ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0684.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Paracentrotus lividus; Transformers; Trf; 185/333; invertebrate immunity; phagocytosis; model organism
Online: 27 May 2021 (15:09:05 CEST)
Sea urchins are long-living invertebrates with a complex immune system which includes extended families of immune receptors. A central immune gene family in the sea urchins encodes for the Transformer (Trf) proteins. The Trf family was so far studied mainly in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In this study, we explored this protein family in the Mediterranean Sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The PlTrf genes and predicted proteins were found to be highly diverse and showed a typical Trf size range and structure. We found that P. lividus coelomocytes and hemolymph contain different PlTrf protein repertoires with a shared subset which specifically bind E. coli bacteria. Using FACS, we identified five different P. lividus coelomocyte sub-populations with cell surface Trf protein expression. The relative abundance of the Trf-positive cells sharply increased following immune challenge with E. coli bacteria, but not following challenge with LPS or sea urchin pathogen V. penaeicida. Finally, we demonstrated that the phagocytosis of E. coli bacteria by P. lividus phagocytes is mediated through the hemolymph and is inhibited by blocking Trf activity with anti-Trf antibodies. Together, our results suggest collaboration between cellular and humoral Trf-mediated effector arms in the P. lividus specific immune response to pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0422.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: RS-333 alloy; SLM 3DP; EBSD reconstruction; nanoindentation
Online: 15 June 2021 (16:27:55 CEST)
Recent years witnessed progressive broadening of the practical use of 3D-printed aluminium alloy parts, in particular for specific aerospace applications where weight saving is of great importance. Selective laser melting (SLM) is an intrinsically multi-parametric fabrication technology that offers multiple means of controlling mechanical properties (elastic moduli, yield strength, ductility) through the control over grains size, shape, and orientation. Ultimately, this approach implies that structural elements can be purposefully fabricated to reinforce specific zones and directions where higher mechanical loads are anticipated by design. Targeted control over mechanical properties is achieved through the tuning of 3D-printing parameters and may even obviate the need of heat treatment or mechanical post-processing. Systematic studies of grain structure for different printing orientation with the help of EBSD techniques in combination with mechanical testing at different dimensional levels are the necessary first steps to implement this agenda. Samples of 3D-printable Al-Mg-Si RS-333 alloy were fabricated in 3 orientations with respect to the principal build direction and the fast laser beam scanning direction. Sample structure and proper-ties were investigated using a number of techniques, including EBSD, in situ SEM tensile testing, roughness measurements and nanoindentation. The as-printed samples we found to display strong variation in Young’s modulus values from nanoindentation (from 43 to 66 GPa) and tensile tests (from 54 to 75 GPa), yield stress and ultimate tensile strength (100…195 and 130…220 MPa) in different printing orientations, and almost constant hardness of about 0.8 GPa. A further preliminary study was conducted of the effect of surface finishing on the mechanical performance. Surface polishing appears to reduce Young’s modulus and yield strength, but improves ductility, whereas the influence of sand blasting is more controversial. The experimental results are dis-cussed in connection with the grain morphology and orientation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: RS-333 alloy; SLM 3DP; in situ SEM tensile testing; DIC analysis; Ncorr
Online: 12 February 2021 (12:17:22 CET)
3D-printed aluminium alloy fabrications made by selective laser melting (SLM) offer a promising route for the production of small series of custom-designed heat exchangers with complex geometry and shape and miniature size. Alloy composition and printing parameters need to be optimized to mitigate fabrication defects (pores and microcracks) and enhance the part performance. The deformation response needs to be studied with adequate characterization techniques at relevant dimensional scale capturing the peculiarities of micro-mechanical behavior relevant to the particular article and specimen dimensions. Purposefully designed Al-Si-Mg 3D-printable RS-333 alloy was investigated with a number of microscopy techniques including in situ mechanical testing with a Deben Microtest 1 kN stage integrated and synchronized with Tescan Vega3 SEM to acquire high resolution image datasets for Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analysis. Dog bone specimens were 3D-printed in different orientation of gauge zone cross-section with respect to the fast laser beam scanning and growth directions. This corresponds to varying local conditions of metal solidification and cooling. Specimens show variation in mechanical properties, namely, Young’s modulus (65…78 GPa), yield stress (80–150 MPa), ultimate tensile strength (115–225 MPa) and elongation at break (0,75–1,4 %). Furthermore, the failure localization and character was altered with the change of gauge cross-section orientation. DIC analysis allowed correct strain evaluation that overcame the load frame compliance effect and helped to identify the unevenness of deformation distribution (plasticity waves) that ultimately resulted in exceptionally high strain localization near the ultimate failure crack position.