Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: 15th-century illuminated manuscripts; smalt; bismuth ink; non-invasive analyses; Raman spectroscopy; XRF mapping; UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy
Online: 12 June 2019 (12:03:01 CEST)
This paper discusses a cross-disciplinary, international collaboration aimed at researching a series of 15th century choir books at the abbey of San Giorgio Maggiore on the homonymous island in Venice. Produced for the abbey itself, the books have never left the island during their 500-years history, thereby allowing a unique opportunity to analyse historic artefacts, which have undergone little modification over time. Prompted by ongoing cataloguing work on the manuscripts, a week-long analytical campaign using a combination of non-invasive analytical methods used in portable configuration allowed the comprehensive characterisation of ten volumes. The manuscripts’ palette and painting techniques were analysed using near-infrared imaging, reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis-NIR range, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence mapping and digital microscopy. The paper will discuss the challenges linked to the fragility and the large dimensions of the volumes as well as the most interesting results of the investigation. These include the detection of unusual painting materials such as bismuth ink, as well as the discovery of a less homogeneous palette than originally expected, which prompted a partial revision of the attribution of the decoration in one of the volumes to a single artist.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Roma; housing; eating habits; comparison; 18th century; 21st century; Slovakia
Online: 7 September 2017 (04:46:54 CEST)
Objectives: We compared housing and the eating habits of Roma. Contemporary findings (2013) were compared with those from the first monothematic work on Roma (1775) depicting their housing and eating habits. Methods: Data come from a journal (1775) and from semi-structured interviews (2013) with more than 70 Roma women and men who live segregated in excluded settlements at the edges of villages or scattered among the majority. Data were collected in two villages and one district town in the Tatra region, where data from the 1775 measurements originate. We used classical sociological theory and new ethnography to interpret the obtained data. Results: The main findings showed differences between specific social classes then and now regarding housing as well as eating habits, related to both conditions among Roma in the Tatra. The national Roma foods gója or marikľa are traditional foods of Slovak ancestors living in poverty in the country. The houses of Roma do not greatly differ from those of the majority. Conclusions: We conclude that life strategies of the citizens of poor settlements now are similar to two centuries ago, typical for the culture of poverty in various countries of the world even after the centuries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0155.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; 19th century; 20th century; Nordic countries; natural stone; national romanticism; geology
Online: 25 April 2017 (04:56:44 CEST)
In the second half of the 19th century new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone are developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland this technological progress goes hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural stone deposits. As a result, new constructions are developed—changing the building practice in these countries. With the end of historicism a new architecture arises that particularly in Norway and Finland acquires a national-romantic character. This paper examines the interaction between geological exploration, commercial development, technical inventions and the development of a national-romantic architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0178.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: art history; Nordic countries; life reform movement; Ellen Key; 19th Century; 20th Century
Online: 28 November 2017 (05:29:23 CET)
In the second half of the 19th century a wave of modernisation, industrialisation and urbanisation swept the Nordic countries, catapulting what had until then been lagging and primarily rural countries into modernity. These major upheavals, however, also plunged the Nordic countries into a profound social and cultural crisis resulting from their consciousness of their own backwardness vis-a-vis the countries on the European continent, as well as the recognition that a nostalgic nationalism recalling a mythical past had become obsolete in the industrial age. In response to this crisis, a life reform movement emerged that was based on Arts and Crafts movements as well as various artistic and literary reform movements and—equally absorbing rural traditions and progressive social ideas—tried to establish a new national everyday culture. In this article, the two key terms coined by Ellen Key, “Festive Customs” (‘festvanor’) and “Everyday Beauty” (‘vardagsskönhet’)—the programmatic core of the Nordic life reform movement—are analysed and illustrated in various typical manifestations. It also examines to what extent the Nordic life reform movement with these two key concepts as its core agenda found expression in arts and crafts, in painting as well as in the architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and contributed to the progress of social and cultural renewal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0704.v1
Online: 29 March 2021 (15:41:11 CEST)
Nursing is a part of health services that serves individuals, groups and communities. In this 21st century the need for nursing services has changed rapidly and in a complex manner. Physical limitations, is on should to be considered, while the implementation and maintenance of patient-centered service infrastructure still have to be recked. The aim of this literature review is to identify the role of telenursing in nursing services for patients. This language method uses literature reviews which are summaries of 10 articles in the publication years of 2019, 2020, and 2021 on 3 search databases, namely Scopus, Science Direct, and SAGE. This review used the new Joanna Briggs Institute and Prisma. The eligibility of these studies were from its title, abstract, research methodology, results, and discussion. The results of the review were presented in narrative form. The results of a review of 10 articles found that the form of nursing services with telenursing could prove long-distance service, time efficiency and funding allocation, but in terms of quality it had been not satisfactory related to its physical implementation of nursing service. Conclusion: The nursing paradigm in the 21st century global era has been developed with the help of technology to meet the needs of distance efficiency and cost limitations. Thus, telenursing is a solution to answer these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0303.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:23:02 CEST)
This article aims to examine the concept of historical thinking by looking at the development of historical learning from colonialism to reformation, as well as some examples of innovations in history learning through technology media. The development of history learning in Indonesia has a long story from the colonialism era to the reformation that changed from time to time. However, changes and reforms in the education system do not make students more interested in history. The 21st century, known as the digital century, makes students' attention more focused on the present and the development of the times. Therefore, there are many innovations that are in line with technological media to support and maintain history learning in this era. The question from this research is how is history learning not favored by students when technological innovations to support this learning have developed? By using the literature review method and a qualitative approach, this article provides a new perspective through existing data. Because innovation cannot run effectively before it is accompanied by historical thinking, so the results of the research are historical thinking must be instilled from the start to support innovations that develop and attract students' interest. Based on the study, it is recommended that have historical thinking to further optimize technology develops innovation more effectively and ask for more interest in history. Keywords: 21st Century, Historical Development, Paradigm
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0216.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Pancasila, 21st Century Generation, 1945 Constitution
Online: 8 June 2021 (11:54:16 CEST)
Introduction: Pancasila was born as the ideology of the Indonesian nation, which reflects the values cultural values, ethics, morals, and the spirit of the nation. Pancasila was born as a form of national character, which reflects divinity, nationality, unity, togetherness, and justice. The purpose of this research is to know the practice of Pancasila values in the life of the nation and the state. Especially, the implementation of the life of the younger generation in the 21st century today. Methods: This study is literature research where data is collected using keywords in the database. Literature source search carried out with the help of Boolean operators and using the PICOS format. The results of selecting articles, using PRISMA Flow Diagrams. The search results found 125 articles that match the research theme. After checking for duplication, 82 articles were excluded because of the similarity in the results of the discussion. In the end, there were 43 articles used as a literature source. Results: Based on the analysis of research findings, which are supported by literature sources, it shows that the current values of Pancasila are worrying. This can be seen, where people's behavior has been contaminated by external cultures due to technological sophistication. At present, it can be said that the ethics and morals of society do not reflect the values of Pancasila. Conclusion: In order to re-install the values of Pancasila in people's lives, the participation of all parties is necessary. This is especially so, for today's younger generation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a model for teaching Pancasila to be carried out by schools and colleges. So that later, it can produce a generation of ethics and morals who love the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0090.v1
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:53:42 CEST)
Background: An oscilloscope is a basic tool for measuring electrical quantities, as well as studying all types of waveforms. Generally, measurement of a quantity is regarding peak voltage, frequency, phase difference, pulse width, delay time, etc. However, what about the oscilloscope technology that existed in the early the 21st-century? Purpose: Aim of this study is to identify and analyze the application and use of current oscilloscopes in the early 21st-century. Method: The research methodology used is qualitative research with a systematic literature review by taking journals from 2019-2020 on the IEEE, IOP, Science Direct, ArXiv, and Measurement Science Review journal databases. Results: The results obtained are a batch of 12 articles showing the application and use of oscilloscope technology at the beginning of the 21st century. Conclusion: The conclusions applied to the application of oscilloscope technology in the early 21st-century are centered on the field of education in the measurement of physical quantities and the use of measurement technology which has high efficiency and low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0334.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: 21st century; Covid 19; education; the government system
Online: 14 June 2021 (08:46:38 CEST)
In this modern era, continuous change is the first step in forming a new structure between theory and practice. The idea of a juggernaut is very relevant to the theory of structuration with current conditions in the 21st century, where technology becomes a reference that can crush anyone who is not responsive to its power. This technology takes one path and takes many roles from various fields: economic, social, political, legal, and educational. This 21st century is marked by great momentum for changes in human behavior and civilization, namely the industrial revolution 4.0 and the arrival of Covid-19, which have changed many social structures and human activities. This makes history a means of connecting the problems in the 21st century with past events. By using a descriptive qualitative method, this paper will reveal how technological developments are very influential on educational and political developments and what are the challenges faced based on historical perspective?. In this case, the study aims to discuss the history and challenges of Indonesia's education system and government system in the 21st century and give a solution. The data used are from 2 books, 14 journal articles, and 4 websites with a span of 2019-2021. The research results are expected to be used as a further study in the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government. This study also has limitations, namely only on the face of the development of the modern era in the fields of education and government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: color; polychrome, baroque architecture; 16th-18th century; entablature; architectural order.
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:46:41 CET)
The article is dedicated to the role of polychrome solutions of the architectonic order in the concept of the Baroque façade. The ancient principles of designing architectural structures, inherited from the Renaissance were subjected to reinterpretations in order to impart different expressive values. The arrangements of façades, initially balanced or even horizontal, were replaced by ambiguous bivalent compositions. Vertical layouts began to dominate in the Baroque. Appropriately selected polychrome of the elements of the order could emphasize the compositional expression. The relationship between the layout of the polychrome in a given architectural order and the expression of a work of art has been established for quite a long time. However, the generally available data on color schemes of architectural structures in baroque buildings are still not fully organized. The paper analyses examples of Baroque façades preserved in their original state and revalorized in recent years after thorough conservator’s research in the field of architecture and color. The examples are mainly designed in the so-called great order, i.e. pertaining largely to church façades. In the Baroque, the vertical direction of the composition was strongly emphasized by multiplying or applying perspective arrangements of supports, and finally by embattled entablatures. The decisive field of change became the shaping of the coloristic decoration of the entablature – decisions regarding the material and color separation of elements of the frieze above the supports. The uniform color of all vertical elements of the façade structure guaranteed an unambiguous verticality of the composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0144.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: art education; 20th century art movements; preferences of arts; pupils
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:12:22 CET)
The research presented here aims to determine how art education influences pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 pupils (N = 200) of an early school age in grade schools in Split, Croatia. We conducted an educational experiment throughout an entire school year, which included three types of intervention: observing works of art from the 20th century, introducing works of art using a puppet, and the pupils' art activities/artwork based on the 20th-century art movements. The results show that the model of art education is an important factor in changing pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The students reacted positively to each kind of education, in the sense of a wider acceptance of 20th-century art (abstract, fauvism, cubism, pop art, and surrealism). The type of education did not much influence preferences when it came to classical art and visual works without artistic value. We concluded that puppets and independent creative work should be used more often in art education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0286.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: 21st Century Skills/Thinking Skills; Computational Thinking; Critical Thinking; Robotics for Education
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:34:37 CEST)
A new teaching method under the name of STEM, integrating the disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, is now taught by teachers in their classes. Considering that the generation that grows up in the 21st-century has grown up with technology, it is thought that integrating technology into lessons helps students learn the subject. The study aims to develop five STEM activities for the human body systems lesson by integrating the coding-based Arduino into STEM education. The activities were implemented to 6th-grade students for seven weeks and the effects on students' skills of establishing a cause-effect relationship. The study method was pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design, and the cause-effect relationship scale was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the study, a significant difference was found between the Arduino-supported STEM activities developed and the students' skills of establishing a cause-effect relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0005.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Art History & Restoration Keywords: 19-century metal sculpture; art foundries; elemental characterisation; corrosion; outdoor sculpture; Afonso Henriques.
Online: 1 September 2021 (10:44:59 CEST)
The outdoor sculpture of the first Portuguese king, D. Afonso Henriques (~1109 – 1185 AD), placed in Guimarães (North Portugal) is one of the most emblematic national sculptures. Created in 1887 by António Soares dos Reis, it possesses a remarkable symbolic value in the presumed birthplace of the king. In addition to the artistic and heritage importance of the monument, it is one of the few sculptures cast by a Portuguese industrial foundry in the 19th-century. This study obtained data on the sculpture's elemental composition and corrosion products, gathering important historical and technical information. For this purpose, a multi-analytical approach consisting of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) was carried out to characterise the bulk metal and corrosion layers. The data revealed a ternary alloy of Cu, Sn, Zn with Pb, Fe, As, Bi and Mn as minor elements. The alloy matches that of other sculptures cast in that period. In terms of corrosion, it is characterised by the presence of oxides. These results represent the first step for applying an appropriate conservation strategy for bronze sculptures with similar characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0211.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: MOOCs; distance education; self-directed learning; self-defined learning pathways; 21st century abilities
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:00:14 CEST)
This study is a synthesis of 159 articles that were selected for their relevance to comprehend key aspects of the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) phenomenon, from a discourse analysis perspective. Since 2011, MOOCs are expanding worldwide so that the number of subscribers outpointed 101 million at the end of 2018. This paper explores the question whether the MOOCs are the embodiment of the global one-world classroom or whether, instead, they represent a low-cost alternative tailored to a segment that doesn´t have enough time or resources to attend a brick-and-mortar college. In addition, the review tackles the link between motivation and low completion rates. Finally, we discuss the need to devise better methods to assess the pedagogical value of MOOCs.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: urban baroque greenery; 17th-18th century; allée; Lower Silesia; preservation and renewal of heritage
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:50:59 CET)
The article is the first attempt to gather information on the beginnings of using green elements in urban compositions in Lower Silesia and border areas, in the former Neumark and Lusatia. It presents Baroque urban arrangements with the use of green ground floors, tree espaliers and avenues, from the earliest ones – occurring in the aftermath of the Thirty Years’ War – and the solutions applied in private municipalities in the Habsburg, Wettin and Hohenzollern states, which were recovering from war damage, to urban developments at the end of that period, in the areas already under Prussian rule and its strict regulations. A comparison with the achievements of Eu-ropean urban planning in this field allows us to trace the paths of inspiration, but also to uncover some innovative achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0059.v1
Subject: Keywords: History of Modern Architecture; 20th Century; Walter Gropius; Rationalization; Construction Kit; Assembly Line; Weimar Republic; Bauhaus
Online: 2 November 2018 (13:23:10 CET)
With the breakthrough of modernism, various efforts are undertaken to rationalize architecture and building processes using industrial principles. Few architects explore these as intensively as Walter Gropius, the founder of the Bauhaus. Even before World War One, and increasingly in the interwar years, Gropius and a number of colleagues undertake various experiments which manifest in a series of projects, essays, model houses and Siedlungen. These aim at conceptually different goals, i.e. they follow two different categories of industrial logic: first, a flexible construction kit and, second, an assembly line serial production. This article traces the genesis of these two concepts and analyses their characteristics using these early manifestations. Compared to existing literature, this article takes into account hitherto neglected primary sources as well as technological and construction history aspects—allowing for a distinction based not only on theoretical, but also technological and structural characteristics. This article shows that Gropius succeeds in formulating and exploring the two principles in theory and practice as well as drawing conclusions by the end of the 1920s. With them, he contributed significantly to the rationalization of architecture, and his principles have been picked up and developed further by numerous architects since then.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0133.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Key words: Pressure on cropland; Labor / household density; Shandong Province in China; The 17th-20th century
Online: 17 May 2017 (13:34:53 CEST)
Cropland area per capita and pressure index on cropland is the important parameters measuring the social vulnerability and sustainability in the perspective of food security in a certain region in China during the historical periods. This study reconstructs the spatial distribution change of cropland area per labor/household and pressure index on cropland during the 17th-20th century by the methods of historical documents, regression analysis, pressure index model and GIS. Then it analyzed the impacting process of climate change and sustainability of cropland use during the different periods. It draws conclusions: (i) the spatial difference of labor/household density was obvious which had the same pattern as cropland distribution during the same periods, which is higher density in three agricultural areas. (ii) Cropland area per capita was relatively higher during the 17th-18th century, which were above 0.4 ha/person in majority counties and distributed homogenously. Till the 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, cropland area per capita in large amount of regions decreased below 0.2 ha/person embodying the increase of social vulnerability and unsustainability at that time. (iii) Pressure index on cropland also showed the similar spatial pattern as cropland area per capita which presented lower threshold than nowadays. During the 17th-18th century there was no pressure on cropland. While, in the 19th century and at the beginning of 20th century, two high value centers of pressure index on cropland appeared in Middle Shandong and the Jiaodong region, pressure on sustainable cropland use increased obviously and a food crisis is probably created. (iv) Higher sustainable extent of cropland use corresponds to cold period, and lower sustainable extent of cropland use corresponds to warm period in Shandong over the past 300 years. The turning point of 1680s from dry to wet attributes to the decrease of sustainable extent of cropland use in Shandong not very distinctively. More and more pressure on sustainability of cropland use finally since the beginning of 20th century would intensify the social conflict and increase the probability of social revolts.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: aptamer; calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase; course-based undergraduate research experience; in vitro selection; Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment; SELEX; CURE; Freshman Research Initiative; 21st Century Skills
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:48:36 CEST)
Aptamers have a well-earned place in therapeutic, diagnostic, and sensor applications, and we now show that they provide an excellent foundation for education, as well. Within the context of the Freshman Research Initiative (FRI) at The University of Texas at Austin, students have used aptamer selection and development technologies in a teaching laboratory to build technical and 21st century skills appropriate for research scientists. One of the unique aspects of this course-based undergraduate research experience is that students develop their own projects, and take ownership of their own science in what would otherwise be a traditional teaching lab setting. Of the many successes, this work includes the isolation and characterization of novel calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (anti-CIAP) RNA aptamers by an undergraduate researcher. Further, preliminary survey data suggest that students who participate in the aptamer research experience express significant gains in their self-efficacy to conduct research, and their perceived ability to communicate scientific results, as well as organize and interpret data. This work will describe the use of aptamers in an educational setting, highlight the positive student outcomes of the aptamer research experience, and more particularly present the research findings relative to the anti-CIAP aptamer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: biodiversity; skin allergy; benchmark skin health values; effect of synthetic cosmetics on skin; 21st century skin ailments; measure skin health; healthy skin ecosystem; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria; perfect skin
Online: 31 March 2017 (08:52:14 CEST)
There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5-10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how it is microbiota diversity alone that can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to ‘western’ skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: skin microbiome; skin microbiome biodiversity; biodiversity; skin ecosystem; skin allergy epidemic; benchmark skin health values; skin bacteria; 21st century skin ailments; measure skin health; healthy skin ecosystem; healthy skin bacteria; damaged skin bacteria;
Online: 18 June 2020 (12:40:57 CEST)
A catastrophic loss of microbial biodiversity on the skin has led to alarming increase in the prevalence of allergies and long-term damage to the skin, which could also have damaging knock on effects to overall health. This study uses 50 human participants, to obtain an average (benchmark) value for the biodiversity of ‘healthy’ western skin, which is crucial in updating our 2017 skin health measuring mechanism to use standardised methodology. Previous work with a larger sample size was unsatisfactory for use as a benchmark due to its use of different and outdated diversity indices. We also investigated the effect of age and sex, two known skin microbiome affecting factors. Although no statistical significance is seen for age- and sex- related changes in diversity, there appear to be changes related to age which elaborates on previous work which used larger, more general age ranges. Our study indicates adults age 28-37 have highest diversity, and age 48-57 the lowest. Crucially, because of this study we are now able to update the skin health measuring mechanism from our 2017 work. This will aid diagnostic assessment of susceptibility to cutaneous conditions or diseases, and treatment. Testing any human subject will be rapidly improved by obtaining future benchmark diversity values for any age, sex, body site and area of residence, to which they can be compared. This improvement means we can also more accurately investigate the ultimate question: What factors in the western world are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic? This could lead to future restriction of certain synthetic chemicals or products found to be particularly harmful to the skin.