Background: Studies employing next-generation sequencing (NGS) show that the oral fungal community (mycobiome) is far more complex than hitherto thought. However, the role of the oral mycobiome in health and disease, including oral carcinogenesis, has not been explored. Objective: To characterize the mycobiome associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: Tissue biopsies [cases: 25 OSCC; controls: 27 intra-oral fibro-epithelial polyp (FEP)] were collected from oral and maxillofacial units in Sri Lanka. Total DNA was extracted and subjected to sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region using Illumina’s 2x300 bp chemistry. High quality, non-chimeric merged reads were classified to species level using a BLASTN-algorithm with UNITE’s named species sequences as reference. Downstream analyses were performed using QIIME and LEfSe. Results: 364 species representing 160 genera and 2 phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) were identified, with Candida and Malassezia making up 48% and 11% of the average mycobiome, respectively. However, only 5 species and 4 genera were detected in ≥50% of the samples. The species richness and diversity were significantly lower in OSCC. At the genus level, Candida, Hannaella and Gibberella were overrepresented in OSCC while Alternaria and Trametes were more abundant in FEP. Species-wise, C. albicans, C. etchellsii and Hannaella luteola-like species were enriched in OSCC while Malassezia restricta, Aspergillus tamarii, Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium halotolerans, and Hanseniaspora uvarum-like species were the most significantly abundant in FEP. Conclusions: A dysbiotic mycobiome dominated by C. albicans was found in association with OSCC. Whether this dysbiosis plays a role in oral carcinogenesis warrants further investigation.