ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0273.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: 18S; Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; prevalence
Online: 19 October 2021 (11:54:33 CEST)
Cryptosporidium is comprised an apicomplexan parasitic protist, which infects a wide range of hosts, causing cryptosporidiosis. In cattle farms, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis results in high mortality in calves leading to considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Infected animals may also act as a major reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp., in particular C. parvum, the most common cause of cryptosporidiosis in calves. This poses a significant risk to other farms via breeding centres, to trading of livestock and to human health. This study, funded by the Interreg-2-seas programme, is a part of a global project aimed at strategies to tackle cryptosporidiosis. To reach this target, it was essential to determine whether prevalence was dependent on the studied countries or if the issue was borderless. Indeed, C. parvum occurrence was assessed across dairy farms in certain regions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands. At the same time, the animal-to-animal transmission of the circulating C. parvum subtypes was studied. To accomplish this, 1084 faecal samples, corresponding to 57 dairy-farms from all three countries, were analysed. Well-established protocols amplifying the 18S rDNA and gp60 genes fragments, followed by DNA sequencing, were used for the detection and subtyping C. parvum; the DNA sequences obtained were further characterised using a combination of bioinformatics and phylogenetics methods. Our results show 25.7%, 24.9% and 20.8% prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Belgium, France and the Netherlands respectively. Overall, 93% of the farms were Cryptosporidium positive. The gp60 subtyping demonstrated a significant number of the C. parvum positives belonged to the IIa allelic family, which has been also detected in humans. Consequently, this study highlights how widespread is C. parvum in dairy farms and endorses cattle as a major carrier of zoonotic C. parvum subtypes, which subsequently pose a significant threat to human health.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0384.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; 18S rRNA; occurrence; Cyprus
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:06:37 CET)
Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea resulting in reduced farm productivity and compromised animal welfare worldwide. Livestock act as a major reservoir of this parasite, which can be transmitted to humans directly and/or indirectly, posing a public health risk. Research reports on Cryptosporidium prevalence from the east Mediterranean region are scarce with even less originating from Cyprus. This study is the first to explore occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in young dairy calves on the island. A total of 242 faecal samples were collected from 10 dairy cattle farms in Cyprus, all of which were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. using nested-PCR amplification targeting the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was also sequenced for the samples identified as C. parvum positive to determine the subtypes present. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium was 43.8% (106/242) with at least one positive isolate in each farm sampled. Prevalence per farm ranged from 20¬‒64%, while C. bovis, C. ryanae and C. parvum were the only species identified. Amongst those, the latter was the predominant species, representing 51.8% of all positive samples. Four zoonotic subtypes were identified – IIaA14G1R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G2R1. IIaA14G1R1 was the most abundant; representing 48.2% of all C. parvum positive samples and was also the most widespread. This is the first report of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum circulating in Cyprus. These results highlight the need for further research into the parasite focusing on its diversity, prevalence, host-range and transmission dynamics on the island.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0141.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cryptosporidium spp; C. parvum; gp60; 18S ribosomal; cowp; HIV / AIDS; Honduras
Online: 4 February 2021 (14:42:28 CET)
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important causes of gastroenteritis in the world, especially in low- and middle-income countries. It is caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium spp., and mainly affects children and immunosuppressed people, in whom it can pose a serious risk to their health, or even be life-threatening. In Honduras there are no data on parasite species or on molecular diversity or Cryptosporidium subtypes. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2019 and March 2020 for the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in 102 patients living with HIV who attended a national hospital in Tegucigalpa. Stool samples were analysed by direct microscopy, acid-fast stained smears, and a rapid lateral flow immunochromatographic test. All samples that tested positive were molecularly analyzed to identify the species and subtype of the parasite using three different markers: gp60, cowp, and 18Sr. PCR products were also sequenced. Four out of 102 samples (3.92%) were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum, and all were assigned to subtype IIa. These findings suggest a possible zoonotic transmission in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 18S rRNA; fungi; mycobiome; carcinoma; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing; microbiome; mouth; squamous cell
Online: 30 March 2017 (05:37:37 CEST)
Background: Studies employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) show that the oral fungal community (mycobiome) is far more complex than hitherto thought. However, the role of the oral mycobiome in health and disease, including oral carcinogenesis, has not been explored. Objective: To characterize the mycobiome associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Tissue biopsies [cases: 25 OSCC; controls: 27 intra-oral fibro-epithelial polyp (FEP)] were collected from oral and maxillofacial units in Sri Lanka. Total DNA was extracted and subjected to sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region using Illumina’s 2x300 bp chemistry. High quality, non-chimeric merged reads were classified to species level using a BLASTN-algorithm with UNITE’s named species sequences as reference. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME and LEfSe. Results: 364 species representing 160 genera and 2 phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were identified, with Candida and Malassezia making up 48% and 11% of the average mycobiome, respectively. However, only 5 species and 4 genera were detected in ≥50% of the samples. The species richness and diversity were significantly lower in OSCC. At the genus level, Candida, Hannaella and Gibberella were overrepresented in OSCC while Alternaria and Trametes were more abundant in FEP. Species-wise, C. albicans, C. etchellsii and Hannaella luteola-like species were enriched in OSCC while Malassezia restricta, Aspergillus tamarii, Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium halotolerans, and Hanseniaspora uvarum-like species were the most significantly abundant in FEP. Conclusions: A dysbiotic mycobiome dominated by C. albicans was found in association with OSCC. Whether this dysbiosis plays a role in oral carcinogenesis warrants further investigation.