ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0104.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Fe3O4; Ag; TiO2 nanoparticles; Degradation; 2, 4-dichlorophenol
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:51:13 CEST)
In this research, first a binary nanocomposite of magnetic recyclable photocatalyst Fe3O4/TiO2, was synthesized by sol gel technique. Then, in order to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposite, it was deposited by silver nanoparticles for using in degradation of organic pollutants 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) under visible light. A range of analytical techniques including XRD, FESEM/EDX, DRS, VSM and N2 physisorption were employed to reveal the crystal structure, morphology and property of the nanocomposites. We obtained 32% and 55% degradation of 2, 4-DCP under visible light after 180 min irradiation in the presence of Fe3O4/TiO2 and Fe3O4/TiO2/Ag respectively. Thus, the excellent visible light photocatalytic activity of Fe3O4/TiO2/Ag sample can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag nanoparticles deposited on Fe3O4/TiO2 nanocomposite.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: AEA; 2-AG; CB1; CB2; endocannabinoid; regeneration; neurodevelopment; invertebrate
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:16:51 CET)
Cannabis has long been used for its medicinal and psychoactive properties. With the relatively new adoption of formal medicinal cannabis regulations worldwide, the study of cannabinoids, both endogenous and exogenous, has similarly flourished in more recent decades. In particular, research investigating the role of cannabinoids in regeneration and neurodevelopment has yielded promising results in vertebrate models. However, regeneration-competent vertebrates are few, whereas a myriad of invertebrate species have been established as superb models for regeneration. As such, this review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the endocannabinoid system, with a focus on current advances in the area of endocannabinoid system contributions to invertebrate neurodevelopment and regeneration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Ag nanoparticles; Plasmonic photocatalysts; Fe3O4; Oxidation; 2, 4-DCP
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:49:27 CEST)
In this work, pure TiO2 and binary nanocomposites of Fe3O4/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 were synthesized in order to improve photocatalytic performance of these samples for degradation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) as an organic pollutant. A range of analytical techniques including XRD, DRS, SEM/EDX, and elemental mapping were employed to reveal the crystal structure, morphology and property of the nanocomposites. XRD data demonstrated that the prepared samples are purely in TiO2 anatase phase and cubic spinel Fe3O4 exist in the synthesized nanocomposite. We calculated the TiO2 crystal size from XRD patterns, in the range of 8.35-11.09 nm. The presence of Ag, Fe, O, and Ti atoms in the synthesized nanocomposites was confirmed by SEM/EDX. We obtained 30.43, 32.02 and 42.40 % degradation of 2, 4-DCP (100 ml 2, 4-DCP 40 ppm and 0.01 g catalyst) for pure TiO2, Fe3O4/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2, respectively, after 180 min of irradiation under visible light. Similar conditions were employed for 2, 4-DCP degradation under UV irradiation, we obtained 53.05, 51.00 and 71.50 % degradation of 2, 4-DCP pure TiO2, Fe3O4/TiO2 and Ag/TiO2, respectively. Thus, the synthesized binary nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO2 under visible light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0375.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Liquid phase transformation; Ag flakes; Ag meshes, elastic electrodes
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:20:04 CEST)
Flexible and stretchable conductive materials have received significant attention in several applications such as flexible displays and sensors. In this paper, we report a highly dispersed porous Ag nanoflakes with clean surfaces were fabricated through an explosive growth process. The evolution process from silver nanoflakes to nanomeshes occurred by the novel “dissolution–recrystallization” solvothermal process. The as-obtained Ag meshes have the dual nature of nanoflakes and nanoparticles, which could create an intercross and interpenetration conductive network structures between silver and polymer in the printed elastic conductor, therefore, the silver meshes as conductive fillers used in elastic conductor simultaneously exhibit high conductivity and mechanical durability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Cannabis, obesity, body mass index, CB1R, AEA, 2-AG, meta-analysis, theory, causation
Online: 11 July 2018 (11:49:02 CEST)
Obesity is treatment-resistant, and is linked with a number of serious, chronic diseases. Adult obesity rates in the United States have tripled since the early 1960s. Recent reviews show that an increased ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids contributes to obesity rates by increasing levels of the endocannabinoid signals AEA and 2-AG, overstimulating CB1R and leading to increased caloric intake, reduced metabolic rates, and weight gain. Cannabis, or THC, also stimulates CB1R and increases caloric intake during acute exposures. The present meta-analysis reveals significantly reduced body mass index and rates of obesity in Cannabis users, in conjunction with increased caloric intake. We provide for the first time a causative explanation for this paradox, in which rapid and long-lasting downregulation of CB1R following acute Cannabis consumption reduces energy intake and storage and increases metabolic rates, thus reversing the impact on body mass index of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ag; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides; laser; dewetting
Online: 20 February 2020 (06:53:09 CET)
Silver particles are prepared by dewetting Ag ﬁlms coated on glass using a fiber laser. The size of the particles is controlled in the range of 92 nm ~ 1.2 μm by adjusting the thickness of the Ag film. The structural properties and surface roughness of the particles are evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the antifungal activity of the Ag particles is examined using spore suspensions of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. It is shown that the particles with a size of 1.2 μm achieve 100% inhibition of the conidia growth of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides after a contact time of just 5 min. Furthermore, the smaller particles also achieve a good antibacterial activity given a longer contact time. Similar results are observed in spore germination and pathogenicity tests performed on mango fruit and leaves. Overall, the results confirm that the Ag particles have an excellent antifungal effect on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0348.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: PEBAX; Ag; olefin; membrane; nanoparticle
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:35:25 CET)
PEBAX-2533/metal salt/Al salt membranes were prepared for mixed olefin/paraffin separation. PEBAX-2533 with 80% ether group and 20% amide group was suggested as the polymer matrix for comparison of separation performance according to the functional group ratio in copolymer PEBAX. In addition, Al salts were used to stabilize metal ions for a long time as additives. High permeance was expected with the proportion of high ether groups since these functional groups provided relatively permeable regions. As a result, the PEBAX-2533 composite membrane showed a selectivity of 5 (propylene/propane) with 10 GPU. However, the permeance of membrane was not unexpectedly improved and the selectivity was reduced. The result was analyzed by SEM, FT-RAMAN and TGA, including FT-IR. The reduction in separation performance was determined by FT-IR. From these results, in order to stabilize the metal ions interacting with the polymer through Al(NO3)3, it was concluded that specific ratio of amide group was needed in PEBAX as polymer matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1009.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Ag nanoparticles; Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles; cotton fabrics; photocatalytic activity; biocide activity; E. coli; S. aureus
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:05:20 CEST)
Composites of Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles on cotton fabrics were synthetized in-situ by sono-chemical and hydrothermal methods achieving the successive formation of Ag-NPs and Ti-NPs directly on the fabric. The impregnated fabrics were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, high resolution microscopy (HREM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with Ener-gy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Raman, photoluminescence, UV-vis and DRS spectroscopies and by tension tests. Results showed the successful formation and impregnation of NPs on the cotton fabric, with a negligible leaching of NPs after several washing cycles. The photocatalytic activity of supported NPs was assessed by the degradation of methyl blue dye (MB) under solar and UV irradiation revealing improved photocatalytic activity of the Ag-TiO2/cotton composites due to a synergy of both Ag and TiO2 nanoparticles. This behavior is attributed to a diminished electron-hole recombination effect in the Ag-TiO2 cotton samples. The biocide activity of these composites on the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+) and Escherichia coli (Gram-) was confirmed, revealing interesting possibilities for the utilization of the functionalized cotton fabric as protective cloth for medical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0542.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ag doped TiO2; MWCNT; Allura Red
Online: 8 May 2023 (13:20:23 CEST)
In this paper we propose a simple procedure to obtain multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) decorated with TiO2-Ag nanoparticles (MWCNT-TiO2-Ag). MWCNT were decorated with TiO2-Ag via combined functionalisation with -OH and –COOH groups and polymer wrapping technique using poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). TiO2 modified Ag nanoparticles were synthesized through Pechini method using mixture of acetylacetonate-modified titanium (IV) isopropoxide with silver nitrate (the Ag+/Ti4+ atomic ratio, is 0.5, 1,0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 %, respectively) and the L(+)-ascorbic acid, as reducing agents. XRD analysis revealed the formation of nanocomposite containing CNT, TiO2 (anatase and rutile) and Ag. By SEM was evidenced the presence of the nanoparticles on MWCNT surface. The increases of the ratio between Ag+ and Ti4+ decrease the band gap energy of the samples. In Raman spectra the characteristic vibration of the TiO2, Ag and C atoms of graphite are identified. The photocatalytic activity of the MWCNT-TiO2-Ag nanocomposite was assessed by examining the degradation of Allura red (E129) aqueous solution under UV irradiation. The dye photodegradation process follows a pseudo – first – order kinetic with respect to the Langmuir – Hinshelwood reaction mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0136.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Sn58Bi; Ag; micro-alloy; mechanical; reliability
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:52:43 CEST)
Abstract: Microstructural and mechanical properties of the eutectic Sn58Bi and micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag solder alloys were compared. With the addition of Ag micro-alloy, the tensile strength was improved and this is attributed to a combination of microstructure refinement and an Ag3Sn precipitation hardening mechanism. However, ductility is slightly deteriorated due to the brittle nature of the Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Additionally, a board level reliability study of Ag micro-alloyed Sn58Bi solder joints produced utilising a surface-mount technology (SMT) process, were assessed under accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) conditions. Results reveal that micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag has a higher characteristic lifetime with a narrower failure distribution. This enhanced reliability corresponds with improved bulk mechanical properties. It is postulated that Ag3Sn IMCs are located at the Sn-Bi phase boundaries and suppress the solder microstructure from coarsening during the temperature cycling, hereby extending the time to failure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0715.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: colloidal nanocrystals; Ag2ZnSnS4; phonons; Ag-Zn-S; Ag-Sn-S; non-stoichiometry; secondary phase; XPS; FTIR
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:33:21 CEST)
The variation of the cationic composition in I2-II-IV-VI4 semiconductor compounds is an effective tool for altering their properties in a controlled manner. In particular, a partial substitution of Cu for Ag in kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 was proposed to suppress Cu-Zn antisite defects and the improve photovoltaic performance. However, the efficiency of this approach may substantially depend on the fabrication route. Here, we report on the synthesis of (Cu,Ag)-Zn-Sn-S (CAZTS) and Ag-Zn-Sn-S (AZTS) nanocrystals (NCs) by means of "green" chemistry in aqueous solution and their detailed characterization by Raman spectroscopy and by several complementary techniques. Through a systematic variation of the nominal composition and quantification of the constituent elements in CAZTS and AZTS NCs by XPS, we identified the vibrational Raman and IR fingerprints of both the main AZTS phase and secondary phases of Ag-Zn-S and Ag-Sn-S compounds (for the first time). The formation of the secondary phases of Ag-S and Ag-Zn-S cannot be avoided entirely for this type of synthesis. The Ag-Zn-S phase, having its bandgap in near infrared range, is the reason of the non-monotonous dependence of the absorption edge of CAZTS NCs on the Ag content, with a trend to redshift even below the bandgaps of bulk AZTS and CZTS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: endocannabinoid system; anandamide; 2-AG; cannabis; cannabinoid receptor 1; cannabinoid receptor 2; PPARSa, b; Ht1a; TRPV1; GPR55; cannabidiol; CBD; THC; CBG; CBC; tetrahydrocannabinol
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:28:52 CEST)
The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species primitive as the Hydra. Insects apparently are devoid of this otherwise ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts: 1. Endogenous ligands, 2. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and 3. Enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. These are the endocannabinoids: Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed, phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0231.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ag; Au; Nanoparticles; SERS; thyroxine; DDA; Sensor
Online: 5 June 2023 (04:09:39 CEST)
Detecting low concentrations of thyroxine hormone (T4) is of utmost importance to prevent diseases and medical issues caused by hypothyroidism. In this work, we propose the use of a simple technique for T4 sensing, the well-known surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Spherical Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) and functionalized with ascorbic acid and tannic acid, respectively. They synthesized by a seed-mediated growth method, were used as SERS substrates to quantify T4 at different concentrations. The NPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Both, Au and Ag NPs, have an average diameter of 50 nm, the first ones have a surface plasmon resonance at 537 nm, while the latter have it at 421 nm. It was noticed the SERS substrates are composed of isolated and agglomerated NPs. From theoreti-cal-numerical calculations, we identified the hot spots |E| of the agglomerate NPs is at least 7 times more intense than that of the isolated NPs. We show the substrates can detect up to 0.01 mM and, for the range of concentration studied, the Ag substrate is more sensitive than Au. Thus, the proposed substrates and the SERS technique constitute a potential prospect for sensing hormones and organic molecules at low concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1795.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: ZnO/Au; ZnO/Ag; nanocomposites; antimicrobial; photocatalytic activity
Online: 27 October 2023 (12:53:36 CEST)
The use of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents can be one of the strategies to overcome the tendency of microbes to become resistant to antibiotics’ action. In this study, two composites ZnO/Au and ZnO/Ag, having 1% wt. of noble metal content, were synthesized by simple aqueous solution methods. The structure and morphology of the resulting nanocomposites were analyzed by standard structural and optical characterization methods. The formation of Au NPs and Ag NPs in these experiments was also discussed. The antimicrobial properties of ZnO, ZnO/Au and ZnO/Ag nanomaterials were investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The electrostatic interaction between ZnO and noble metals nanoparticles have contributed to a better visible light adsorption, which led to an enhanced antimicrobial activity. The photocatalytic tests indicated an improvement in photocatalytic degradation of the methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation using ZnO/Au and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites compared to bare ZnO. The introduction of noble metallic nanoparticles in ZnO matrix proved to be an effective strategy to increase their antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and their photocatalytic activity evaluated through the degradation of MB dye. Comparing the enhancing effects of Au and Ag, it was found that ZnO/Au was a better antimicrobial agent while ZnO/Ag was more effective photocatalyst under UV irradiation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0454.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Cs2CuCl4 nanocrystals; Ag passivation; photoluminescence quantum yield; stability
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:22:15 CEST)
Lead-free copper halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are emerging materials with excellent photoelectric properties. Herein, we present a colloidal synthesis route of orthorhombic Cs2CuCl4 NCs with well-defined cubic shape and an average diameter of 24 ± 2.1 nm. The Cs2CuCl4 NCs exhibit bright deep blue photoluminescence, which is attributed to the Cu(II) defects. In addition, passivating the Cs2CuCl4 NCs by Ag+ can effectively improve the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and environmental stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0004.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: rotating photocatalytic reactor; TiO2 /Ag catalysts; water treatment
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:44:39 CET)
A four stage semi-pilot scale RFR reactor with ceramic disks as support for TiO2 modified with silver particles was developed for the removal of organic pollutants. The design presented in this article is an adaptation of the rotating biological reactors (RBR) and its coupling with the modified catalyst provides additional advantages to designs where a catalyst in suspension is used. The optimal parameter of rotation was 54 rpm and the submerged surface of the disks offer a total contact area of 387 M2. The modified solid showed a decrease in the value of its bandgap compared to commercial titanium. The system has a semi-automatic operation with a maximum reaction time of 50 h. Photo-activity tests show high conversion rates at low concentrations. The results conform to the Langmuir heterogeneous catalysis model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0072.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: micro-arc oxidation; antibacterial ability; Ag; Cu; Zn
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:49:40 CET)
Ti and its alloys are the most commonly used materials for biomedical applications. However, bacterial infection after implant placement is still one of the significant rising complications. Therefore, the application of the antimicrobial agents into implant surfaces to prevent implant-associated infection has attracted lots of attention. Scientific papers have shown that inorganic antibacterial metal element (e.g. Ag, Cu, Zn) can be introduced to implant surfaces with the addition of metal nanoparticles or metallic compounds into electrolyte via micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technology. In this review, the effects of the composition and concentration of electrolyte and process parameters (e.g. voltage, current density, oxidation time) on morphological characteristics (e.g. surface morphology, bonding strength), antibacterial ability and biocompatibility of MAO antimicrobial coating were discussed in detail. Anti-infection and osseo-integration can be simultaneously accomplished with the selection of the proper antibacterial elements and operating parameters. Besides, MAO assisted by magnetron sputtering (MS) to endow Ti-based implant materials with superior antibacterial ability and biocompatibility was also discussed. Finally, the development trend of MAO technology in the future was forecasted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Ag/MgAl2O4; characterization; activity; Photocatalytic degradation; Methylene blue
Online: 10 March 2017 (10:37:46 CET)
In the present work report, the MgAl2O4and the Ag/MgAl2O4 samples were successfully synthesized by the modified hydrothermal and the isovolumetric impregnation methods, respectively. The structural properties of the prepared samples were systematically characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, DRS, XPS and et al techniques. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by the Ag/MgAl2O4 and MgAl2O4 samples was comparatively studied under UV lamp irradiation. The results revealed that the prepared Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) samples were the most active among the samples in photocatalytic of methylene blue. Under UV lamp irradiation, the Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) photodegradation of methylene blue reached to 89.6% within 120 min. And the Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) complex photocatalysts displayed a high photochemical stability under repeated irradiation. Repeated irradiate the Ag/MgAl2O4 (pH=6) compound, which indicated it had a high photochemical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1196.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Ag@Cu2O core-shell; rGO; 4-NP; chemical catalytic
Online: 20 November 2023 (03:24:11 CET)
We successfully fabricated Ag@Cu2O core-shell decorated on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites (ACRN) by a simple and convenient in situ substitution method. The properties of these ACRN with heterostructure layers were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies and absorption spectroscopy. We used p-nitrophenol (4-NP) as a probe molecule to determine the chemical catalytic activity of the ACRN. Upon introduction of rGO, a high electron transfer efficiency was achieved; thus, the catalytic activity was improved significantly. Therefore, the ACRN exhibited significantly improved catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-NP and showed the high application value in the removal of toxic and harmful substances from water. In addition, the fabricated ACRN was used for the reduction of organic dyes and explosive pollutants to generate nontoxic products. Furthermore, the high charge redistribution and transfer among Ag, Cu2O and rGO in the ACRN induced the high catalytic reduction of organic pollutants, indicating the excellent potential of these materials for applications in water pollution treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0166.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: phonon; quantum expresso; Eigen – value; silver (Ag); gold (Au)
Online: 4 July 2023 (08:50:24 CEST)
The Computational theoretical techniques using first principle which make use of the density functional theory as implemented by quantum expresso as well as inter – atomic force constant (IFC) techniques (Born-von Jarman) were used to investigate the phonon dispersion curves of Silver (Ag) and Gold (Au) The results obtained show that for Au, the extension to 1 – 6th neighbour gave slightly close agreement with the experimental phonon dispersions when compared to the 1 – 5th neighbor at WT and LL symmetry points. The percentage error for Au at WT are 2.5% and 2.9% ; at point LL we obtained 0.6% and 0.7% respectively. The Local density Approximation (LDA) results for Ag underestimates the lattice with about 1.6% while the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) overestimates it by 1.9%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0319.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: olivine aggregates; CO2; crystallographic preferred orientation; AG-type fabric
Online: 12 April 2021 (14:28:27 CEST)
Shear deformation of a solid-fluid, two-phase material induces a fluid segregation process that produces fluid-enriched bands and fluid-depleted regions, and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) characterized by girdles of  and  axes sub-parallel to the shear plane and a cluster of  axes sub-normal to the shear plane, namely the AG-type fabric. Based on experiments of two-phase aggregates of olivine + basalt, a two-phase flow theory and a CPO-formation model were established to explain these microstructures. Here, we investigate the microstructure in a two-phase aggregate with supercritical CO2 as the fluid phase and examine the theory and model, as CO2 is different from basaltic melt in rheological properties. We conducted high‐temperature and high-pressure shear deformed experiments at 1 GPa and 1100ºC in a Griggs-type apparatus on samples made of olivine + dolomite, which decomposed into carbonate melt and CO2 at experimental conditions. After deformation, CO2 segregation and an AG-type fabric occurred in these CO2-bearing samples, inconsistency with basaltic melt-bearing samples. The SPO-induce CPO model was used to explain the formation of the fabric. Our results suggest that the influences of CO2 as a fluid phase on the microstructure of a two-phase olivine aggregate is similar to that of basaltic melt and can be explained by the CPO-formation model for the solid-fluid system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1164.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; rapid diagnostic tests; refugees; prevention; Ag-RDTs; PCR
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:33:29 CEST)
1) Background: Northwest Syria (NWS), is a conflict-affected and unstable area. Due to its limited health infrastructure, accessing advanced COVID-19 testing services is challenging. COVID-19 antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) have the potential to overcome this barrier. Therefore, a pilot project was implemented to introduce Ag-RDTs in this setting aiming to a) describe the feasibility, uptake, and results of Ag-RDTs; and b) identify facilitators and barriers to Ag-RDTs testing. 2) Methods: A cross-sectional study design involving secondary analysis of data collected during the project’s monitoring was developed. A local NGO implemented 25,000 Ag-RDTs cross boarder through trained community health workers. 3) Results: A total of 27,888 persons were found eligible and enrolled, of which 24,956 (89.5%) consented to test and 121 (0.5%) were found positive. Highest positivity was observed among those with severe COVID-19 symptoms (12.7%), those with respiratory illnesses (2.5%), persons enrolled at Afrin Hospitals (2.5%), and healthcare workers (1.9%). A non-random sample of 236 people underwent confirmatory rt-PCR test. Accordingly, observed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, were 80.0%, 96.1%, 91.4% and 90.3%, respectively. Key encountered challenges included obtaining informed consent and conducting confirmatory rt-PCR testing. 4) Conclusion: This project demonstrated great feasibility utilizing Ag-RDTs as a screening/diagnostic tool for COVID-19 infections with nearly 90% uptake. Considering the high specificity and negative predictive values and the higher positivity rates among severe COVID-19 symptomatic, embedding Ag-RDTs into COVID-19 testing strategies for ruling out and in COVID-19 infections would hold a great advantage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0544.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: Ag-doped CuAlO2 nanostructure; Optical properties; Dielectrics, Ac electrical properties
Online: 19 April 2023 (04:48:00 CEST)
The solid-state technique was utilized to make a single phase of delafossite CuAlO2, along with 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% silver doped CuAlO2 samples in this study. The content of the samples was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) equipped with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The polycrystalline nature of all of the analyzed cases was confirmed by structural analyses utilizing an X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern with a simple typical peak of CAO rhombohedral phase. Raman, FT-IR and UV–Vis spectroscopy were used to study the structural, and optical energy band gap (Eg) of Ag doped CuAlO2 nanoparticles. The Kubelka–Munk function was used to calculate the optical band gap of ACAO alloys using diffuse reflectance spectra, and it altered as the Ag ion concentration increased. A. c. impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the dielectric characteristics of Ag doped CuAlO2 nanoparticles.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Photocatalytic materials; Ag nanowire; Surface plasmon resonance; Nanocomposite; Rhodamine B
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:44:05 CET)
This paper investigates the photocatalytic characteristics of Ag Nanowire (AgNW)/TiO2 and AgNW/TiO2/Graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. Samples were synthesized by the direct coating of TiO2 particles on the surface of silver nanowires. As-prepared AgNW/TiO2 and AgNW/TiO2/GO nanocomposites were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV/visible absorption spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images confirmed the successful deposition of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of AgNWs. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanocomposites was evaluated using Rhodamine B (RhB) in an aqueous solution as the model organic dye. Results showed that synthesized AgNW/TiO2/GO nanocomposite has superior photocatalytic activities when it comes to the decomposition of RhB.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: polyethylene; nanocomposites; silver nanoparticles; Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles; antibacterial activity
Online: 19 March 2019 (07:54:54 CET)
We report here the synthesis of uniform nanospheres-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, 5-10 nm) and the dumbbell-like Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (FeAgNPs, 8-16 nm) by the use of seeding growth method in the presence of oleic acid (OA)/oleylamine (OLA) as surfactants. The antibacterial activity of pure nanoparticles and nanocomposites by monitoring the bacterial lag–log growth has been investigated. The electron transfer from AgNPs to Fe3O4NPs which enhances the biological of silver nanoparticles has been proven by nanoscale Raman spectroscopy. The lamellae structure in the spherulite of FeAgNPs/PE nanocomposites seems play the key role to the antibacterial activity of nanocomposites, which has been proven by nanoscale AFM-IR. An atomic force microscopy coupled with nanoscale infrared microscopy (AFM-IR) is use to highlight the distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of nanocomposite at the nanoscale. The presence of FeAgNPs in PE nanocomposites has a better antibacterial activity than that reinforced by AgNPs due to the faster Ag+ release rate from the Fe3O4-Ag hybrid nanoparticles and the ionization of AgNPs in hybrid nanostructure.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Digital microfluidics; PMMA; Kapton; Ag ink; Silver nanoparticles; Inkjet printed electrodes
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:30:33 CET)
Digital microfluidics (DMF) devices enable precise manipulation of small liquid volumes in point-of-care testing. Printed circuit board (PCB) substrate is commonly utilized to build DMF devices. However, inkjet printing can be used to fabricate DMF circuits, providing a less expensive alternative to PCB-based DMF designs while enabling more rapid design iteration cycles. We demonstrate the fabrication process of the inkjet-printed DMF circuit. We compare Kapton and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as dielectric coatings by measuring the minimal droplet actuation voltage for a range of actuation frequencies. The minimum actuation voltage of 5.6 V was required for droplet movement with the PMMA layer thickness of 0.2 μm and a hydrophobic layer of 0.17 μm. Significant issues with PMMA dielectric breakdown were observed at actuation voltages above 10 V. In comparison, devices that utilized Kapton were found to be more robust even at the actuation voltage up to 100 V.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0428.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ag nanoparticle; localized surface plasmon resonance; color; red-shift; blue-shift
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:52:47 CET)
Fresh Ag nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed on a transparent SiO2 exhibit an intense optical extinction band originating in localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in visible range. The intensity of LSPR band weakened when the Ag NPs was stored in ambient air for two weeks. The rate of the weakening and the LSPR wavelength shift, corresponding to visual chromatic changes, strongly depended on the environment in which Ag NPs were set. The origin of a chromatic change was discussed along with both compositional and morphological changes. In one case, bluish coloring followed by a prompt discoloring was observed for Ag NPs placed near the ventilation fan in our laboratory, resulted from adsorption of large amounts of S and Cl on Ag NP surfaces as well as particle coarsening. Such color changes deduce the presence of significant amounts of S and Cl in the environment. In other case, a remarkably blue-shift of LSPR band was observed for the Ag NPs stored in the desiccator made of stainless steel, originated in the formation of CN and/or HCN compounds and surface roughening. Their color changed from maroon to reddish, suggesting that such molecules were present inside the desiccator.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0686.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: malignant neoplasia; transoral reconstruction; polydimethyl siloxane; Ag nanoparticles; fatigue strenght; prosthesis
Online: 28 December 2020 (11:24:53 CET)
This study aims to establish whether the use of biomaterials, particularly polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), for surgical reconstruction of the esophagus with templates, Montgomery salivary tube, after radical oncology surgery for malignant neoplasia is an optimal choice for patients’ safety and for optimal function preservation and organ rehabilitation. Methods: Structural analysis by Raman spectrometry and biomechanical properties with dynamic mechanical analysis are performed for fatigue strength and toughness, essential factors in durability of a prosthesis in the reconstruction practice of the esophagus. Nanocomposites with silicone elastomers and nanoparticles used in implantable devices and in the reconstruction surgery are facing risks of infection and fatigue strength when required to perform a mechanical effort for long periods of time. Results: This report takes into account the effect of silver (Ag) nanoparticles on the fatigue strength using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix, representative for silicon elastomers used in implantable devices. PDMS with 5% (wt) Ag nanoparticles of 100-150 nm during mechanical fatigue testing at shear strength loses elasticity properties after 400 loading-unloading cycles and up to 15% shear strain. The fatigue strength, toughness, maximum shear strength are the key issues in designing Montgomery salivary tube with appropriate biomechanical behavior for each patient. Conclusions: Prosthesis design needs to indulge both clinical outcome as well as design methods and research in the field of biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0013.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nano-cube; heterostructures; bottom-up growth; electron microscopy; bandgap; Ag-WO3
Online: 4 February 2017 (09:23:00 CET)
A new class of nano-cube core-shell heterostructures containing Ag coating on the top of WO3 was fabricated. Physical vapor deposition was used to produce WO3 based nano-heterostructures. All kind of wet toxic chemical process was avoided to make the process simple and contaminant free. Sputtering of WO3 and a subsequent thermal annealing process was done to create nano-cubes of WO3. After that, sputtering of Ag was performed to form the Ag-WO3 core-shell nano-heterostructures (CSNH). The CSNHs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphologies, elemental analysis, interfaces, crystallinity, phases, and chemical compositions were analyzed. The bottom-up growth of WO3 nanocubes was studied using different time periods at 900°C. Ag coating was also studied before and after annealing. Finally, an optical property (band gap) was also analyzed using Tauc plot derive from absorption spectra. The tailoring the band gap of WO3 from ~2.9eV to ~ 2.45 eV was observed while Ag-WO3 CSNH formed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0476.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: non-enzymatic sensor; Ag/δ-FeOOH; carbon black; hydrogen peroxide; electrochemical detection
Online: 10 October 2023 (03:13:13 CEST)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an essential analyte for detecting neurodegenerative diseases and in-flammatory processes and plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical, food industry, and environmental monitoring. However, conventional H2O2 detection methods have drawbacks such as lengthy analysis time, high costs, and bulky equipment. Non-enzymatic sensors have emerged as promising alternatives to overcome these limitations. In this study, we introduce a simple, portable, and cost-effective non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor based on carbon black (CB) and silver nano-particle-modified δ-FeOOH (Ag/δ-FeOOH), integrated into a disposable electrochemical cell (DCell). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), confirmed successful CB and Ag/δ-FeOOH immo-bilization on the DCell working electrode. Electrochemical investigations revealed that the DCell-CB//Ag/δ-FeOOH sensor exhibited an approximately twofold higher apparent heterogene-ous electron transfer rate constant than the DCell–Ag/δ-FeOOH sensor, capitalizing on CB ad-vantages. Moreover, the sensor displayed excellent electrochemical response for H2O2 reduction, boasting a low detection limit of 22 µM and a high analytical sensitivity of 214 μA mM-1 cm-2. Notably, the DCell-CB//Ag/δ-FeOOH sensor exhibited outstanding selectivity for H2O2 detection, even in potential interferents such as dopamine, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor demonstrated its suitability for monitoring H2O2 in complex biological samples, as evidenced by H2O2 recoveries ranging from 92% to 103% in 10% fetal bovine serum. These findings underscore the considerable potential of the DCell-CB//Ag/δ-FeOOH sensor for precise and reliable H2O2 monitoring in diverse biomedical and environmental applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0256.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Ti-Cu-Ag thin films; Mechanical properties; Magnetron sputtering; Nanoindentation; FIB-DIC
Online: 13 January 2021 (15:11:02 CET)
In this work, the ternary titanium, copper and silver (Ti-Cu-Ag) system is investigated as a potential candidate for the production of mechanically robust biomedical thin films. The coatings are produced by physical vapor deposition-magnetron sputtering (MS-PVD). The composite thin films are deposited on a silicon (100) substrate. The ratio between Ti and Cu was approximately kept one, with the variation of the Ag content between 10 and 35 at.%, while the power on the targets is changed during each deposition to get the desired Ag content. Thin film characterization is performed by x-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation (modulus and hardness) and Atomic force microscopy to determine the surface topography. The residual stresses are measured by focused ion beam and digital image correlation method (FIB-DIC). The produced Ti-Cu-Ag thin films appear to be smooth, uniformly thick and exhibit amorphous structure for the Ag contents lower than 25 at.%, with a transition to partially crystalline structure for higher Ag concentrations. The Ti-Cu control film shows higher values of 124.5 GPa and 7.85 GPa for modulus and hardness respectively. There is a clear trend of continuous decrease in the modulus and hardness with the increase of Ag content, as lowest value of 105.5 GPa and 6 GPa for 35 at.% Ag containing thin films. In particular, a transition from the compressive (-36.5 MPa) to tensile residual stresses between 229 MPa and 288 MPa are observed with an increasing Ag content. The obtained results suggest that the Ag concentration should not exceed 25 at.%, in order to avoid an excessive reduction of the modulus and hardness with maintaining (at the same time) the potential for an increase of the antibacterial properties. In summary, Ti-Cu-Ag thin films shows characteristic mechanical properties that can be used to improve the properties of biomedical implants such as Ti-alloys and stainless steel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0201.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: mesoporous TiO2; reduced graphene oxide; Ag nanoparticles; photocatalytic activity; visible light irradiation
Online: 27 March 2017 (12:01:25 CEST)
Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag) ternary nanocomposite with effective electrons transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT) and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG), the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA) nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min-1, which was 3.4 times higher than that of MTG. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite make the three components act synergistic effect to enhance the photocatalytic performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1331.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: lab-on-fiber sensor; Ag/Au nanocap arrays; surface-enhanced Raman scattering; polystyrene nanospheres
Online: 20 September 2023 (14:00:46 CEST)
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can boost the pristine Raman signal by ~ 108 times that could be exploited for producing innovative sensing devices with advanced properties. However, the inherent complexity of SERS systems restricts their further applications in rapid detection, especially in situ detection in narrow aera. Here, we construct an efficient and flexible SERS-based LOP sensor by integrating Ag/Au nanocap arrays obtained by Ag/Au coating polystyrene nanospheres on the optical fiber face. We obtain rich “hotspots” at the nanogaps between neighboring nanocaps and further achieve the excellent SERS performance with the assistance of laser induced thermophoresis on the metal film that can achieve high efficiency aggregation of detected molecules. We achieve a high Raman enhancement with a low detection limitation of 10-7 mol/L for the most efficient samples based on the above sensor. This sensor also exhibits good repeatability and stability under multiple detections, revealing the potential application in situ detection based on the reflexivity of optical fiber.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: screen printed electrodes; Ag nanoparticles; drop-casting; spin-coating; nanoprisms; heavy metals; Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric; electrocatalysis
Online: 5 August 2019 (04:55:05 CEST)
The screen-printed carbon nanofibers electrodes (SPCNFE) represent an alternative with great acceptance due to their results, as well as their low impact for the environment. In order to improve their performance, in the present work they were modified with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and electrochemically characterized by using anodic stripping voltammetry. From the Ag-NPs synthesis, silver seeds (Ag-NS) and silver nanoprisms (Ag-NPr) were obtained. The Ag-NPs formation was confirmed by micrographs where Ag-NPs with diameters of 12.20±0.04 nm for Ag-NS, and 20.40±0.09 nm for Ag-NPr were observed. The electrodes were modified by using three different deposition methods: drop-casting, spin-coating and in-situ approaches. It was observed that the last methodology showed a low amount of Ag-NS deposited on the electrode surface and a deep alteration of this surface. Those facts suggested that the in situ synthesis methodology were not appropriate for the determination of heavy metals and it was discarded. The incorporation of the nanoparticles by spin-coating and drop-casting strategies showed different spatial distribution on the electrode surface as proved by scanning electron microscopy. The electrodes modified by these strategies, were evaluated for the cadmium(II) and lead(II) detection using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, obtaining detection limit values of 2.1 and 2.8 µg L-1, respectively. The overall results showed that the incorporation route does not change directly the electrocatalytic effect of the nanoparticles, but the shape of these nanoparticles (spherical for seeds and triangular for prisms) has a preferential electrocatalytical enhancement over Cd(II) or Pb(II).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0145.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: convex functions; AG, AH-convex functions; GA, GG, GH -convex functions and HA, HG, HH-convex function; integral inequalities
Online: 11 April 2018 (08:46:29 CEST)
In this paper we obtain some inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type for composite convex functions. Applications for AG, AH-convex functions, GA, GG, GH-convex functions and HA, HG, HH-convex function are given. Applications for p, r-convex and LogExp functions are presented as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2142.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: llama 2; llama2; llama 2 projects; llama 2 model architecture; llama 2 fine-tuning
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:30:51 CEST)
The rapidly evolving field of artificial intelligence (AI) continues to witness the introduction of innovative open-source pre-trained models, fostering advancements in various applications. One such model is Llama 2, an open-source pre-trained model released by Meta, which has garnered significant attention among early adopters. In addition to exploring the foundational elements of the Llama v2 model, this paper investigates how these early adopters leverage the capabilities of Llama 2 in their AI projects. Through a qualitative study, we delve into the perspectives, experiences, and strategies employed by early adopters to leverage Llama 2's capabilities. For the purpose of data analysis, the capabilities inherent in the Llama 2 model were employed to conduct keyword extraction from the context of the early adopters' case studies. The findings shed light on the model's strengths, weaknesses, and areas of improvement, offering valuable insights for the AI community and Meta to enhance future model iterations. Additionally, we discuss the implications of Llama 2's adoption on the broader open-source AI landscape, addressing challenges and opportunities for developers and researchers in the pursuit of cutting-edge AI solutions. The present study constitutes an early exploration of the Llama 2 pre-trained model, holding promise as a foundational basis for forthcoming research investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0470.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Au-Ag low-sulphidation epithermal mineralization; Kremnica; gold; selenium; clausthalite; naumannite; miargyrite; pyrargyrite-proustite; polybasite-pearceite; diaphorite; Pb-Sb sulphosalts
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:35:42 CEST)
Selenium-rich Au-Ag mineralization has been discovered in the Kremnica ore district, central Slovakia. The mineralization is hosted by a single quartz-dolomite vein hosted by Neogene propyllitized andesites of the Kremnica stratovolcano. Ore mineralogy and crystal chemistry of individual ore minerals have been studied here. The early base-metal ore mineralization composed of pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite lacks selenium, whereas the superimposed Au-Ag paragenesis is Se-enriched. The Au-Ag alloys, uytenbogaardtite, minerals of the galena-clausthalite series, acanthite-naumannite series, diaphorite, miargyrite, pyrargyrite-proustite, polybasite group, minerals of the tetrahedrite group and andorite branch (andorite IV, andorite VI, Ag-excess fizélyite), freislebenite, and rare Pb-Sb sulphosalts (scaiinite, robinsonite, plagionite) have been identified here. Besides selenides, the most Se-enriched phases are miargyrite, proustite-pyrargyrite, and polybasite-pearceite, whose Se contents are among the highest reported worldwide. In addition, one new phase has been found, corresponding to a Se-analogue of pearceite containing 2.08 - 3.54 apfu Se. The style of mineralization, paragenetic situation, and chemical trends observed in individual minerals are comparable to those of Au-Ag low-sulphidation epithermal Au-Ag mineralizations of the Kremnica and neighboring Štiavnica and Hodruša-Hámre Ore Districts, however, the pronounced enrichment in selenium is a specific feature of the studied vein only.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0400.v1
Online: 27 March 2020 (02:48:01 CET)
The world is currently going through a serious pandemic of viral infection with SARS-CoV-2, a new isolate of coronavirus, resembling and surpassing the crisis that occurred in 2002 and 2013 with SARS and MERS, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 has currently infected more than 142,000 people, causing 5,000 deaths and reaching more than 130 countries worldwide. The very large spreading capacity of the virus clearly demonstrates the potential threat of respiratory viruses to human health, alarming governments around the world that preventive health policies and scientific research are pivotal to overcoming the crisis. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes flu-like symptoms in most cases. However, approximately 15% of patients will need hospitalization, and 5% require assisted ventilation, depending on the cohorts studied. What is intriguing, however, is the higher susceptibility of elderly individuals, especially those who are more than 60 years old and have comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. In fact, the death rate in this group may be up to 10-12%. Interestingly, children are somehow protected and not included as a risk group.Thus, here, we discuss some possibilities of molecular and cellular mechanisms by which elderly subjects may be more susceptible to severe COVID-19. In this sense, we raise two main points: i) increased ACE-2 expression in pulmonary and heart tissue of chronic angiotensin 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker users and hypertensive individuals and ii) antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) after previous exposure to other circulating coronaviruses. We believe these are pivotal points for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and must be addressed with attention by physicians and scientists in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0442.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: convex functions; AG, AH-h-convex functions; GA, GG, GH-h-convex functions and HA, HG, HH-h-convex function; integral inequalities
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:45:17 CEST)
In this paper we obtain some inequalities of Hermite-Hadamard type for composite convex functions. Applications for AG, AH-h-convex functions, GA, GG, GH-h-convex functions and HA, HG, HH-h-convex function are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: epidemiological history of HCV-2; HCV-2 subtypes; evolutionary demography of HCV-2; phylodynamics of HCV-2 in Italy and Albania; HCV-2 Re estimation
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:10:30 CET)
Newly characterising 245 Italian and Albanian HCV-2 NS5B sequences collected between 2001 and 2016 was used to reconstruct the origin and dispersion pathways of HCV-2c. The tree of a subset of these sequences aligned with 247 publicly available sequences was reconstructed in spatio-temporal scale using the Bayesian approach, and the effective replication number (Re) was estimated using the birth-death model. Our findings show that HCV-2c was the most prevalent subtype in Italy and Albania, and that GT2 originated in Guinea Bissau in the XVI century and spread to Europe in the XX century. The HCV-2c subtype had two internal nodes respectively dating back to the 1930s and 1950s having as most probable locations Ghana and Italy, respectively. Phylodynamic analysis revealed an exponential increase in the effective number of infections and Re in both Italy between the 1950s and 1980s, and Albania between the 1990s and the early 2000s. It seems very likely that HCV-2c reached Italy from Africa at the time of the second Italian colonisation (1936-1941), but did not reach Albania until the period of dramatic migration to Italy in the 1990s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0541.v9
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Signal Processing Keywords: Collatz conjecture; (*3+1)/2^k odd sequence; (*3+2^m-1)/2^k odd sequence; (*3+2^m-1)/2^k odd tree; weight function
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:53:32 CEST)
Build a special identical equation, use its calculation characters to prove and search for solution of any odd converging to 1 equation through (*3+1)/2^k operation, change the operation to (*3+2^m-1)/2^k, and get a solution for this equation, give a specific example to verify. Thus prove the Collatz Conjecture is true. Furthermore, analysis the sequences produced by iteration calculation during the procedure of searching for solution, build a weight function model, prove it decrease progressively to 0, build a complement weight function model, prove it increase to its convergence state. Build a (*3+2^m-1)/2^k odd tree, prove if odd in (*3+2^m-1)/2^k long huge odd sequence can not converge, the sequence must outstep the boundary of the tree after infinite steps of (*3+2^m-1)/2^k operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1); Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2); Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 ratio (Ang-2/Ang-1); COVID-19; endothelial dysfunction
Online: 3 October 2023 (04:46:41 CEST)
The study aimed to explore the correlation among angiopoietin-1, (Ang-1) and Angiopoietin-2, (Ang-2) concentrations and the Angiopoietin-2/Angiopoietin-1 ratio, (Ang-2/Ang-1) with clinical outcomes, potentially serving as disease severity and survival biomarkers. A study at AHEPA University Hospital involved 90 COVID-19 adult patients, with 30 hospitalized in intensive care and 30 in ward units and 30 asymptomatic non-hospitalized individuals as controls. Estimated endothelial dysfunction markers related to angiogenesis were measured, and statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics software, version 29. There was a statistically significant difference only between outpatient and hospitalized patients (non-ICU -ICU groups) for the Ang-1 and Ang-2 indexes. The Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio has differed significantly among all individual patient groups. A ROC analysis was conducted to find an optimal threshold for distinguishing (outpatients – non-ICU) and (non-ICU – ICU) groups. It was based on Youden's Index and was 0.1122 or 0.1271 and 0.3825 or 0.4510, respectively. The Ang-1, Ang-2 levels, and Ang-2 / Ang-1 ratio were analysed as indicators for severity in COVID-19 patients. The Ang-2 / Ang-1 ratio demonstrated more excellent prognostic and diagnostic utility than individual biomarker levels. Monitoring the Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio can identify COVID-19 patients at risk and assist clinicians in tailoring treatment strategies for improved outcomes.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: cashless payment; enablers; barriers; Malaysia; UTAUT 2; TRI 2
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:32:54 CEST)
This study investigated the factors affecting consumers’ acceptance to use cashless payment services in Malaysia through the construction of the Cashless Society Acceptance (CSA) model. The Technology Readiness Index 2.0 and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 were employed to create the CSA model. A total of 434 questionnaires were collected from Malaysian consumers, aged 18 years and above. The results show that Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and Discomfort have the most significant influence on the consumers’ acceptance of cashless payment services with R-square of 71.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0409.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; SARS-CoV-2; spike protein; COVID-19
Online: 9 April 2020 (09:59:37 CEST)
Objectives Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has high infectivity in humans, attributed to the strong affinity of its spike (S) protein to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Here, we analyzed the structural similarity of the S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and other SARS-related coronaviruses (CoVs). Methods We performed multiple alignment analysis of nine amino acid sequences of CoV S proteins from NCBI with MAFFT web-based software, followed by phylogeny analysis. Three-dimensional structure modeling was performed by SWISS-MODEL. We calculated the template modeling score between the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and that of other SARS-related CoVs. Results The S1 domain of the unclassified CoV RaTG13 (the host of which is the intermediate horseshoe bat) was structurally very similar to that of SARS-CoV-2, implying that RaTG13 could be the origin of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the folding property of the entire S protein was nearly the same between SARS-CoV-2 and RaTG13 after the PRRA amino acid insertion was removed from SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions RaTG13 could have a high binding affinity to ACE2, similar to SARS-CoV-2, and it is therefore highly likely to infect other animals. Therefore, massive research and monitoring of CoVs in animals is necessary to prevent future COVID-19-like disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0225.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: 2-inner product; vector-valued spaces; 2-semi norm.
Online: 22 June 2019 (14:46:09 CEST)
This paper is devoted to the study of reproducing kernels on 2-inner product Hilbert spaces. We focus on a new structure to produce reproducing kernel Hilbert and Banach spaces. According to multi-variable computing, this structures can be useful in electrocardiographs, machine learning and economy
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-COV-2; respiratory tests; Xpert® Xpress COV-2 plus; Xpert(2) Xpress COV-2/Flu/RSV plus; diagnostic evaluation; novel target
Online: 5 December 2022 (10:17:58 CET)
The Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV tests were rapidly developed and widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. In response to emerging genetic variability, a new SARS-CoV-2 target (RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase) has been added to both tests: Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus and Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test. A rapid evaluation of both tests was performed in South Africa, using residual respiratory specimens. Residual respiratory specimens (n=125) were used to evaluate the Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus test and included 50 genotyped specimens. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test was assessed using 45 genotyped SARS-CoV-2 specimens, ten influenza A, ten Influenza B and twenty respiratory syncytial virus specimens. Results were com-pared to in-country standard of care tests. Genotyped specimens tested the performance of the test under pressure from circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Reference material was included to assess the test limits and linearity. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus test performance compared to reference results across residual respiratory specimens was good (positive per-centage agreement (PPA)=95.2%, negative percentage agreement (NPA)=95.0%) The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test showed good performance across all residual respiratory specimens (PPA=100%, NPA=98.3%). All genotyped variants of concern were detected by both tests. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus and Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus tests can be used to diagnose SARS-CoV-2, and to diagnose and differentiate SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus respectively. The NPA was lower than the recommended 99%, but was influenced by the low number of negative specimens tested. The variants of concern assessed did not affect test performance. It is recommended that sites perform their own assessments compared to in-country standard of care tests.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0333.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 2-Deoxyglucose; Adverse effects; COVID-19; Glutamine; PI3K/Akt
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:04:43 CEST)
The treatment of viral infections is challenging owing to the intricate structure and metabolism of the viruses. In addition, they can highjack host cellular metabolism, mutate and adapt to harsh environmental conditions. The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) displays further resilient attributes, making its eradication even more difficult. SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped virus whose replication can be targeted by limiting the substrates available for structural incorporation. One such molecule that limits substrate availability and has received much attention lately is 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). SARS-CoV-2 infection induces glycolysis, impairs mitochondrial function, and damages the infected cells. Administration of 2-DG can inhibit increased glycolytic flux and some other metabolic processes to cause the cessation of viral replication. This article provides a review of the mechanism of action and safety concerns associated with administering 2-DG in the treatment of COVID-19. The drug can have adverse effects on normal cell metabolism since it targets cells non-selectively, possibly in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the drug has limited use in SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with stroke, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and critical illness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0708.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Phytochemicals; SARS-CoV-2; S-Protein; Molecular docking; ACE 2
Online: 28 December 2020 (16:51:12 CET)
Since December 2019, the worldwide spread of COVID-19 has brought the majority of the world to a standstill, affecting daily lives as well as economy. Under these conditions, it is imperative to develop a cure as soon as possible. On account of some of the adverse side effects of the existing conventional drugs, researchers all around the world are screening natural antiviral phytochemicals as potential therapeutic agents against COVID-19. This paper aims to review interactions of some specific phytochemicals with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible therapeutic applications. Literature search was done based on the wide array of in-silico studies conducted using broad spectrum phytochemicals against SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. We shortlisted 26 such phytochemicals specifically targeting the S protein and its interactions with host receptors. To validate the previously published results, we also conducted molecular docking using the AutoDockVina application and identified 6 high potential phytochemicals for therapeutic use based on their binding energies. Besides this, availability of these compounds, their mode of action, toxicity data and cost-effectiveness were also taken into consideration. Our review specifically identifies 6 phytochemicals that can be used as potential treatments for COVID-19 based on their availability, toxicology results and low costs of production. However, all these compounds need to be further validated by wet lab experiments and should be approved for clinical use only after appropriate trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0337.v1
Online: 19 April 2020 (07:14:52 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus behind COVID-19 pandemic is acquiring new mutations in its genome. Although some mutations provide benefits to the virus against human immune response, a number of them may result in their reduced pathogenicity and virulence. By analyzing more than 3000 high-coverage, complete genome sequences deposited in the GISAID database, here I report a unique 28881-28883:GGG>AAC trinucleotide-bloc mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome that results in two sub-strains, described here as SARS-CoV-2g (28881-28883:GGG genotype) and SARS-CoV-2a (28881-28883:AAC genotype). Computational analysis and literature review suggest that this bloc mutation would bring 203-204:RG(arginine-glycine)>KR(lysine-arginine) amino acid changes in the nucleocapsid (N) protein affecting the SR (serine-arginine)-rich motif of the protein, a critical region for the transcription of viral RNA and replication of the virus. Thus, 28881-28883:GGG>AAC bloc-mutation is expected to modulate the pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2. Remarkably, SARS-CoV-2g and SARS-CoV-2a strains can be linked with the heterogeneity of COVID-19 cases across different regions within and between countries by analyzing existing data. Sequence analysis suggests that severely affected cities, such as Milan, Lombardy, New York, Paris have the predominant presence of SARS-CoV-2g strains, whereas less affected places like Abruzzo, Lyon, Valencia have a relatively higher presence of SARS-CoV-2a, an indication that the latter strain may contribute to the reduced cases of COVID-19. A similar relationship is observed when Netherlands, Portugal are compared with Spain, France and Germany. These analyses suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 has already evolved into a less infective SARS-CoV-2a affecting COVID-19 cases in different regions. The time a country or region needs to acquire SARS-CoV-2a strains may be indicative to the time it would need to overcome the peak of the COVID-19 cases. To confirm these assumptions, prompt retrospective and prospective epidemiological studies should be conducted in different countries to understand the course of pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2a and SARS-CoV-2g. Potential drugs can be designed targeting 28881-28883 region of the N protein to modulate virus pathogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0338.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Forests; biomass; ALOS-2 PALSAR-2; Sentinel-1 CSAR; Sentinel-2 MSI; Landsat 8 OLI; ensemble learning.
Online: 16 February 2021 (14:15:01 CET)
This paper presents ensemble learning of multi-source satellite sensors dataset to obtain better predictive performance of the forest biomass. Spectral, spectral-indices, and spectral-textural features were generated from two optical satellite sensors, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI). In addition, two radar satellite sensors, Sentinel-1 C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (CSAR), and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS-2) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-2) were utilized to generate backscattering and backscattering-textural features. The plot-wise above ground biomass data available from five forests in New England region were utilized. Ensemble learning of multi-source satellite sensors dataset was carried out by employing four machine learning regressors namely, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forests (RF), Gradient Boosting (GB), and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP). A five-fold cross-validation method was used to evaluate predictive performance of the multi-source satellite sensors. The integration of multi-source satellite features, comprising of spectral, spectral-indices, backscattering, spectral-textural, and backscattering-textural information, through ensemble learning and cross-validation approach implemented in the research showed promising results (R2 = 0.81, RMSE = 46.2 Mg/ha) for the estimation of plots-level forest biomass in New England region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence; Vaccination Status; SARS-CoV-2; anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; Albanian population
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:10:13 CEST)
Understanding the dynamics of humoral immune responses throughout the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for optimizing vaccine strategies. This study aimed to investigate the impact of infection and vaccine-induced immunity on the Albanian population from August 2021 to August 2022. Two independent samples from the Albanian general population were analyzed using an ELISA method to assess IgG class anti-Spike (S1) and anti-Nucleocapsid (N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The results revealed a robust immune response among vaccinated individuals with prior COVID-19 infection who received only one vaccine dose. In the 2022 cohort, most individuals who received one vaccine dose achieved comparable seropositivity and antibody levels to those who received two doses. However, individuals aged 61 and over required two or three vaccine doses to reach the same level of immune response as the younger population. Notably, the time elapsed since infection or vaccination did not significantly impact the immune response. These findings highlight the importance of hybrid immunity and suggest that one vaccine dose may be sufficient for most individuals with prior COVID-19 infection. However, additional doses are necessary for optimal protection in older individuals. This study provides unique insights into humoral immune response dynamics that can be used to refine ongoing COVID-19 population vaccination strategies for middle-income countries with low vaccination coverage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0550.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Hydroborate; closo-decaborate; Grignard reagents RMgX; building blocks [2- B10H9COR]2-
Online: 10 July 2023 (07:13:43 CEST)
A green, fast and selective approach for the synthesis of mono-substituted closo-decaborate derivatives [2-B10H9COR]n– has been established via a nucleophilic addition reaction between the carbonyl derivative of closo-decaborate [2-B10H9CO]– and the corresponding Grignard reagent RMgX, where R is the ethyl, iso-propyl, pentyl, allyl, vinyl, and propynyl groups. This approach is accomplished under mild conditions with 70–80% yields. The significance of these derivative is their ability to constitute building blocks for polymeric integration via the allyl, vinyl and propynyl substituents. All products were characterized by 11B, 1H, and 13C NMR, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0509.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: isatin; indolin-2-one; acute myeloid leukemia; apoptosis; ERK1/2; MAPK
Online: 28 November 2022 (09:59:20 CET)
Searching for bioactive compounds within the huge chemical space is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Isatin is a unique natural compound which is endowed with different biopertinent activities specially in cancer therapy. Herein, we envisaged that adopting a hybrid strategy of isatin and α,β-unsaturated ketone would afford new chemical entities with strong chemotherapeutic potential. Of interest, compounds 5b and 5g demonstrated significant antiproliferative activities against different cancer genotypes according to NCI assay. Concomitantly, their IC50 against HL-60 cells were 0.38 ± 0.08 and 0.57 ± 0.05, respectively, demonstrating remarkable apoptosis and mod-erate cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Intriguingly, an impressive safety profile for 5b was reflected by a 37.2 times selectivity against HL-60 over PBMC from a healthy donor. This provoked us to further explore their mechanism of action by in vitro and in silico tools. Conclusively, 5b and 5g stand out as strong chemotherapeutic agents that hold a clinical promise against acute myeloid leukemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: bone formation; BMP-2; FGF-2; beta-TCP; osteoblast-osteoclast communication
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:58:33 CET)
It is very difficult to repair large bone defects, especially when they have a complex shape. We have developed a new technique to make a desired copy of rabbit bones. A rabbit distal femur was scanned by computed tomography (CT), and a rectangular-shaped beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) block with 75% porosity was automatically machined using milling tools into a half-scale copy of the distal femur based on the CT data. The β-TCP block was seeded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone marrow cells obtained from the femur and implanted on the periosteum of the femur. At 10 weeks after implantation, most of the β-TCP block had been replaced by bone and a complete copy of the distal femur was reconstructed. Our findings indicate that this technique will be useful in the clinical setting. We also report the representative clinical results of treatment with β-TCP graft in patients with bone defects since 1989.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0585.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; Endothelium dysfunction; Thrombosis; Vasculitis.
Online: 28 October 2020 (11:21:55 CET)
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection is associated, alongside with lung infection and respiratory disease, to cardiovascular dysfunction that occurs at any stage of the disease. This includes ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathies. The common pathophysiological link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the cardiovascular events is represented by coagulation abnormalities and disruption of factors released by endothelial cells which contribute in maintaining the blood vessels into an anti-thrombotic state. Thus, early alteration of the functionality of endothelial cells, which may be found soon after SARS-CoV-2 infection, seems to represent the major target of SARS CoV-2 disease state and accounts for the systemic vascular dysfunction that leads to detrimental effect in terms of hospitalization and death accompanying the disease. In particular, the molecular interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with ACE2 receptor located in endothelial cell surface, either at the pulmonary and systemic level, leads to early impairment of endothelial function which, in turn, is followed by vascular inflammation and thrombosis of peripheral blood vessels. This highlights systemic hypoxia and further aggravates the vicious circle that compromises the development of the disease leading to irreversible tissue damage and death of patients with SARS CoV-2 infection. The review aims to assess some recent advances to define the crucial role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of vascular complications accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular, the molecular mechanisms associated to the interaction of SARS CoV-2 with ACE2 receptor located on the endothelial cells are highlighted to support its role in compromising endothelial cell functionality. Finally, the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in enhancing pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are assessed in order to identify early therapeutic interventions able to reduce the impact of the disease in high-risk patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: atherosclerosis; sars-cov-2; covid-19; pathogenesis of sars-cov-2
Online: 24 April 2020 (08:58:13 CEST)
Sars-CoV-2 outbreak represents a public health emergency, affecting different regions of the world. Lung is the organ more damaged due to the high presence of Sars-CoV-2 binding receptor ACE2 on epithelial alveolar cells. Severity of infection vary from absence of symptomatology to be more severe, characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multiorgan failure and sepsis requiring treatment in Intensive Care Unit (ICU).It is not still clear why in a small percentage of patients immune system is not able to efficiently suppress viral replication. It has been documented as predictive factors for severity and susceptibility affections of cardiovascular system such as heart failure (HF), coronary heart disease (CHD) and risk factors for atherosclerotic progression, hypertension and diabetes among others.Atherosclerotic progression, as chronic inflammation process, is characterized by immune system dysregulation leading to pro-inflammatory pattern, including (Interleukin 6) IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) and IL-1β raise. Reviewing immune system and inflammation profiles in atherosclerosis and laboratory results report in severe Sars-CoV-2 infection we have supposed a pathogenetic correlation. Atherosclerosis may be a pathogenetic ideal substrate to high viral replication ability leading to adverse outcomes, how reported in patients with cardiovascular factors. Moreover, level of atherosclerotic progression may impact on a different degree of severe infection and in a vicious circle feeding itself Sars-CoV-2 may exacerbate atherosclerotic progression due to excessive and aberrant plasmatic concentration of cytokines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 RBD; Ubrogepant; ACE-2; MD simulation
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:50:27 CEST)
Background: COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global pandemic affecting approximately 490,000 people and accounting for more than 22,000 deaths and has no generally acceptable cure. Here, the recently resolved 3D structure of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) in complex with its receptor-the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) have provided the basis for screening chemical database for novel entry inhibitors. Methods: Molecular docking protocols have been used to rapidly screen FDA database for high affinity interaction at the SARS-CoV-2-RBD/ACE-2 interface. One of the top candidates, ubrogepant has been selected and further studied using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation method. Results: Molecular docking result showed that ubrogepant (UBR) and darunavir have binding energies of -10.4 kcal/mol. MMPBSA free energy analyses of UBR bound to RBD, ACE-2 and RBD/ACE-2 revealed RBD/ACE-2 > ACE-2 > RBD preference. Network analysis showed that interaction captured in the crystal structure were disrupted in UBR-bound state, hydration of the interface and increased atomic fluctuation within the RBD oligomerization interface and ACE-2 zinc binding site. Conclusions: The ability of ubrogepant to rupture the interaction at the RBD/ACE-2 interface residues of SARS-CoV-2 RBD/ACE-2 complex may result in loss of protein function with direct implication on oligomerization formation in RBD and loss of function in ACE-2 thus, making binding, cellular receptor recognition impossible. General Significance: Ubrogepant represents a new therapeutic candidate in the fight against COVID-19, as it binds with relatively high affinity with free RBD, ACE-2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 RBD/ACE-2 complex based on binding affinity calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: praeruptorin A; human cervical cancer; ERK; Invasion; MMP-2; TIMP-2
Online: 19 September 2017 (07:45:00 CEST)
Praeruptorin A(PA), a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. So far the anti-cancer effect and molecular mechanism behind Praeruptorin A action in human cervical cancer HeLa cells remain unknown. In the present study, we find that PA reduces cell proliferation and colony formation of human cervical cancer HeLa cells through inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. PA-upregulated p21 and p27 proteins are observed, accompanied with inhibition of cyclin D1 and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2(Skp2) proteins expression. PA could significantly inhibit migration and invasion of human HeLa cells. Meanwhile, PA significantly reduces invasive protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and increases protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). PA is observed to possess the capacity in suppressing ERK1/2 activation. PD98059 (ERK specific inhibitor) significantly enhances PA-induced downregulation of MMP-2 expression, and upregulation of TIMP-2 expression. Moreover, we found that PA treatment notably inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate(TPA)-upregulated ERK1/2 activation, MMP-2 expression, cellular migration and invasion in human HeLa cells. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the anti-cancer activity of PA, which may act as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of human cervical cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: : mineralocorticosteroid receptor antagonist (MRA); angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); SARS-CoV-2; transmembrane protease receptor serine 2; furin; plasmin
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:39:03 CEST)
Aims: Spironolactone is a steroidal mineralocoricosteroid receptor antagonist (MRA) used for treatment of resistant hypertension, heart failure and edema. It exerts class specific adverse effects that are shared by other MRAs. Additionally, it exerts unique “off target” steroidal effects that include gynecomastia, impotence and loss of libido in males and menstrual irregularity in females. Together, these have led to a poor tolerability and limited use despite positive results in many randomized, controlled clinical trials. We review the off-target effects of spironolactone that may summate with its MRA action to provide an advantageous profile for prevention or treatment of patients with COVID-19. Methods: Literature review using PubMed Central. Results: The blockade by spironolactone of the androgen receptor should diminish the expression of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) that has an androgen promoter while its MRA action should enhance the expression of protease nexin1 (PN1) that inhibits furin and plasmin. TMPRSS2, furin and plasmin cooperated to process the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to increase its high affinity binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and thereby promote viral cell entry. Its actions as an MRA may reduce inflammation and preserve pulmonary, cardiac and vascular functions. Its anti-plasmin action may combat hemostatic dysfunction. Conclusion: The hypothesis that the off-target effects of spironolactone summate with its MRA actions to provide special benefits for COVID-19 is worthy of direct investigation and clinical trial.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0887.v1
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:04:48 CEST)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a critical cancer cell survival factor that activates several signaling pathways to foster drug resistance, cancer stem cell survival, metastasis, inflammation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy have been the standard treatments for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but clinical studies have shown that arsenic trioxide (ATO), alone or in combination with ATRA, can improve outcomes. ATO exerts cytotoxic effects in a variety of ways by inducing oxidative stress, genotoxicity, altered signal transduction, and/or epigenetic modification. In the present study, we showed that ATO increased ROS production and apoptosis ratios in ATRA-differentiated NB4 leukemia cells and that these responses were enhanced when TG2 was deleted. The combined ATRA+ATO treatment also increased the amount of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) transcription factor, an adaptive regulator of cellular oxidative stress response, and proteolytic activity of calpain, resulting in TG2 degradation and reduced survival of WT leukemia cells. We further showed that upon ATO treatment, the induced TG2 protein expression was degraded in the MCF-7 epithelial cell line, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, thereby sensitizing these cell types to apoptotic signals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0387.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: BCL-2 family protein; BCL-2 Domains; Apoptosis; Cancer; Biomarkers; Therapeutic Agents
Online: 22 February 2023 (14:56:09 CET)
Apoptosis, also known as the programmed death of cells, is responsible for maintaining the homeostasis of tissues and this function is carried out by caspases. The process of apoptosis is carried out via two distinct pathways: the extrinsic pathway, which is governed by death receptors, and the intrinsic pathway, also known as the mitochondrial pathway. The BCL-2 protein family encoded by the BCL-2 gene, located at the 18q21.33 chromosomal location, is in charge of regulating the intrinsic pathway, which is responsible for inducing cell death via the permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and the release of apoptosis - inducing components. The BCL-2 homology (BH1, BH2, BH3, BH4) domains of this family proteins are crucial for their functioning and their common BH domains allow interactions between members of the same family and can also serve as indications of pro- or anti-apoptotic activity. A direct correlation may be shown between the overexpression of BCL-2 and the postponement of cell death. It has been determined that a change in the expression of BCL-2 is the root cause of a variety of malignancies, including lung, breast, melanoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Multiple Sclerosis, Diabetes. In this review, we discuss the therapeutic potential of regulating BCL-2 family connections and their relevance to health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Viruses; Omicron BA.1; BA.2; Delta
Online: 13 April 2022 (08:31:45 CEST)
BA.2, a sublineage of Omicron BA.1, is now prominent in many parts of the world. Early reports indicate that BA.2 is more infectious than BA.1. To gain insight into BA.2 mutation profile and the resulting impact of mutations on interaction with receptor and/or monoclonal antibodies, we analyzed available se-quences, structures of Spike/receptor, and Spike/antibody complexes, and conducted molecular dynamics simulations. The results showed that BA.2 has 50 high-prevalent mutations compared to 48 in BA.1. Seventeen BA.1 mutations are not present in BA.2. Instead, BA.2 has 19 unique mutations and a signature Delta variant mutation (G142D). Intriguingly, the BA.2 has 28 signature mutations in Spike, compared to 30 in BA.1. This is due to two revertant mutations S446G and S496G in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), making BA.2 somewhat similar to Wuhan-Hu-1 (WT), which has G446 and G496. The molecular dynamics simulations showed that the RBD consisting of G446/G496 is more stable than S446/S496 containing RBD. Thus, our analyses suggest that BA.2 has evolved with novel mutations (i) to maintain receptor binding similar to WT, (ii) evade the antibody binding greater than BA.1, and (iii) acquire mutation of the Delta variant that may be associated with the high infectivity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: endothelial dysfunction; SARS-CoV-2 infection; thrombosis, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2; angiogenesis
Online: 15 February 2022 (11:05:22 CET)
One of the hallmarks of the SARS-CoV-2 infection has been the inflammatory process that played a role in its pathogenesis, resulting in mortality within susceptible individuals. This uncontrolled inflammatory process leads to severe systemic symptoms via multiple pathways, however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and thrombosis have not been truly explored. This review aims to highlight the pathogenic mechanisms of these inflammatory triggers leading to thrombogenic complications. There are direct and indirect pathogenic pathways of the infection that are examined in detail. We also describe the case of carotid artery thrombosis in a patient following the SARS-CoV-2 infection, while reviewing the literature on the role of ACE2, the endothelium, and the different mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 may manifest both acutely and chronically. We also highlight differences from the other coronaviruses that have made this infection pandemic with similarities to the influenza virus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0673.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); trafficking; localization; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 26 November 2020 (12:10:41 CET)
With the emergence of the novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2 since December 2019, more than 43 million cases have been reported worldwide. This virus has shown high infectivity and severe symptoms in some cases leading to over 1 million deaths globally. Despite the collaborative and concerted research efforts that has been made, no effective treatment for COVID-19 (corona virus disease-2019) is currently available. SARS-CoV-2 uses the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as an initial mediator for viral attachment and host cell invasion. ACE2 is widely distributed in human tissues including the cell surface of lung cells which represent the primary site of the infection. Inhibiting or reducing cell surface availability of ACE2 represents a promising therapy for tackling COVID-19. In this context, most ACE2–based therapeutic strategies have aimed to achieve this through the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or neutralizing the virus by exogenous administration of ACE2. However, through this review, we present another perspective focusing on the subcellular localization and trafficking of ACE2. Membrane targeting of ACE2, shedding and its cellular trafficking pathways including internalization are not well elucidated. Therefore, hereby we present an overview on the fate of newly synthesized ACE2, its post translational modifications, what is known of its trafficking pathways. In addition, we highlight the possibility that some of the identified ACE2 missense variants might affect its trafficking efficiency and localization and hence may explain some of the observed variable severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Extensive understanding of these processes is necessary to evaluate the potential use of ACE2 as a credible therapeutic target.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0353.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2; Curcumin
Online: 24 March 2020 (03:16:22 CET)
COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is a public health emergency of international concern caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of this time, there is no known effective pharmaceutical, phytopharmaceutical or traditional medicine for cure or prevention of COVID-19, although it is urgently needed. In this review, based on the current understanding of the disease molecular mechanisms of novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its closest relative SARS-CoV and other human Coronaviruses, I have identified some naturally occurring plant based substances and Ayurvedic medicinal herbs that could feasibly be tested as a matter of urgency for prevention as well as therapeutic option for COVID-19 in India and other parts of the world. I conclude that dried rhizome of Curcuma longa L. i.e. turmeric, and its active ingredient curcumin may be effective in preventing as well as cure the COVID-19 pandemic due to its proven antiviral activities, this however need to be tested by appropriate clinical trials as research priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Kidney; hypertonicity; osmotic stress; lipocalin-2; lipocalin-2 receptor; lipopolysaccharide; TonEBP; CREB
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:24:49 CEST)
The rodent collecting duct (CD) expresses a 24p3/NGAL/lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) receptor (Slc22a17) apically to possibly mediate high-affinity reabsorption of filtered proteins by endocytosis, yet its functions remain uncertain. Recently, we showed that hyperosmolarity/-tonicity upregulates Slc22a17 in cultured mouse inner medullary CD cells, whereas activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) via bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) downregulates Slc22a17. This is similar to the upregulation of Aqp2 by hyperosmolarity/-tonicity and arginine vasopressin (AVP) and downregulation by TLR4 signaling that occur via the transcription factors Nfat5 (TonEBP or OREBP), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor-kappa B, respectively. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of osmolarity/tonicity via Nfat5, AVP via CREB and TLR4 signaling on the expression of Slc22a17 and its ligand Lcn2 in the mouse (m) cortical collecting duct cell line mCCD(cl.1). Normosmolarity/-tonicity was 300 mosmol/l whereas addition of 50-100 mmol/l NaCl for up to 72 h induced hyperosmolarity/-tonicity (400-500 mosmol/l). RT-PCR, qPCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy detected Slc22a17 and Lcn2 expression. RNAi silenced Nfat5, and the pharmacological agent 666-15 blocked CREB. Activation of TLR4 occurred with LPS. Similar to Aqp2, hyperosmotic/-tonic media and AVP upregulated Slc22a17 via activation of Nfat5 and CREB, respectively, and LPS/TLR4 signaling downregulated Slc22a17. Conversely, though Nfat5 mediated hyperosmolarity/-tonicity induced downregulation of Lcn2 expression, AVP reduced Lcn2 expression and predominantly apical Lcn2 secretion evoked by LPS, but through a posttranslational mode of action that was independent of cAMP signaling. In conclusion, the hyperosmotic/-tonic upregulation of Slc22a17 in mCCD(cl.1) cells via Nfat5 and by AVP via CREB suggests a contribution of Slc22a17 to adaptive osmotolerance, whereas Lcn2 downregulation could counteract increased proliferation and permanent damage of osmotically stressed cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0201.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 Detection, SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Test, SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test, False Negative, False Positive, Sensitivity, Specificity, Point-of-care testing (POCT), SARS-CoV-2 Mutants
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:33:14 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has created huge damage to society and brought panics around the world. Such panics can be ascribed to the seemingly deceptive features of the COVID-19: compared to other deadly viral outspreads, it has medium transmission and mortality rates. As a result, the severity of the causative coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was deeply underestimated by the society at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on this, in this review, we define the viruses with features similar to those of SARS-CoV-2 as the Panic Zone viruses. To contain those viruses, accurate and fast diagnosis followed by effective isolation and treatment of patients are pivotal at the early stage of virus breakouts. This is especially true when there is no cure or vaccine available for a transmissible disease, which is the case for current COVID-19 pandemic. As of January 2021, more than two hundred kits for the COVID-19 diagnosis on the market are surveyed in this review, while emerging sensing techniques for SARS-CoV-2 are also discussed. It is of critical importance to rationally use these kits for the efficient management and control of the Panic Zone viruses. Therefore, we discuss guidelines to select diagnostic kits at different outbreak stages of the Panic Zone viruses, SARS-CoV-2 in particular. While it is of utmost importance to use nucleic acid-based detection kits with low false negativity (high sensitivity) at the early stage of an outbreak, the low false positivity (high specificity) gains its importance at later stages of the outbreak. When a society is set to reopen from the lock-down stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes critical to have antibody based immunoassay kits with high specificity to identify people who can safely return to the society after their recovery of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Given that the emergence of mutant viruses at the beginning of 2021 has complicated current battle against the COVID-19, we also discussed approaches and guidelines to detect viral mutants in the middle of the second wave of the pandemic that started at the end of 2020. Finally, since a massive attack from a viral pandemic requires a massive defense from the whole society, we urge both government and private sectors to research and develop more affordable and reliable point-of-care testing (POCT) kits, which can be used massively by the general public (and therefore called as massive POCT) to contain Panic Zone viruses in future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; long-COVID; post-COVID; cytokine storm; ACE-2
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:45:28 CET)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), instigated by the zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly transformed from an outbreak in Wuhan, China, into a widespread global pandemic. A significant post-infection condition, known as ‘long- COVID’, emerges in a substantial subset of patients, manifesting with a constellation of over 200 reported symptoms that span multiple organ systems. This condition, also known as 'post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection' (PASC), presents a perplexing clinical picture with far-reaching implications, often persisting long after the acute phase. While initial research focused on the immediate pulmonary impact of the virus, the recognition of COVID-19 as a multiorgan disruptor has unveiled a gamut of protracted and severe health issues. This review provides a summary of the primary effects of long COVID on the cardiovascular, nervous, and respiratory systems. It also delves into the mechanisms underlying these impacts and underscores the critical need for a comprehensive understanding of long COVID's pathogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: COVID-19; therapeutic antibody; SARS-CoV-2 Delta; SARS-CoV-2 Omicron; toxicology
Online: 1 August 2023 (11:27:40 CEST)
We recently reported the isolation and characterization of an anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody, called IgG-A7, that protected transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE-2) from the infection with SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan. We show here that IgG-A7 protected 100% of the transgenic mice infected with Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) at doses of 0.5 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, we studied the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and Toxicology (Tox) of IgG-A7 in CD-1 mice at single doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. PK parameters at those high doses were proportional to the dose, with the half-life in serum of ~10.5 days. IgG-A7 was well tolerated with no signs of toxicity in urine and blood samples, nor in histopathology analyses. Tissue Cross-reactivity (TCR) with a panel of mouse and human tissues showed no evidence of IgG-A7 interaction with tissues of these species, supporting the PK/Tox results in vivo and suggesting that while IgG-A7 has a broad efficacy profile it is not toxic in humans. The information generated in CD-1 mouse as PK/Tox model, complemented with the mouse and human TCR, could be of relevance as alternatives to NHPs in rapidly emerging viral diseases and/or quickly evolving viruses such as SARS-CoV-2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0962.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID pass; SARS-CoV-2 antigen test; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; societal restrictions
Online: 14 July 2023 (05:20:20 CEST)
To control the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries implemented vaccination and imposed societal restrictions both at the national level and for international travel. As a check of the corona status, a COVID pass has been issued. A COVID pass could be obtained when fully vaccinated against COVID-19, having recovered from a documented COVID-19 episode, or a recent (24-48 hours) negative SARS-CoV-2 antigen test. A global analysis of SARS-CoV-2 immune status (determined by past infection and/or vaccination), vaccination rates, as well as societal restrictions in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0613.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Yucatan; Puuc; Landsat; Carbon; Species Diversity; ALOS-2 PALSAR-2; tropical dry forests
Online: 21 June 2023 (12:56:03 CEST)
The Puuc Biocultural State Reserve (PBSR is an unique model for tropical dry forest conservation in Mexico. Preserving forest biodiversity and carbon within the PBSR depends on the mainte-nance of low impact productive activities coordinated by multiple communal and private land-owners. In this study, we used state-of-the-art remote sensing data to investigate past spatial patterns in forest clearing dynamics and its relation to forest carbon density and forest plant species richness and diversity in the context of the forest conservation goals of the PBSR. We used a Landsat-based continuous change detection product for the 2000-2021 period and compared it to carbon density and tree species richness models generated from ALOS-2 PALSAR 2 imagery and national scale forest inventory data. The estimated error-adjusted area of detected annual forest clearings from the year 2000 until the year 2021 was 230,511 ha in total (+19,979 ha). The analysis of annual forest clearing frequency and area suggests that although forest clearing was significantly more intensive outside of the PBSR than within the PBSR during the entire 2000-2021 period, there is no evidence suggesting that the frequency and magnitude of forest clearing has changed over the years after the creation of the PBSR in 2011. An emergent hotspot analysis shows, however, that high spatiotemporal clustering of forest clearing events (hotspots) during the 2012-2021 pe-riod was less common than prior to 2011 and these more recent hotspots have been confined to areas outside the PBSR. After comparing forest clearing events to carbon density and tree species richness models, results show that land owners outside the PBSR often clear forests with lower carbon density and species diversity than land owners inside the PBSR. This suggests that, compared to land owners outside the PBSR, land owners within the PBSR might be practicing longer fallow periods allowing forests to attain higher carbon density and tree species richness and hence better soil nutrient recovery after land abandonment. In conclusion, our results show that the PBSR effectively acted as a stabilizing forest management scheme during the 2012-2021 period minimizing the impact of productive activities by lowering the frequency of forest clearing events and preserving late secondary forests within the PBSR. We recommend the continuation of efforts for providing alternative optimal field data collection strategies and modeling techniques to spatially predict key tropical forest attributes. The combination of these models with contin-uous change detection datasets will allow to reveal underlying ecological processes and generate information better adapted to forest governance scales.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Sars-CoV-2 infection; mycophenolate mofetil, liver transplantation, anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
Online: 18 May 2023 (10:39:20 CEST)
Background & aims. The fourth dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine slightly improved the humoral response among previously seronegative liver transplant (LT) recipients. Mycophenolate (MMF) treatment worsens the vaccination response. This study aimed to evaluate whether temporary MMF interruption might improve immunogenicity of the fourth anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT16b2 vaccine dose in nonresponsive LT recipients. Methods. LT recipients negative for anti-spike glycoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G receptor-binding domain (s-RBD) antibodies after the third vaccine dose were enrolled. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific T cell responses were measured before and two months following the fourth vaccine dose, and anti-SARS-CoV-2-s-RBD antibodies also 6 months thereafter. MMF was suspended two weeks before and after vaccination. Results. Five LT recipients were enrolled. After a mean of 78 days after vaccination, all patients tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-s-RBD antibodies. The mean antibody titer was 8944 UI/ml. The positive antibody response was maintained during a mean of 193 days of follow-up. Three patients developed a positive T cell response. Two patients (one positive for T cell response) developed a self-limited SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions. Suspending MMF prior to the fourth dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine seems feasible and safe. This procedure could restore vaccine-induced immunogenicity in a large portion of previously nonresponsive LT recipients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Shadowed Type-2 Fuzzy Sets; Generalized Type-2 Fuzzy Systems; Differential Evolution algorithm
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:20:20 CEST)
This work is mainly focused on improving the differential evolution algorithm with the utilization of shadowed and general type 2 fuzzy systems to dynamically adapt one of the parameters of the evolutionary method. In this case, the mutation parameter is dynamically moved during the evolution process by using a shadowed and general type-2 fuzzy systems. The main idea of this work is to make a performance comparison between using shadowed and general type 2 fuzzy systems as controllers of the mutation parameter in differential evolution. The performance is compared with the problem of optimizing fuzzy controllers for a D.C. Motor. Simulation results show that general type-2 fuzzy systems are better when higher levels of noise are considered in the controller.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: enteric nervous system; ENS; gastrointestinal tract; GI; glucagon-like peptide 2; GLP-2
Online: 11 June 2020 (11:58:03 CEST)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), an extensive neuronal network that traverses along its walls. Due to local reflex circuits, the ENS is capable of functioning with and without input from the central nervous system. The functions of the ENS range from the propulsion of food to nutrient handling, blood flow regulation and immunological defense. Records of it first being studied emerged in the early 19th century when the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were discovered. This was followed by extensive research and further delineation of its development, anatomy, and function during the next two centuries. The morbidity and mortality associated with the underdevelopment, infection or inflammation of the ENS highlights its importance and the need for us to completely understand its normal function. This review will provide a general overview of the ENS to date and connect specific GI disorders such as short bowel syndrome with neuronal pathophysiology. Exciting opportunities in which the ENS could be used as a therapeutic target for common GI diseases will also be highlighted, as the further unlocking of such mechanisms could open the door to more therapy-related advances, and ultimately change our approach to GI disorders.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; susceptibility; livestock; aquatic mammals
Online: 7 June 2020 (08:18:54 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of the globally spreading COVID-19, is capable of infecting variable animals besides human being. We evaluated the potential susceptibility of important livestock, pets and aquatic mammals by performing a multi-species sequence analysis of ACE2 based on the reported affected and unaffected animals. We identified a triple amino acid pattern of ACE2, at position 30, 31 and 34, that might be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and H34 might be an indicator of the susceptibility to COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2); COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; smell; anosmia; taste; ageusia
Online: 16 April 2020 (12:42:44 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) is a coronavirus which is causing the actual COVID-19 pandemic. The disease caused by 2019 new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was named coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization in February 2020. Primary non-specific reported symptoms of 2019-nCoV infection at the prodromal phase are malaise, fever, and dry cough. The most commonly reported signs and symptoms are fever (98%), cough (76%), dyspnea (55%), and myalgia or fatigue (44%). Nonetheless, recent reports suggest an association between COVID-19 and altered olfactory and taste functions, although smell seems to be more affected than taste. These associations of smell and taste dysfunctions and CoV-2 are consistent with case reports describing a patient with SARS with long term anosmia after recovery from respiratory distress, with the observation that olfactory function is commonly altered after infection with endemic coronaviruses, and with data demonstrating that intentional experimental infection of humans with CoV-299 raises the thresholds at which odors can be detected. Post-viral anosmia and is one of the leading causes of loss of sense of smell in adults, accounting for up to 40% cases of anosmia. Viruses that give rise to the common cold are well known to cause post-infectious loss, and over 200 different viruses are known to cause upper respiratory tract infections. I reviewed the possible mechanisms of smell and taste loss in COVID-19. I concluded that since the existence of such a relationship is likely, it is highly recommended that those patients who experience complications such as smell and/or taste loss, even as unique symptoms, should be considered as potential SARS-CoV-2 virus carriers.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); receptor utilization; phylogenetic analysis.
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:12:38 CET)
SARS-CoV-2, the newly identified human coronavirus causing severe pneumonia epidemic, was probably originated from Chinese horseshoe bats. However, direct transmission of the virus from bats to humans is unlikely due to lack of direct contact, implying the existence of unknown intermediate hosts. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain species can be utilized by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated and ranked the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by phylogenetic clustering and sequence alignment with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2, predicting potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1955.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; pregnancy; morbidity
Online: 30 October 2023 (16:13:03 CET)
Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to respiratory diseases. We aimed to study seroconversion rate during pregnancy in a cohort of consecutive pregnancies tested in the first and third trimesters and to compare maternal and obstetric complications between women who seroconverted in the first versus the third trimester. This is an observational, cohort study carried out at Hospital Universitario de Torrejón, in Madrid, Spain, during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. All consecutive singleton pregnancies with a viable fetus attending their 11-13 weeks scan between January 1st and May 15th, 2020, were included and monthly follow up until delivery. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (IgA and IgG) were analyzed on stored serum samples obtained from the first and third trimester routine antenatal bloods in 470 pregnant women. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 31 (6.6%) women in the first trimester and in 66 (14.0%) in the third trimester, including 48 (10.2%) that were negative in the first trimester (seroconversion during pregnancy). Although the rate of infection was significantly higher in the third versus the first trimester (p = 0.003), no significant differences in maternal or obstetric complications were observed in women testing positive in the first versus the third trimester.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0098.v1
Online: 7 June 2022 (09:00:26 CEST)
Despite the remarkable success of SARS CoV-2 vaccines, the rise of variants, some of which are more resistant to the effects of vaccination, highlights the potential need for additional COVID-19 vaccines. We used the Multiple Antigen Presenting System (MAPS) technology, in which proteins are presented on a polysaccharide polymer to induce antibody, Th1, Th17 and CD8+ T cell responses, to engineer a novel vaccine targeting SARS CoV-2. This vaccine contains a fragment of the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) sequence of the original D614G strain and was used to immunize nonhuman primates (NHP) for assessment of immunological responses and protection against SARS CoV-2 challenge. The SARS CoV-2 MAPS vaccine generated robust neutralizing antibodies as well as Th1, Th17 and cytotoxic CD8 T-cell responses in NHPs. Furthermore, MAPS-immunized NHPs had significantly lower viral loads in the nasopharynx and lung compared to control animals. Taken together, these findings support the use of the MAPS platform to make a SARS CoV-2 vaccine. The nature of the platform also could enable its use for the inclusion of different variants in a single vaccine.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; wastewater surveillance
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:01:18 CEST)
Wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 has garnered extensive public attention during the COVID-19 pandemic as a proposed complement to existing disease surveillance systems. Over the past year, methods for detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in untreated sewage have advanced, and concentrations in wastewater have been shown to correlate with trends in reported cases. Despite the promise of wastewater surveillance, for these measurements to translate into useful public health tools, it is necessary to bridge the communication and knowledge gaps between researchers and public health responders. Here we describe the key uses, barriers, and applicability of SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance for supporting public health decisions and actions, including establishing ethical consideration for monitoring. Overall, while wastewater surveillance to assess community infections is not a new idea, by addressing these barriers, the COVID-19 pandemic may be the initiating event that turns this emerging public health tool into a sustainable nationwide surveillance system.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; reinfection; E484K
Online: 27 January 2021 (15:08:12 CET)
To date, uncertainty remains about how long the protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 persists and reports of suspected reinfection began to be described in recovered patients months after the first episode. Viral evolution may favor reinfections, and the recently described spike mutations, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in the UK, South Africa, and most recently in Brazil, have raised concern on their potential impact in infectivity, immune escape and reinfection. We report a case of reinfection from distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages presenting the E484K mutation in Brazil, a variant associated with escape from neutralizing antibodies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Phylogenetics; Asia
Online: 15 January 2021 (13:14:15 CET)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as the current coronavirus pandemic is an infectious disease that initially confirmed in China in late December 2019. In this study, we analyzed 131 complete sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from Asia. Our results show that there are fifteen major mutations in Asia which most of them are co-evolved. There were five groups based on co-mutations which three of them resulted in clade G including (241C>T, 3037C>T, 14408C>T, and 23403A>G), (28881G>A, 28882G>A, 28883G>C and 23403A>G) and (25563G>T and 23403A>G). Co-mutations in (8782C>T and 28144T>C) and (1397G>A, 28688T>C, 29742G>T and 11083G>T) were clustered in clade S and a new clade outside of GISAID classification, respectively. Sequences with a mutation in 26144G>T had low variability without any co-mutation which formed clade V. In this study, we showed that Most of the circulated viruses in Asia collected in five co-mutation groups which may affect the transmissibility and vaccine designing strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; animals; veterinary
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:27:33 CET)
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a well-known group of viruses in veterinary medicine. We currently know four genera of Coronavirus, alfa, beta, gamma and delta. Wild, farmed and pet animals are infected with CoVs belonging to all four genera. Seven human respiratory coronaviruses have still been identified, four of which cause upper respiratory tract diseases, specifically, the common cold, and the last three that have emerged cause severe acute respiratory syndromes, SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. In this review we briefly describe animal coronaviruses and what we actually know about SARS-CoV-2 infection in farm and domestic animals.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Airborne; Mask
Online: 29 May 2020 (03:41:50 CEST)
The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused a global public health crisis. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 by contact is widely accepted, but the relative importance of aerosol transmission for the spread of COVID-19 is controversial. Here we characterize the distribution of SARA-CoV-2 in 123 aerosol samples, 63 masks, and 30 surface samples collected at various locations in Wuhan, China. The positive percentages of viral RNA included 21% of the aerosol samples from an intensive care unit and 39% of the masks from patients with a range of conditions. A viable virus was isolated from the surgical mask of one critically ill patient while all viral RNA positive aerosol samples were cultured negative. The SARS-CoV-2 detected in masks from patients, ambient air, and respirators from health workers compose a chain of emission, transport, and recipient of the virus. Our results indicate that masks are effective in protecting against the spread of viruses, and it is strongly recommended that people throughout the world wear masks to break the chain of virus transmission and thus protect themselves and others from SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS 2; coronavirus
Online: 31 March 2020 (22:41:36 CEST)
There is an urgent need to advance safe and affordable COVID-19 vaccines for low- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Such vaccines rely on proven technologies such as recombinant protein-based vaccines to facilitate its transfer for emerging market vaccine manufacturers. Our group is developing a two-pronged approach to advance recombinant protein-based vaccines to prevent COVID-19 caused by SARS CoV2 and other coronavirus infections. One vaccine is based on a yeast-derived (Pichia pastoris) recombinant protein comprised of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV formulated on alum and referred to as the CoV RBD219-N1 Vaccine. Potentially this vaccine could be used as a heterologous vaccine against COVID-19. A second vaccine specific for COVID-19 is also being advanced using the corresponding RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The first antigen has already undergone cGMP manufacture and is therefore “shovel ready” for advancing into clinical trials, following vialing and required GLP toxicology testing. Evidence for its potential efficacy to cross-protect against SARS-CoV-2 includes cross-neutralization and binding studies using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Evidence in support of its safety profile include our internal assessments in a mouse challenge model using a lethal mouse adapted SARS strain, which show that SARS-CoV RBD 291N1 (when adsorbed to Alhydrogel®) does not elicit eosinophilic lung pathology. Together these findings suggest that recombinant protein-based vaccines based on the RBD warrant further development to prevent SARS, COVID-19 or other coronaviruses of pandemic potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0025.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: angiogenesis; FGF-2; morphogenesis; candidalysin
Online: 3 February 2019 (03:19:50 CET)
Angiogenesis mediated by proteins such as Fibroblast Growth Factor – 2 (FGF-2) is a vital component of normal physiological processes and has also been implicated in contributing to disease state associated with various microbial infections. Previous studies by our group and others have shown that Candida albicans, a common agent of candidiasis, induces FGF-2 expression in vitro, and angiogenesis in brains and kidneys during systemic infections. However, the underlying mechanism(s) via which the fungus increases FGF-2 expression and the role(s) that FGF-2/angiogenesis plays in C. albicans disease remain unknown. Here we show, for the first time, that C. albicans hyphae (and not yeast cells) increase the FGF-2 response in human endothelial cells. Moreover, candidalysin, a toxin secreted exclusively by C. albicans in the hyphal state is required to induce this response. Our in vivo studies show that, in the systemic C. albicans infection model, mice treated with FGF-2 exhibit significantly higher mortality rates when compared to untreated mice not given the angiogenic growth factor. Even treatment with fluconazole could not fully rescue infected animals that were administered FGF-2. Our data suggest that the increase of FGF-2 production/angiogenesis induced by candidalysin contributes to the pathogenicity of C. albicans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 immunity; ELISA; Spike-RBD; SARS-CoV-2 variants; Omicron; virus neutralizing
Online: 30 October 2023 (07:06:58 CET)
We have developed a simple, rapid, high-throughput RBD-based ELISA to assess the humoral immunity against emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus variants. The cDNAs of the his-tagged RBD proteins of the virus variants were stably engineered into HEK cells secreting the protein into the supernatant, and RBD purification was performed by Ni-chromatography and buffer exchange by membrane filtration. The simplified assay uses single dilutions of sera from finger-pricked native blood samples, purified RBD in 96-well plates, and a chromogenic dye for development. The results of this RBD-ELISA were confirmed to correlate with those of a commercial immunoassay measuring antibodies against the Wuhan strain, as well as direct virus neutralization assays assessing the cellular effects of the Wuhan and the Omicron (BA.5) variants. Here we document the applicability of this ELISA to assess the variant-specific humoral immunity in vaccinated and convalescent patients, as well as to follow the time course of selective vaccination response. This simple and rapid assay, easily modified to detect humoral immunity against emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus variants, may help to assess the level of antiviral protection after vaccination or infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Quorum sensing; Autoinducer-2 (AI-2); Acetyl homoserine lactones (AHL); Periodontal diseases; Oral Biofilm
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:54:31 CEST)
Oral diseases remain a major health problem worldwide, with the World Health Organisation reporting that oral health neglect affects almost half of the world’s population. Quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) influence oral biofilms in various ways with knowledge of direct oral QSM-host interaction being limited, and such studies could provide more insight into the cross-kingdom communication occurring during oral disease development. This review aims to explore the literature on oral QSM-host interaction and to highlight areas of advancement in this field. QSM CSP-1 produced by Gram-positive oral bacteria was found to interact with T2R receptors, activating NF-kB signalling and leading to remodeling of the cytoskeleton. AI-2 in the oral cavity was found in various studies to elicit an inflammatory response in specific oral cells. Overall AHL detection methods remain an area for development, through which greater understanding of oral QSMs’ influence on host cells can be achieved. In conclusion, from the current literature it can be inferred that that QSMs are utilised by host cells to detect bacterial presence and in the majority of cases elicit an immune response towards the environmental QSMs. This may provide a base to target QSMs as novel treatment of oral diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1835.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccines; breakthrough infection; hybrid immunity; SARS-CoV-2 antibody
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:05:24 CEST)
More than 3 years have passed since the emergence of COVID-19. On May 8, 2023, COVID-19 in Japan was downgraded to Category 5 by the Infectious Disease Control Law. In Japan, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, cases of infection and deaths from severe disease were few compared with those of Western countries. However, in the medical field, screening for COVID-19 was given top priority, resulting in confusion and proving disadvantageous for many patients, also the overreaction to COVID-19 as the most important issue in society can be attributed largely to statements by infectious disease experts. In addition, the mRNA vaccine emerged in 2021, and most of the population was vaccinated up to two times within a short period of less than 1 year because infectious disease experts strongly promoted vaccination. After 2022, when vaccination progressed, and the Omicron strain, which is an attenuated strain, became the mainstay of the SARS-CoV-2, the number of severe cases of COVID-19 decreased significantly; however, the number of infected people increased dramatically instead. A significant portion of the population is thought to have hybrid immunity due to vaccination plus natural infection and maintains high antibody titers. Henceforth, additional vaccination should be given preferentially to those who will benefit most from it. Conversely, measures against COVID-19 caused serious damage to the economy and society. Policies that not only address countermeasures against infection, but also those that encompass the economy and society as a whole are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; VSV replicon; PDC-109; Bovine seminal plasma; Fn-type 2 proteins
Online: 5 July 2022 (07:49:32 CEST)
Mammalian seminal plasma contains a multitude of bioactive components, including lipids, glucose, mineral elements, metabolites, proteins, cytokines and growth factors, with various functions during insemination and fertilization. The seminal plasma protein PDC-109 is one of the major soluble components of the bovine ejaculate and is crucially important for sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. A hitherto underappreciated function of seminal plasma is its anti-microbial and anti-viral activity, which may limit sexual transmission of infectious diseases during intercourse. We have recently discovered that PDC-109 inhibits the membrane fusion activity of influenza virus particles and significantly impairs viral infections at micromolar concentrations. Here we investigated whether the antiviral activity of PDC-109 is restricted to Influenza or if other mammalian viruses are similarly affected. We focused on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), thoroughly assessing PDC-109 inhibition with SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S)-pseudotyped reporter virus particles, but also live-virus infections. Consistent with our previous publications we found significant virus inhibition, albeit accompanied by substantial cytotoxicity. Using time-of-addition experiments however, we discovered treatment regimen that enable virus suppression without affecting cell viability. We furthermore demonstrated that PDC-109 is also able to impair infections mediated by the VSV glycoprotein (VSVg) thus indicating a broad pan-antiviral activity against multiple virus species and families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; COVID-19; infertility; lockdown; IVF; SARS-CoV-2 serological testing
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:07:44 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic had profound negative effects on millions of couples affected by infertility and in need to resort to assisted reproductive technologies. There is no consensus over the optimal way and moment of screening triage-negative asymptomatic patients and staff. We present SARS-CoV-2 antibodies’ (IgM, IgG) seroprevalence in 516 triage-negative patients and 30 fertility care providers. The sampling for SARS-CoV-2 serological assays took place from the lockdown release throughout the second half of 2020 (17.05 - 01.12.2020). It revealed an increased seroprevalence of antibodies that closely followed the local epidemiology of COVID-19, with the highest rate of seropositivity coincident with the peak of the second wave. From 546 triage-negative individuals whose blood samples were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 6% yielded positive results. The overall seroconversion rate was 2.8% for IgG and 5.1% for IgM. In the group with positive IgM, we observed a negative predictive value for IgM of 98.36% (95% CI: 88.79 – 99.78%), which is clinically meaningful. Serological testing of triage-negative patients up to seven days prior to the actual fertility procedure might avoid the more expensive and not more sensitive molecular testing currently being used for patient screening in most fertility units.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0330.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2); COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; respiratory distress; brainstem; respiratory center
Online: 19 April 2020 (05:37:30 CEST)
Covid-19 pandemic has captivated scientists to investigate if this new disease can affect the central nervous system (CNS). The most challenging symptoms of Covid-19 are related to respiratory distress, and most patients admitted in intensive care units cannot breathe by their own. Therefore, a crucial question is if respiratory distress can be partially explained by the CNS affection. SARS-Cov-2 is a beta-coronavirus that shares high similarities with SARS-CoV. The infection of SARS‐CoV has been reported in the brains from both patients and experimental animals, where the brainstem was heavily infected. Those coronaviruses have been able to invade the brainstem via a synapse‐connected route to the medullary respiratory center, where the infected regions included the nucleus of the solitary tract and nucleus ambiguous. The vagal afferent nerves from receptors in the lung communicate with the medulla and pons respiratory control centers to coordinate inspiration and expiration. This suggests that neuroinvasion of SARS‐CoV‐2 might play a role in the acute respiratory failure of Covid-19. Therefore, acute respiratory distress in Covid-19 can be partially explained by brainstem dysfunction, suggesting the needs of more specific and aggressive treatments with the direct participation of neurologists and neurointensivists.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2); animal reservoir; cross-species transmission; cats
Online: 8 April 2020 (04:43:14 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 causes severe pneumonia epidemics and probably originated in horseshoe bats, but the intermediate host is unknown. The interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and its acceptor protein ACE2 is an important issue in determining viral host range and cross-species infection, while the binding capacity of Spike protein to ACE2 of different species is unknown. Here, we used the atomic structure model of SARS-CoV-2 and human ACE2 to assess the receptor utilization capacity of ACE2s from different species including cats, chimpanzees, dogs, cattles. Our results show, domestic cats (Felis catusc) and dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are more susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2 and that they can efficiently transmit the virus to previously uninfected animals that are housed with them. Especially, cats could be a choice of animal model for screening antiviral drugs or vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0145.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate; oxidative stress; apoptosis; neuroprotection; nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2
Online: 15 August 2016 (10:42:05 CEST)
This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of methyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (MDHB) against t-butylhydroperoxide(TBHP) induced oxidative damage in SH-SY5Y (human neuroblastoma cells) and the underlying mechanisms. SH-SY5Y were cultured in DMEM+10% FBS for 24 hours and pretreated with different concentrations of MDHB or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) for 4 hours prior to the addition of 40 μM TBHP for 24 hours. Cell viability was analyzed using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. An annexin V-FITC assay was used to detect cell apoptosis rate. The 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to determine intracellular ROS levels. The activities of antioxidative enzymes (GSH-Px and SOD) were measured using commercially available kits. The oxidative DNA damage marker 8-OHdG was detected using ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-Akt and Akt proteins in treated SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that MDHB is an effective neuroprotective compound that can mitigate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0564.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Vaccine; Children; SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG; Memory T cell
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:55:35 CEST)
(1) Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection is mostly accompanied by mild COVID-19 symptoms in children. However, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and long-term sequelae are often severe complications. Therefore, the protection of the pediatric population against SARS-CoV-2 with effective vaccines is particularly important. Here we compare the humoral and cellular immune responses elicited in children (n=15) aged 5-11 years vaccinated with RBD-based vaccines combined in a heterologous scheme of SOBERANA® 02 and SOBERANA® Plus with those from children (n=10) aged 4-11 years who recovered from mild symptomatic COVID-19. (2) Methods: Blood samples were taken 14 days after last dose for vaccinated and 45-60 days after the infection diagnosis for COVID-19 recovered children. Anti-RBD IgG and ACE2-RBD inhibition were assessed by ELISA; IgA, cytokine and cytotoxic related proteins profile were determined by multiplex assays. Total B and T cell subpopulations and IFN-γ release were measured by multiparametric flow cytometry using a large panel of antibodies after in vitro stimulation with S1 peptides. (3) Results: Significant higher levels of specific anti-RBD IgG and IgA and ACE2-RBD inhibition capacity were found in vaccinated children in comparison to COVID-19 recovered children. Th1-like and Th2-like CD4+ T cells were also significantly higher in vaccinated subjects. IFN-γ secretion were higher in central memory CD4+ T cells of COVID-19 recovered children, but no differences between both groups were found in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells effector, terminal and naïve T cell subpopulations. High levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10 in contrast to low levels of IL-4 suggesting a predominant Th1 cell polarization. Cytotoxic-related proteins granzyme A and B, perforin and granulin were also found in the supernatant after S1 stimulation in both vaccinated and recovered children. (4) Conclusions: Vaccination with the heterologous scheme of SOBERANA® 02/ SOBERANA® Plus induces strong antibody and cellular immune response compared to natural infections of young children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0343.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: cyclodextrins; anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid; anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid; daunorubicin; stability constant; solubility; inclusion complex
Online: 20 September 2021 (15:59:36 CEST)
β-cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives containing aromatic triazole ring were studied as potential carriers of drugs containing an anthraquinone moiety in the structure: anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQ2S), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ2CA) and a common anthracycline, daunorubicin (DNR). UV-Vis and voltammetry measurements were carried out to determine the solubilities and stability constants of the complexes formed and revealed the unique properties of the chosen CDs as effective pH dependent drug complexing agents. The stability constants of the drug complexes with the CDs containing triazole: βCDLip and βCDGAL were significantly larger than with the native βCD. The AQ2CA and AQ2S drugs are ill-soluble and their solubilities increased as the result of complex formation with βCDLip and βCDGAL ligands. AQ2CA, AQ2S were negatively charged at pH 7.4 and therefore they were less prone to form inclusion complex with the hydrophobic CD cavity than at pH 3 (characteristic of gastric juices) when they were protonated. βCDTriazole and βCDGAL ligands were found to form weaker inclusion complexes with the positively charged drug DNR at acidic pH (pH 5.5) than in the neutral medium (pH 7.4) when the drug dissociates to the neutral, uncharged form. This pH dependence is favorable for anti-tumor applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Angiotensin converting enzyme 2; breast feeding; drug therapy; pregnancy; severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
Online: 13 May 2021 (15:26:34 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become the chief concern of the international community in almost no time. As of May 9th, 2021, more than 150 million cases and 3.2 million deaths have been recorded. Considering the early struggle in treating COVID-19 patients, the researchers and clinicians have decided to try the previously available drugs according to their mechanisms of action. Hence, many antivirals, antibiotics, antiparasitics, and antipyretics have been proposed. Pregnant women, fetuses, and infants are known high-risk populations that are threatened during disease outbreaks. Therefore, this article reviews the safety of potential drugs for COVID-19 patients during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: low intensity exercise; intestine; sodium-dependent glucose transporter; glucose transporter 2; glucagon like peptide 2
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:48:02 CEST)
Exercise affects various organs. However, its effects on nutrient digestion and absorption in the intestinal tract are not well understood. A few studies have reported that exercise training in-creases the expression of carbohydrate digestion and absorption molecules. Exercise was also shown to increase the concentration of blood glucagon like peptide-2(GLP-2), which regulates carbohydrate digestion and absorption in small intestinal epithelium. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on intestinal digestion and absorption molecules and the levels of GLP-2. 6-wk-old of male mice were divided into 2 groups; sedentary (SED) and low-intensity exercise (LEx). LEx mice were required to run on a treadmill (12.5 m/min, 60 min), whereas SED mice rested. All mice were euthanized 1 h after exercise or rest and plasma, jejunum, ileum, and colon were sampled. Samples were analyzed using EIA and immunoblotting. The levels of plasma GLP-2 and the expression of the GLP-2 receptor, sucrase-isomaltase (SI), and glucose transporter (GLUT2) in the jejunum were increased in LEx group. We showed that acute low-intensity exer-cise affects the intestinal carbohydrate digestion and absorption molecules via GLP-2. Our results suggest that exercise might provide new benefits to the small intestine for people with intestinal frailty.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV; SARS-CoV-2; Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Online: 25 March 2020 (03:56:27 CET)
The role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS) in Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has become a controversial topic of discussion. RAAS inhibitors, such as Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which are used to treat cardiovascular diseases, have been implicated in potentially increasing cell surface levels of ACE2. ACE2 is the host receptor for COVID-19 that was discovered in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Since December, COVID-19 has transmitted rapidly across the world and has become a global pandemic. COVID-19 is similar to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with the first case reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. COVID-19, also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is also similar to SARS-CoV, which first infected humans in the Guangdong province of southern China in 2002, and caused an epidemic between November 2002 and July 2003. Both SARS-CoV and COVID-19 use ACE2 to enter host cells. ACE2 is primarily expressed in the mouth, lung, heart, esophagus, kidney, bladder, and intestines, and is a component of RAAS, which serves to maintain vascular tone and blood volume. Inhibition or activation of other components of RAAS has been shown to directly increase or decrease the expression and/or activity of ACE2. Furthermore, RAAS-targeting therapeutics, such as ACE inhibitors and ARBs, have also been shown to regulate the expression and/or activity of ACE2, albeit in animal models. Although these changes in ACE2 have been demonstrated only in animal models, there is no evidence that administration of RAAS-targeting therapeutics to humans for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases (e.g., myocardial infarction and heart failure) causes changes in ACE2 expression. Nor is there clinical evidence that RAAS-targeting therapeutics augment COVID-19 infection, morbidity, or mortality. However, clinical evidence does suggest that ACE2 expression may protect against respiratory distress caused by a variety of noxious agents. This review attempts to provide a balanced overview of the potential role of RAAS in regulating ACE2, and the role of ACE2 during COVID-19 infection. Evidence is provided to show that the expression of ACE2 may mediate both positive and negative outcomes, depending on the timing of ACE2 expression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0782.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: adiponectin; adiporon; diabetes; Adipo1; Adipo 2
Online: 12 October 2023 (20:09:06 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, presents a formidable global health challenge with its associated complications. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has emerged as a significant player in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Beyond its metabolic effects, adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and vasoprotective properties, making it an appealing therapeutic target for mitigating diabetic complications. The molecular mechanisms by which adiponectin impacts critical pathways implicated in diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular problems are thoroughly examined in this study. In addition, we explore possible treatment options for increasing adiponectin levels or improving its downstream signaling. The multifaceted protective roles of adiponectin in diabetic complications suggest its potential as a novel therapeutic avenue. However, further translational studies and clinical trials are warranted to fully harness the therapeutic potential of adiponectin in the management of diabetic complications. This review highlights adiponectin as a promising target for the treatment of diverse diabetic complications and encourages continued research in this pivotal area of diabetes therapeutics.