ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ultrasonic vocalization; social buffering; 50-kHz calls; 22-kHz calls; distress; emotional contagion; fear contagion; aversive state; communication
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:32:04 CEST)
Abstract: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are one of the evolutionarily oldest forms of animal communication. In order to study the communication architecture in an aversive social situation, we used a behavioral model in which one animal, the observer, is witnessing as his cagemate, the demonstrator, is experiencing a series of mild electrical foot-shocks (aversive stimuli). We studied the effect of foot-shocks experience in the observer and the influence of a warning sound (emit-ted shortly before the shock is applied) on USVs communication. These experiments revealed that such a warning seems to increase the arousal level, which differentiates the responses depending on previous experience. It can be identified by the emission of characteristic, short 22-kHz calls, of a duration below 100 ms. Furthermore, by analyzing temporally overlapping USVs, we found that in ‘Warned’ pairs with a naive observer, 22-kHz were mixed with 50-kHz calls. This fact, combined with a high fraction of very high-pitched 50-kHz calls (over 75-kHz), suggests the presence of the phenomenon of social buffering. On the other hand, in ‘Warned’ pairs with an experienced observer, pure 22-kHz overlaps were mostly found, signifying possible fear contagion with dis-tress sharing. Hence the importance of differentiating 22-kHz calls to long and short.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0080.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Public Safety Network; D2D; Proximity Service; underlay networks; loosely coupled 22 model; network simulation
Online: 1 December 2023 (13:32:14 CET)
In several emergency situations, during natural or human-caused disasters, frontline responders need to be able to communicate and collaborate to properly carry out the relief mission. Some countries are building their national Public Safety Mobile Broadband based on cellular LTE technology to provide fast, safe, and secure emergency services. Otherwise, in several emergency situations, the cellular antennas can be overloaded or partially damaged in manner to affect the group communication services. Since few last years, direct device-to-device (D2D) communications have been proposed by 3GPP as an underlay to Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks based on proximity, reuse, and hop gains. This paper focuses on the loosely coupled model based on D2D direct communication for Public Safety context. Many scenarios related to user membership and network management are detailed. Both “less cost” and “optimized tree” approaches are proposed, implemented, and their performance evaluated in terms of network updates number and resulting average Channel Quality Indicator (CQI). Other optimization approaches with different CQI threshold and optimization interval values have been implemented, simulated and their performance are compared with the “optimized tree”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: geranylgeranyl acetone (GGA); heat shock proteins (Hsps); HT-22 (hippocampal neuronal) cells; mitochondrial membrane potentials
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:24:57 CET)
Geranylgeranyl acetone (GGA) protects against various types of cell damages by upregulating heat shock proteins. We investigated whether GGA protect neuronal cells from cell death induced by oxidative stress. Glutamate exposure was lethal to HT-22 cells which comprise a neuronal line derived from mouse hippocampus. This configuration is often used as a model for hippocampus neurodegeneration in vitro. In the present study, GGA protected HT-22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative stress. GGA pretreatment did not induce Hsps. Moreover, reactive oxygen species increased to the same extent in both GGA-pretreated and untreated cells exposed to glutamate. In contrast, glutamate exposure and GGA pretreatment increased mitochondrial membrane potential. However, increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration were inhibited by GGA pretreatment. In addition, the increase of phosphorylated ERKs by the glutamate exposure was inhibited by GGA pretreatment. These findings suggest that GGA protects HT-22 cells from glutamate-provoked cell death without Hsp induction and that the mitochondrial calcium buffering capacity plays an important role in this protective effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0878.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ubiquitin-Specific-peptidase 22 (Usp22); LCMV; PD-L1 downregulation; activation of CD8+ T cells; iver failure
Online: 11 August 2023 (08:58:08 CEST)
Ubiquitin-Specific-peptidase 22 (Usp22) cleaves ubiquitin moieties from numerous proteins, in particular transcription factors. Recently, it was reported that Usp22 acts as negative regulator of interferon-dependent responses. In the current study, we investigated the role of Usp22 deficiency upon acute viral infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) virus. We found that lack of Usp22 on bone marrow derived cells (Usp22 fl/fl Vav1-Cre mice) reduced induction of type I and II interferons. Limited type I interferon response did not influence virus replication. However, restricted expression of PD-L1 led to increased frequencies of functional virus-specific CD8+ T cells and rapid death of Usp22 deficient mice. CD8+ T cell depletion experiments revealed that accelerated CD8+ T cells were responsible for enhanced lethality in Usp22 deficient mice. In conclusion, we found that the lack of Usp22 generated a pathological CD8+ T cell response, which gave rise to severe disease in mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0143.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Boundary value problems; semi-innite intervals; existence and 22 uniqueness; iterative transformation method; numerical test
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:07:39 CET)
This work is concerned with the existence and uniqueness of boundary value problems defined on semi-infinite intervals. These kinds of problems seldom admit exactly known solutions and, therefore, the theoretical information on their well-posedness is essential before attempting to derive an approximate solution by analytical or numerical means. Our utmost contribution in this context is the definition of a numerical test for investigating the existence and uniqueness of solutions of boundary problems defined on semi-infinite intervals. The main result is given by a theorem relating the existence and uniqueness question to the number of real zeros of a function implicitly defined within the formulation of the iterative transformation method. As a consequence, we can investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions by studying the behaviour of that function. Within such a context the numerical test is illustrated by two examples where we find meaningful numerical results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0665.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6; Brain; Docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3; Fetus; Maternal diet; Cognitive; Infants; Neurodevelopment; Neurogenesis
Online: 14 June 2021 (14:54:08 CEST)
During the last trimester of gestation and for the first 18 months after birth, both docosahexaenoic acid,22:6n-3 (DHA) and arachidonic acid,20:4n-6 (ARA) are preferentially deposited within the cerebral cortex at a rapid rate. Although, the structural and functional roles of DHA in brain development are well investigated, similar roles of ARA are not well documented. The mode of action of these two fatty acids and their derivatives at different structural-functional roles and their levels in the gene expression and signaling pathways of the brain have been continuously emanating. In addition to DHA, importance of ARA has been much discussed in recent years for fetal and postnatal brain development and the maternal supply of ARA and DHA. These fatty acids are also involved in various brain developmental processes; however, their mechanistic cross talks are not clearly known yet. This review describes the importance of ARA, in addition to DHA to support the optimal brain development and growth and functional roles in the brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes; Pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines; T2DM in Saudi Arabia; Pathogenesis; IL-10; IL-19; and IL 22; Obesity
Online: 18 October 2023 (13:47:02 CEST)
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming a major global health concern, especially in poorer nations. The high prevalence of obesity and the ensuing diabetes I attributed to rapid economic progress, physical inactivity, consumption of high-calorie foods, and changing lifestyles. Objectives. We investigated the role of interleukins-10 , 19 and 22 with varying levels of obesity in T2DM in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods. 170 confirmed T2DM patients and a control group were enrolled. The demographic data, serum levels of IL-10, IL-19, and IL-22, and biochemical indices were assessed in patients and control groups by standard procedures. Results. T2DM patients were divided into four groups: A (normal body weight), B (Overweight), C (obese), and D (highly obese). Both male and female T2DM subjects in Group A showed significant decreases in IL-10 levels as compared to controls; however, there were insignificant changes in IL-10 levels in Groups C and D. T2DM patients in groups C and D, in both males and females, depicted very significant (p 0.001) increases in IL-19 levels as compared to controls and group A. Patient groups A to D displayed a progressive elevation of Il-22 levels irrespective of gender, although significant alterations were seen only in groups B to D, with p 0.05 for group B and p 0.01 for groups C and D respectively, as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. IL-10 showed a strong relationship with T2DM in males with varying degrees of obesity, but females depicted relatively higher IL-10 levels in obese and highly obese groups, pointing to a protective phenomenon. IL-19 levels showed significant increases in all four groups, irrespective of gender. IL-22 appears to be unrelated to T2DM per se but shows an association with varying degrees of obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0359.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Hematological malignancies; treatment outcomes; CAR-T cell exhaustion; memory 22 pool, functional CAR-T cells; antigen dependent CAR-T expansion
Online: 23 September 2022 (05:33:24 CEST)
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy revolutionized cancer treatment and consists of the genetic modification of T lymphocytes with a CAR gene, aiming to increase their ability to recognize and kill antigen-specific tumor cells. The dynamics of CAR-T cell responses in patients presents a multiphasic kinetics with distribution, expansion, contraction, and persistence phases. The characteristics and duration of each phase depend on the tumor type, the infused product, and on patient-specific characteristics. We present a mathematical model which describes the multiphasic CAR-T cell dynamics resulting from the interplay between CAR-T and tumor cells, considering patient and product heterogeneities. The CAR-T cell population is divided into functional (distributed and effector), memory, and exhausted CAR-T cell phenotypes. The model is able to describe the diversity of CAR-T cell dynamic behaviors in different patients and hematological cancers as well as their therapy outcomes. Our results indicate that the joint assessment of the area under the concentration-time curve in the first 28 days and the corresponding fraction of non-exhausted CAR-T cells may be considered as potential markers to classify therapy responses. Overall, the analysis of different CAR-T cell phenotypes can be a key aspect for a better understanding of the whole CAR-T cell dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: 22:6 docosahexaenoic acid; ω-3 fatty acids; offspring of obese mothers; offspring of lean mothers; insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake
Online: 20 January 2017 (04:59:25 CET)
Background: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women and who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM) or offspring of lean mothers (OLM). Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance. Methods: 37 elderly women were separated into an elderly offspring from obese mothers (OOM; n = 17) and elderly offspring from lean/normal weight mothers (OLM; n = 20) groups. We measured plasma metabolites using 1H-NMR and also insulin-dependent tissue specific glucose uptake in skeletal muscle were assessed. Associations were made between metabolites and glucose uptake. Results: Compared to the OLM group, we found that the 22:6 docosahexaenoic acid percentage of the total long chain n-3 fatty acids (DHA/FA) was significantly lower in OOM (P = 0.015). DHA/FA associated significantly to skeletal muscle GU (P = 0.031) and M-value in the OLM group only (P = 0.050). Conclusions: DHA/FA is associated with insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake and that this association is significantly weakened in the offspring of obese mothers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0511.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis (PsA); overweight; obesity; cardiovascular disease (CVD); miR-22-3p; miR-133a-3p; miR-146a-5p; miR-369-3p; Let-7b-5p
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:50:50 CEST)
Psoriasis is nowadays recognized as a multifactorial systemic disease with complex and still not fully understood pathogenesis. In psoriatic patients the increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and frequent comorbidities like obesity are observed. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in miRNA (miR-22-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-369-3p and Let-7b-5p) involved in CVD risk among psoriatic patients with overweight/obesity and with normal weight. The study comprised 28 male psoriatic patients and 16 male healthy controls. miRNA isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reverse-transcribed and RT-qPCR was performed. We have found the decreased levels of miR-22, miR-133a, miR-146a, and miR-369 among the psoriatic patients. There was a statistically significant difference in miR-22 and miR-146a levels between psoriatic patients with overweight/obesity and with normal weight. There were positive correlations between miR-22 and miR-146a levels and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in psoriatic patients with normal weight and between miR-133a level and PsA in the overweight/obese patients. The decreased levels of selected miRNA are consistent with their levels observed in CVD indicating their impact in the CVD risk in psoriatic patients. miR-22 and miR-146 may be recognized as one of the contributing factors in the obesity-CVD-psoriasis network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; 21 solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV 22 integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:50:46 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus 13 voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ 14 constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources 15 on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar 16 PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed 17 using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of 18 simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective 19 and superior.