Study Objective: This study examined office workstation types’ impact on objective health-related metrics including stress, physical activity (PA), and sleep quality. We propose a sensor-based sleep quality index (SB-SQI) to fill a needed gap for objective sleep quality measurement over short timescales. Methods: We monitored 231 office workers using chest-worn sensors for 72 hours, yielding 11,736 hours of usable data from 163 participants (mean age 43.4, 56% women). SB-SQI was based on a validated algorithm estimating sleep-onset latency, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency, using the scoring method from the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We examined the relationships between SB-SQI, office workstation type (open-bench seating, cubicle, and private office), work-hours stress (standard deviation of heart rate variability), and after-work PA (relative duration of moderate-to-vigorous activity). Results: The sensor-derived poor-sleep ratio of the private office workers was higher than with other office workstation types (81% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.023). PSQI revealed a similar but insignificant trend with a lower effect-size. Among good-sleepers, open-bench seating workers had 22% (p = 0.018) less stress during work hours than others. A significant association between work-hours stress and after-work hours PA (r = 0.331, p = 0.000) was observed irrespective of office workstation type, with the highest PA level observed for open-bench seating workers. Conclusions: Office workstation type had a significant impact on work-hours stress, affecting PA after work hours, which influenced sleep quality. SB-SQI could be more sensitive than PSQI in determining the impact of office workstation types on sleep quality.