Phosphate (Pi) deficiency reduces nodule formation and development in different legume species including common bean. Despite the significant progress in the understanding of the genetic responses underlying the adaptation of nodules to Pi deficiency, it is still unclear whether this nutritional deficiency interferes with the molecular dialog between legumes and rhizobia, if so, what part of the molecular dialog is impaired? In this study, we provide evidence demonstrating that Pi deficiency negatively affects critical early molecular and physiological responses required for a successful symbiosis between common bean and rhizobia. We demonstrated that the infection thread formation and the expression of PvNSP2, PvNIN, and PvFLOT2, genes controlling the nodulation process, were significantly reduced in Pi-deficient common bean seedlings. Further transcriptional analysis revealed that the expression of hormones-related genes is compromised in Pi-deficient seedlings inoculated with rhizobia. Additionally, we showed that regardless of the presence or absence of rhizobia, the expression of PvRIC1 and PvRIC2, two genes participating in the autoregulation of nodule number, was higher in Pi-deficient seedlings than in control seedlings. The data presented in this study shed light on the understanding of how Pi deficiency impacts the early steps of the symbiosis between common bean and rhizobia.