ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0290.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: generalized Sonin condition; general fractional integral; general fractional derivative of arbitrary order; regularized general fractional derivative of arbitrary order; 1st level general fractional derivative; 1st fundamental theorem of fractional calculus; 2nd fundamental theorem of fractional calculus
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:34:12 CET)
In this paper, the 1st level general fractional derivatives of arbitrary order are defined and investigated for the first time. We start with a generalization of the Sonin condition for the kernels of the general fractional integrals and derivatives and then specify a set of the kernels that satisfy this condition and posses an integrable singularity of power law type at the origin. The 1st level general fractional derivatives of arbitrary order are integro-differential operators of convolution type with the kernels from this set. They contain both the general fractional derivatives of arbitrary order of the Riemann-Liouville type and the regularized general fractional derivatives of arbitrary order considered in the literature so far. For the 1st level general fractional derivatives of arbitrary order, some important properties including the 1st and the 2nd fundamental theorems of Fractional Calculus are formulated and proved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0293.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: 2nd Law; Thermodynamics; Quantum mechanics; Zero-point
Online: 20 February 2020 (08:02:26 CET)
Theoretical analysis into the energetics of a novel putative electromagnetic field propulsion device by the author, found that it was able to impart momenergy to the ground state of the electromagnetic field; some rest-energy of the craft was converted to kinetic energy of the craft. Electrical analysis showed that the propulsor was always a net electrical load – if the device accelerated from one frame, then deaccelerated to the original frame, both processes would consume electrical work. The aim of this paper is to look further into this sinking of high-grade electrical energy into the field ground state and to show that an even more pernicious form of 2nd Law of Thermodynamics exists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0594.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: cheating behavior, cheating during exam, 2nd medical laboratory
Online: 30 August 2018 (13:46:11 CEST)
Cheating during examination is now day serious problem spatially in Ethiopia where many students sit in one class to exam. When cheating occurs in medical schools, it has serious consequences for human life, social values, and the economy. Even though, cheating on exams has existed in any department, with unknown reason, prevalence of cheater among 2nd year laboratory students were high. So that assessing factors and improving cheating behavior of the students are mandatory to create competitive graduated students. To identify factors and to improve cheating behavior action research study design was conducted among 2nd year medical laboratory student. Criterion sampling technique was used to selects sixteen cheater students among 2nd year laboratory students. To gather necessary data, we used focus group discussions, individual interview, open-ended questionnaire and observation and collected information by using hand writing notes. During exam different cheating methods used by students like using a system of signals, writing on hands, desks and copy the other students answer. While the compelling reasons for cheating were like hard courses, hard exams, time pressure and fear of failure. To improve cheating behavior of the student’s different action strategies were taken like prepared exam by using code, arrangement sitting style during exam and sit with brainy students during class, reading and discussion. Most students were trying to done exam by themselves but their results are not good as previously. So that, we need more future action plan to avoid cheating behavior of the students. During, the next action plan we will be taken the remaining main action strategies and action evaluation we will be expected 50% of participants will be avoided their cheater behavior and done exam independently without forced by the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: 2nd, 3rd, 4th interosseous muscle; Dutch Konik; Bosnian mountain horse; donkey; Przewalski; zebra; atavism
Online: 9 April 2019 (11:32:50 CEST)
The 55-million-year history of equine phylogeny has been well documented from the skeletal record, however not the soft tissue structures that are now vestigial in modern horse. A recent study reported 2 ligamentous structures resembling functional 3rd and 4th interosseous muscles were evident in Dutch Konik horses. The current study investigates this finding and compares it to members of the genus Equus to identify either a breed anomaly or functional primitive trait. Distal limbs (n=571) were dissected from 4 species of Equus; E. caballus, E. asinus, E. przewalskii and E. burchelli beohmi. Breed representatives of E.caballus (n=18) included the primitive Dutch Konik. The 2nd and or 4th interosseous muscle was evident in all 4 species, but only 2 breeds of E.caballus expressed this trait - the Dutch Konik and Bosnian Mountain Horse. These 2 breeds were the only close descendants of the extinct Tarpan (Equus ferus ferus) represented in this study. In conclusion, the 2nd and 4th interosseous muscles originated from the distal nodule of respective splint bones and inserted into the corresponding branches of the 3rd interosseous muscle proximal to the sesamoids. Suggesting a functional role in medial and lateral joint stability and a primitive trait in modern equids.