Introduction: Different factors such as rapid growth of population, urbanization and industrialization of communities have detrimental effects on the environment. In regard to the importance of the environment and its fundamental role in sustainable development along with the awareness and attitude of the people of Yazd which has not yet been assessed, this study aims to assess the level of awareness, attitude and environmental literacy of the people of Yazd in relation to environmental issues and challenges in the year 2017. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample size was obtained from 410 Yazd city residents through prior studies and the Cochran formula. The sample was then selected by the stratified random sampling method. The data selection tool was a questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, awareness level, attitude and practices in relation to menopause. The data was analyzed upon collection by the SPSS-20 software and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square non-parametric tests along with the Spearman correlation test. In this study, the significance level was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, a total of 404 questionnaires were completed and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, 224 individuals (55.4%) male, 53.3% married, 31.2% had at least a bachelor’s degree and the majority of individuals (40.1%) were in the 18-27 age group. In terms of area of residence, 64.1% reside in region 2. From all the participants, 51.3% of the participants believed that the main environmental issue in Yazd was water deficiency and pollution. The awareness score was statistically significant with the age, education level and employment status variables. Attitude only had significant relationship with the employment status variable. The relationship between the practices score was statistically significant with the age, marital status, and area of residence variables. There is a significant relation between age, income level and knowledge level but there is no significant relation with attitude levels. There is no significant relation between gender, education level, marital status, area of residence, awareness and attitude levels (p-value > 0.05). There is a positive correlation between awareness, attitude and practices scores. The results indicated that the attitude score of most participants (51.5%) was lower than the average score but the awareness and practices score of most participants was average. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, although the awareness of Yazdi citizens on some environmental issues and institutions that are active in the environmental pollution control field in the country appears low, but in general, the awareness of the people of Yazd, specifically regarding health issues stemming from pollution was assessed as adequate. Considering the importance of environmental factors’ role in communities’ health and its continuous improvement, due to the expansion of automated life namely in large cities within the country, it is necessary to conduct various researches to identify and control these factors and to carry out interventional studies to determine suitable solutions before implementing them.