymer precursors with different silicon (Si) and zirconium (Zr) molar ratios, ranging from 9:1 to 5:5, prepared via sol-gel method. All mixtureswere examined for perspective used in 3D laser by manufacturing by fabricating nano-and micro-feature sized structures. Their deformation and surface morphology wereevaluated depending on chemical composition and crystallographic phase. The appear-ance of a crystalline phase was proven using single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis,which revealed a lower crystallization temperature for microstructures compared tobulk materials. Fabricated 3D objects retain a complex geometry without any distortion after heat treatment up to 1400oC. Under the proper conditions, a zircon phase (ZrSiO4 - a highly stable material) can be observed. In addition, the highest newrecord of achieved resolution below 60 nm has been reached. The proposed prepara-tion protocol can be used to manufacture micro/nano-devices with high precision andresistance to high temperature and aggressive environment.