The extensive use of rare earth elements (REEs) in a number of technologies is expected to impact on human health, including occupational REE exposures. A body of experimental evidence on REE-associated toxicity has been accumulated in recent decades. Unlike experimental studies, the consequences of REE exposures to human health have been subjected to relatively fewer investigations. Geographical studies have been conducted on residents in the Chinese REE mining districts, reporting on REE bioaccumulation, and associations between REE residential exposures and adverse health effects. A more limited series of studies has been focused on occupational REE exposures, such as movie operator (with occurrence of cerium aerosol) with the observation of pneumoconiosis and lung fibrosis. Similar effects have been reported in case reports for other workers, such as a lens grinder and a printer exposed to carbon-arc lamp emission. As for the occupations related to REE mining and processing, REE bioaccumulation in scalp hair and excess REE urine levels were reported. A study was devoted to workers employed in e-waste separation, showing alterations of several plasma markers. As for other REE occupational exposures, mention should be made of: a) mechanical workshops, with exposures to diesel exhaust microparticulate (containing nanoCeO2 as a catalytic additive) and, b) production and manufacture of REE supermagnets for hybrid engines and wind turbines. Diesel exhaust microparticulate has been studied in animal models, leading to evidence of several pathological effects in animals exposed by respiratory or systemic routes. As for supermagnet production and manufacture, a body of literature is reviewed of experimental studies, and of human exposure studies showing several pathological effects of static magnetic fields, warranting further investigations.