ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Health Related Quality of Life, EQ-5D-Y-3L, EQ-5D-Y-5L, Youth, children, orthopaedic
Online: 20 January 2022 (07:23:51 CET)
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the EQ-5D-Y-3L (Y-3L) and the expanded five level version, the EQ-5D-Y-5L (Y-5L). Methods: Children/adolescents with an acute or chronic health condition and from the general population completed the Y-5L and Y-3L self-report questionnaires. Performance of the Y-5L and Y-3L was determined by comparing feasibility, redistribution of dimension responses, discriminatory power, validity, and test-retest reliability. Results. Five hundred and fifty children/adolescents completed baseline measures and 173 completed repeat measures. The ceiling effect decreased by 15% from the Y-3L to Y-5L. Informativity of dimensions improved by 0.094 on the Y-5L. There was a range of 4-9% inconsistent responses moving from the Y-3L to Y-5L. Convergent validity of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Y-3L, Y-5L dimensions was similar, weak to moderate (rs range: 0.18 – 0.38) but similar and strong on paired Y-3L and Y-5L dimensions: Kendall Tau B (range 0.69 – 0.80) and Gamma (range 0.92 – 0.98). The Y-5L and Y-3L showed moderate to substantial agreement for test-retest reliability across dimensions and VAS scores in stable chronic health conditions and fair agreement for the general population. Conclusion: The EQ-5D-Y-5L is a valid, reliable extension of the Y-3L for children/adolescents across health conditions and healthy children/adolescents. The expanded levels reduced the ceiling effect. The relative informativity of report across dimensions increased on the Y-5L compared to the Y-3L with retention of the evenness of reporting. The convergent validity and test-retest reliability of the Y-5L was comparable to the Y-3L.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0136.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Phantom energy; LRS Bianchi type-I; $f(R,T)$ theory; $5d$ spacetimes
Online: 8 August 2022 (08:11:41 CEST)
We obtain exact solutions to the field equations for 5 dimensional LRS Bianchi type-I spacetime in $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity where specifically the following three cases are considered: (i) $f(R,T)=\mu(R+T)$, (ii) $f(R,T)=R \mu + R T \mu^2$ and (iii) $f(R,T)=R+\mu R^2+\mu T$ where $R$ and $T$ respectively the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor. It is found that the equation of state (EOS) parameter $w$ is governed by the parameter $\mu$ involved in the $f(R,T)$ expressions. We fine-tune the parameter $\mu$ to obtain effect of phantom energy in the model, however we also restrict this parameter to obtain a stable model of the universe. It is noted that the model isotropizes at finite cosmic time.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0371.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: monad and dyad methods; effective rest mass concept; scalar gravitational field; 5D geodetic equation; cylindrical symmetry condition; 5D Ricci identities; Maxwell equations; magnetic monopole; topological second-order transition in cosmology
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:10:50 CEST)
It is shown that the 5D geodetic equations and 5D Ricci identities give us a way to create a new viewpoint on some problems of Modern Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology. Specifically, the application of the 5D geodetic equations in (4+1) and (3+1+1) splintered forms obtained with the help of the monad and dyad methods made it possible to introduce a new, effective generalized concept of the rest mass of the elementary particle. The latter leads one to novel connections between the General Relativity and quantum field theories, as well as all of that, including the (4+1) splitting of the 5D Ricci identities, brings about a better understanding of the magnetic monopole problem and the vital difference in the origins of the Maxwell equations and gives rise to surprising connections between them. The obtained results also provide new insight into the mechanism of the 4D Universe’s expansion and its following acceleration.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Children; adolescents; post-road traffic accidents; EQ-5D-5L; disability burden; health-related quality of life
Online: 26 July 2020 (03:11:18 CEST)
The objective of the study was to report the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) following road traffic accidents (RTAs) among children. A community-based survey using EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) in Hindi was used to collected data from community. The survey included 2620 households from urban and rural areas of Ujjain, India. From these households 229 children aged 5–18 years with a history of RTA in the last 1 year were identified, with 27%, 63%, and 10% children reporting mild, moderate, and severe injury based on length of hospitalization. Motorcycles, bicycles, and pedestrians constituted most RTAs. Helmet use was low (12%). EQ-5D-5L revealed that the most severe and extreme problem was pain and discomfort, whereas the least severe problem was usual activity and self-care. The most common (65%) injuries were either abrasion or fracture and dislocation. EQ-5D-5L severity index was maximum (mean 72) for lower extremity injuries. The results of the present study highlight the ability and requirement for quality of life measurement using EQ-5D-5L among children post-RTA.