The objective of this study was to identify circulating miRNAs affected by disease duration in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes. Forty children and adolescents from The Danish Remission Phase Cohort were followed with blood samples drawn at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 60 months after diagnosis. Pancreatic autoantibodies were measured at each visit. Cytokines were measured only the first year. miRNA expression profiling was performed by RT-qPCR and quantified for 179 human plasma miRNAs. The effect of disease duration was analyzed by mixed models for repeated measurements, adjusted for sex and age. Eight miRNAs (hsa-miR-10b-5p, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-30e-5p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-99a-5p, hsa-miR-125b-5p, hsa-miR-423-3p and hsa-miR-497-5p) were found to significantly change expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) with disease progression. Three pancreatic autoantibodies ICA, IA-2A, GADA65 and 4 cytokines IL-4, IL-10, IL-21, IL-22 were associated with the miRNAs at different time points. Pathway analysis revealed association with various immune-mediated signaling pathways. Eight miRNAs, involved in immunological pathways changed expression levels during the first five years after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes, and were associated with variations in cytokine and pancreatic antibodies, suggesting a possible effect on the immunological processes in the early phase of the disease.